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T^HE first edition of this Cyclopedia was published in 1858 in India, the 
■*- second, also in India, in 1873, and the years 1877 to 1884 inclusive 
ave been occupied in revising it for publication in England. During this 
rocess, every likely source of further information has been examined, and 
lany references made. I am under obligations to many learned men, to the 
ecretariat Officers of the Indian Governments, and to the Record and Library 
(fficers of the India Office, Colonial Office, and British Museum, for their ready 
jsponse to my applications for aid. 

This edition contains 35,000 articles, and 16,000 index headings, relating 
) an area of 30,360,571 square kilometers (11,722,708 square miles), peopled 
y 704,401,171 souls. In dealing with subjects in quantities of such magnitude, 
versights and points needing correction cannot but have occurred ; but it is believed 
bat errata are not many, and will be of a kind that can be readily remedied. 

It is inevitable that difficulties in transliteration should be experienced 
wing to the variously accented forms which some words assume even among 
ribes of the same race, also to the different values accepted in many languages 
Dr the same letters, and especially to the want of correspondence in the letters 
f the several Eastern alphabets ; but in this work traditional and historical 
pelling has not been deviated from, and the copious Indices will guide to 
/■ords of less settled orthography. 

Men of the same race, habits, and customs, plants and animal.s of the same 
latural families, genera, and even species, are so widely distributed throughout the 
)Outli and East of Asia, that local histories of them are fragmentary and 
Qcomplete. India in its ethnolog}', its flora and fauna, can therefore only 
e fairly dealt with by embracing a wider area. This is the reason why 
he Cyclopaedia and my work on the Timber Trees include aU Eastern and 
outhern Asia, the regions, the areas and populations of which may be thus 
idicated : — 



Square Kilometers. 



Caucasus, Russian, 



Trans- Caspian, do. 



Central Asia, do. ... 



Independent Turkoman Region, 






Bokhara, Thignan, Karategin, etc., 



Arabia, ..... 



Persia, ..... 



Afghanistan and Provinces, 



Kafiristan, ..... 



China Proper, . . . . • : ; 



China Provinces, . . . . 





Corea, ..... 



Japan and Provinces, . . . 



British India and Feudatories, 



Nepal, Bhutan, .... 



French India, . . . . 



Portuguese India, .... 



Ceylon, ..... 



Further India — 

British Burma, 



Manipur, ..... 



Tribes south of Assam, 



Burma, Independent, 



Siam, ..... 



Annam, ..... 



French Cochin-China, 



Camlsodia, ..... 



Malacca, Independent, 



Straits Settlements, 



Islands — 

Andamans, ..... 



Nicobars, ..... 



Sunda Islands, Moluccas, 



Philippines, Spanish Indies, 



Netherland India, .... 



New Guinea and Papuan Islands, . 



British Northern Borneo, 



Australia, ..... 



Tasmania, ..... 



New Zealand, .... 



Total, excluding Australia, Tasmania, 

30,360,571 sq.kil. 


and New Zealand, 

11,722,708 sq. m. 

I am under obligations to Messrs. Mc 

rrison & Gibb for 

their careful press- 

work. All that their art could do has 

been done to aid 

me in keeping the 

work in a compact form. 



2 OxFOKD Square, Hyde Park, 

London, 2ith May 1885. 





A, Ti. — In the English language, the ordinary 
3imds, long or short, are as a in many ; a in all, 
nd as a in municipal. It has representative 
itters and sounds in all the languages of the 
)uth and cast of Asia. In Arabic, Persian, and 
Woo or Hindustani, the letter alif and the vowel 
lark zabr have almost similar sounds to the 
tng and short a of the English, as in that part 
f the azan or Mahomedan call to prayers, Allaho 
.kbfir, Allaho Akbar, retaining the long sound 
ivariably when in the middle or end of a word. 
1 Tamil, the English A and a, long and short, 
re represented by two initial letters equal to a 
nd a ; and all the consonants have the inherent 
)und of short a, thus ka, na. In Telugu, the 
lort a is represented by the letter a initial, 
ad by a mark placed on the top of a consonant, 
he long a initial has the same sound as a in 

AACH, Aal, or Atche. Tam. Morinda citri- 
>lia ; M. multiflora. See Dyes. 

AADAL. Arab. Sacks for carrying pro- 
isions, on camels. 

AAKAL. Arab. The fillet of the Arabs; a 
)pe or woollen band, or of other material, which 
le Arab twists round his head covering. 

A A LIN NAR. Maleal. Fibre of the Ficus 
idica, the banyan tree. 

AAT-ALARI. Tam. Polygonum barbatum. 

AB. PErvS.,HiND. Water. Hence Abi, watery. 
Iso Ab-kari, the distillation of alcoholic fluids, 
le strong waters of Europeans; and in use as 

revenue term in British India for the excise 
ranch which superintends the licence to sell all 
inds of intoxicating substances, as arrack, toddy, 
pium, etc. Do-ab, literally two waters, the terri- 
)ry or mesopotamia between two rivers. Panj- 
3, five waters or five rivers; that territory in 
le north-west of British India through which 
iveral rivers flow. 

ABA or Abba, Arab., in Egypt called Abayeh, 

a cloak woven of camel or goat's hair, worn by 
1 classes of the Arab races, known to Europeans 

in the Persian Gulf as a camcline. It is made 
in the Bedouin tents. It is of every degree ob 
to quality and ornamentation, and varying in 
price from one or two dollare to a hundred dollars, 
— the last a marvel of softness and beauty, con- 
sidering the material used. To the common 
working Arab the aba is often the sole article 
of clothing. 

ABACA BRAVA, the wild or mountain 
abaca of the Philippines, a variety of the Manilla 
hemp plant, Musa textilis, the fibres of which 
serve for making ropes, called agotag and amo- 
quid in the Bicol language. — Royle's Fib. Plants. 

ABAD. Pers. a postfix to districts of country 
and towns, as Arungabad, Dowlatabad, Allahabad, 
Farrakhabad, Hyderabad, and used by almost all 
the races of British India to indicate towns in 
which Mahomedans have ruled. Abadi is an 
inhabited or peopled place. Abadi-raqba, the 
area under tillage. 

ABAK. Arab. Mercury. 

AB-AMBAR, in Persia, large underground 
reservoirs lined with brick, filled by kanats, or 
"by collecting the rain of a wide area. They are 
covered in by vaulted roofs of masonry, and a 
flight of steps leads down to the water. 

ABAR-MURDAH. Pers. Spoiigo. 

ABA SIN. PusHT. The river Indus; lit. 
father of rivers. 

ABASSA, sister of the khalif Harun ur Rashid, 
by whom she was married to Jafar, his visir, 
under a condition which was not adhered to. 
There are extant some Arabic verses by her on 
the subject of her love for Jafar. 

ABBAS, a dynasty of khalifs, who reigned 
at Baghdad, from a.d. 749-60 to 1258-9 (a.h, 
132 to G56), when Baghdad was be8iege<l and 
taken by Hulaku, grandson of Chengiz Khan, 
and the khalif Iblustasem put to death. They 
are known to Europeans as the Abbassidea. See 
Al Abbas; Khalifah. 

ABBASSI. Peks. A curved broad -bUded 

ABBA YE. Beno. The head man of a villafre. 

ABBOTTABAD, in lat. 34- 9' N., and long. 7S» 
9' E., a small military and civil station, N.N.E. of 



Chtlmba, at a height above the sea of 4120 feet. 
It is the headquarters of the Hazara district of the 
Panjab. The district is inhabited by the Kharal, 
Dhund, Boi, Jadun, and other Mussulman moun- 
taineers. — MacGregor ; JRob. Schl. 

ABBOTT, JAMES, C.B., an officer of the 
Bengal army, who was assistant political agent 
at Herat under Major D'Arcy Todd. He went 
on a mission to Khiva, and was the bearer of 
terms from its khan to the emperor of Russia, 
as recorded in a narrative of his travels. He 
was afterwards employed in the Hazara district 
of the Panjab, where he baffled the Sikh general, 
and marched upon and occupied, with 1500 match- 
lock men, the Marquella pass, which 16,000 Sikh 
troops and 2000 Afghan horse were preparing to 
thread. For this he received the thanks of both 
Houses of Parliament. 

ABD. Arab. A slave, a servant, often in 
combination applied to God's service, as Abdullah, 
a servant of God ; Ab'd ur-Razzaq, slave of the 
food-giver ; Abudiat, worship ; Zain-ul-Abidin, 
the ornament of servants. It corresponds with 
the Arabic Ghulam, and the Hindi Dasa or Das, 
all of them ordinary names in India. 

ABDALI, a powerful Afghan tribe, residing 
in every part of Afghanistan, but principally in 
Herat and Kandahar. They have been termed 
Dourani since 1747, when Ahmad Shah, Sad- 
dozai, the first Afghan king, on ascending the 
throne, gave them that name. The Abdali and 
Ghilzai, but particularly the former, arrogate to 
themselves a superiority over other Afghan tribes, 
and from their great numerical strength have 
exercised a greater power. The Abdali are also 
called Sulimani. The Abdali take their name 
from their great ancestor, Malik Abdal. Early in 
the 16th century, Shahr-i-Saffa wasthe chief town 
of the Abdali. Early in the 17th century it was 
Herat which they held, until ousted by Nadir 
Shah. See Afghan ; Ahmad Shah ; Barakzai ; 

ABDALI, an Arab tribe in the immediate 
vicinity of Aden, capital Lahej. The tribe is the 
most civilised but the least warlike in the S.W. 
of Arabia. 

ABDALLAH was the name of the father of 
Mahomed ; Abd-ul-Mattalib was Mahomed's grand- 
father. Abdallah was a terra applied by Mahome- 
dan Arabs to apostate Christians who embraced 
the Mahomedan religion. It is now a name of 
many Mahomedans. — Sa/e's Koran. 

ABDALLAH ibn ABBAS was one of the 
most learned of the companions of his cousin 
Mahomed, and one of the most celebrated of 
the relaters of his sayings and actions. He has 
received the titles of Interpreter of the Koran 
and Sultan of Commentators. He died a.h. 68. 
His father Abbas, son of Abd ul Mattalib, was 
paternal uncle of Mahomed, and ancestor of the 
Abbassi khalifabs. 

ABDALLAH ibn ul MOKAFFAH, a Persian 
who lived in the 8th century. After the fall of 
the Omeyyades he became a convert to Mahome- 
danism, and rose to high office at the court of 
the khalifs. During the reign of the khalif 
Mansur, he wrote the Kalila o Damina, a famous 
collection of fables, which he says were translations 
from the Pehlavi of Barzuyeh, who again trans- 
lated them from the Panchatantra. Being in 
possession of important secrets of state, he became 

dangerous in the eyes of Mansur, and was foully 
murdered a.d. 760.— Chips, iv. p. 168-9. 

ABDAR. Pers. Glancing, as a gem or 
polished sword ; in India, a water cooler, who 
cools water by freezing mixtures. Abdar-Bashi, 
at the Persian court, the chief of the kitchen. 
Abdar-Khana, the place where water is kept for 

ABDHUT, a Hindu religious mendicant, — in 
the north of India, of the Vaishnava, and in the 
south, of the Saiva, sect. — Wilson. 

ABDUL KADAR of Badayun, a learned 
Mahomedan employed by Akbar to make transla- 
tions from Sanskrit. He was very bigoted, and 
quarrelled with Abul Fazl and Faizi on some 
point of religion. He wrote a historical work, 
the Mantakhab-ut-Tawarikh, and filled his book 
with invectives against their irreligion and that 
of Akbar. He also disclosed many grievances 
complained of by the people at the time. Even 
although it is almost a hostile narrative, it leaves a 
more favourable impression of Akbar than that 
derived from Abul Fazl's Akbar Namah. Akbar 
employed him to make a catalogue of the library 
of Faizi, which contained 4060 books, carefully 
corrected and well bound, on poetry and litera- 
ture, moral and physical science, and theology. 
—Elph. p. 469. See Mubarak ; Faizi. 

ABDUL- KADAR, sumamed Ghous-ul-Azam, 
the great contemplative, born at Jal, near Baghdad, 
A.H. 471 (a.d. 1078-79). He was endowed with 
great virtues and alleged gift of miracles, had 
many disciples, and is still much revered. He is 
called Shaikh, but was a Syud, i.e. of the race of 
Husain, and died in A.H. 571 (a.d. 1175), aged 
ninety-seven years. Where he died or was buried 
does not appear. He was the founder of the sect 
of the Kadria fakirs. 

ABDUL-KADAR, Ghilani, the Pir Piran or 
Pir i Dastagir, a native of Ghilan, who taught 
Safi doctrines at Baghdad, where his tomb is still 
reverenced. Sadi studied under him. His anni- 
versary is held on the 11th Rabi-us-Sani. He is 
invoked in time of trouble, or during cholera or 
other plague or epidemic, on which occasion a 
large green flag is carried in his name. His 
sister's son was Syud Ahmad, Kabir. 

ABDULLAH, son of the khalif Omar, in a.d. 
650 defeated Yesdejird. Yesdejird was then on 
his return from Khorasan, and for the last time 
put himself at the head of his subjects. See 

ABD-UR-RAZZAQ, Jamal ud-Din Abd-ur 
Razzaq, bin Jalal ud-Din Ishaq-us Samarkandi, 
was born at Herat in A.H. 816 (a.d. 1413), where 
his father was Kazi in the time of Shah Rukh, 
grandson of Timur. Shah Rukh, in 1441, sent 
him on a mission to India to the king of Vizia- 
nagar ; subsequently on an embassy to Ghilan ; 
and he, again, was ordered to proceed as ambas- 
sador to Egypt. In January 1442, Abd-ur- 
Razzaq set out from Herat, and, proceeding by 
way of the Kohistan and Kirman to Ormuz, thence 
sailed for India, arriving at Calicut after a long 
detention, wind-bound, at Muscat. He then pro- 
ceeded via Mangalore and Belur to Vijianagar. 
Re-embarking from Calicut, he arrived in March 
1444 at Kalahat, in Arabia. — India in the Fifteenth 

ABD-US-SHAMS, also called Dawar-us-Shams, 
the sun-flower. See Ansariah. 


ABD-US-SII AMS, or Saba, founder of Mariaba. 
Amongst his sons wero Hiniyar, Amru, Kahtau, 
and Asliiuir. See Suba. 

Ohota IJuta, . . Hind. | Adai Pushtawar, Puhht. 

A plant of Kafrlian. ^f^. Fortune intro<lucod 
into England the Abelia rupestris from China. 

Hibiscus longifolius, Ji, | H. esculontus, L. 


a wa, 

^ iig ma diu, 

ikro. . . 




. . Eno. 
. . Egypt. 
Fr. of Maur. 



W. IND. 

Ram Turai, 
lihendi, . , 
Bendakai, , 
Bondu, . , 
Gambeau, . 

\ herbaceous annual, a native of tropical Ame- 

, largely cultivated all over the East Indies, 

•iipsules being held in much esteem as a 

table. It is easily raised from seed, and 

luces abundance of fruit, which is the only 

of the plant that is eaten. The whole 

.t is mucilaginous, but the fruits or pods are 

lighly so. The fruits are boiled whole, and 

served up as a vegetable ; or the seeds are added 

ike barley to soup. The young pods are pickled 

ike capers ; its ripe seeds, when allowed to dry, 

md parched, can with dilliculty be distinguished 

rora coffee. Its mucilage has been recommended 

IS a demulcent, in coughs, in the form of lozenges, 

)ut they are not easily digested. The deep purple 

nice of the stigmas can be communicated to paper. 

)r. Riddell strongly recommends this plant as 

»pable of furnishing an excellent fibre for the 

nanufacture of paper, and the fibres are said to 

)e exported to a small extent from India, as one 

)f the hemps of commerce ; by Dr. Roxburgh's 

xpcriments, a bundle of them bore a weight of 

9 lbs. when dry, and 95 lbs. when wet. They 

etain their gloss even when very brown and 

otten.—0'Sh.; Roxh.; Eoyle, Fib. Plants; Useful 

"'latiis ; Mason ; Riddell. 

libiscuB prostratus, Roxb. | H. ficulneus, Linn. 
>ula, .... Hind, i Nella Benda, . , Tam. 
arupu Benda, . Tam. | 

It grows abundantly on the black cotton soils of 
ndia. Flowers white ; the bark contains a large 
proportion of white reticulated fibre similar to that 
ibtained from the mulberry, and useful for gunny 
lags and paper ; this fibre is of great length, but 
lot very strong. — Madras Exhibition Juries'' 
Itports ; Robert Brown. 

Hibiscus abelmoschus, i2. 

ta-lu-wa-ki, . 
[ala-kasturi, . 
lushk-dana, . 

. Arab. 

. BURM. 

. Hind. 

Kapu Kinaissa, 
Kastura vcnda, 
Karpura benda, 
Kasturi benda, 



A gaudy flowering annual, with blood -coloured 
yes on its large yellow blossoms, a native of various 
iirtsof India, flowering in therainy and coldseasons. 
ts brown seeds are the Hub-ul-Mushk of the Arabs, 
called beaiuse of their smell and taste resembling 

mixture of musk and amber, and, on burning, a 
imilar odour is evolved. They are kidney-shapod, 
ndof the sizeof hemp-seed, and are used to perfume 
owders and pomatums. They are found iu all 
be bazaars ; and amongst the people of India are 
sputed to be useful in snake-bites, when bruised 
ud applied externally and internally, or bruised 


an<l steeped in rum or armck. In Dr. Roxbarirh^ 
experimentB, the fibre broke with a weJKbt of 107 
lbs. The plant, liku A. e«cul«nta«, Jjouiub in 
mucilage, and is aaid to b« oaod in Northen IndU 
to clarify BUgi^r. — Roxburgh ; O' Skaughmeitf } 
Mason's Tentusertm ; Jurira' Reports JUtuiras 
Exhibition ; Useful Plants of India. 

At the MadraB Exhibition of 1HA7, Mr. JtJInj 
exhibited an excellent white and tHroog flbr* 
obtained from this plant. Iu flowcra an larga, 
yellow, with a dark centre; abundant io Qlr^iutm 
woods, Bombay. 

ABHAL. Pers. Junipr berries. 

ABHIAGAT, a sect of Hindu deroteea wbo 
subsist by begging. They dwell alone or in 
monasteries. — Sherring's Hindu Tribes, p. 264. 

monial, on the wedding day, when the briile and 
bridegroom are anointwi with oil. In the Iliodu 
ceremonial, when oil is applied to tlie crown of 
the head, and reaches to all the limbs, it is callol 
abhyanga. It is like the precious ointment upon 
the head, that ran down upon the beard, even 
Aaron's beard, that went down to the ikirta of 
his garments. — Psalm cxxxiii. 2; Ward's Vitw 
of the Hindoos, ii. p. 112. See Hindu. 

ABHIDHANA. Sansk. Any Sanskrit dic- 
tionary or vocabulary. One of the oldest is tlio 
Abhidhana Ratnamala of Halayudha Bhatta, about 
the 7th century. Abhidhana Cbintamani is a 
vocabulary of the Jaina doctrines, by Henta 
Ghandra, a Jaina celebrity who lived in the ISth 
century. — Garrett ; Dowson. 

ABHIDHARMMA, the third division of the 
sacred writings of the Singhalese Buddhists, ad- 
dressed to the Dewas and Brahmas. They are 
in the Pali language, and are called the Pitta - 
kattyan, or Three Baskets. — Eastern Monachitm. 

ABHIGNYAWA, amongst the Singhaleae 
Buddhists, five great powers attached to the 
Rahatship. — Hardy's Eastern Monachism. 

ABHIMANI, a name of the Hindu god Agni. 

ABHIMANYA, a son of Arjuna and Subhadra, 
who fought in the great war, or Mahabbarata, 
on the second day of the battle, and he slew a 
sou of Duryodhana. On the thirteenth he himself 
was slain. He was on the side of the Pandhya, 
or Pandava. His son Parikshit succeeded to the 
kingdom of Hastinapur. — Wheeler^ History of 
India, i. p. 152 ; Garrett. 

ABHIRA, a pastoral race, who were settled 
about the beginning of the Christian era, on or 
near the lower course of the Indus, on a tract 
known to classical geographers as the Abiria of 
Ptolemy, lying between the Tapti and Devagarfa, 
north of the Sabyadri range of mountains and of 
Syrastrene. The Abhir of Saurashtra are men- 
tioned in the Mahabharata. From their pastoral 
habits, the name came to be generally applied to 
all the cowherds of Hindustan. In the 8{x>keu 
dialects of Upper India, the word is softened to 
Ahir. In Bengali and Maliratti it is unchanged, 
occurring as Abhir. Abhira, at the mouth of 
the Indus, has been supposed by some to have 
been Ophir. — Wilson. 

ABHISHEGAM. Sansk. A Hindu religious 
ceremony, which consists in pouring milk on the 
lingam. This, fluid is aftcrwiuds kept with greal 
care, and some drops are given in the Paneha 
Shegam rite to dying people. Traces of this 



Abhishegam ceremony are found in the earliest 
antiquity. Several primitive races had a kind of 
sacrifice called a libation, which was performed by 
pouring some fluid, but especially oil, in honour 
of the divinity. The Hindus of India have pre- 
served this custom, not only in respect to the 
lingam, but also in honour of their other deities. 
They usually offer them libations, wash them 
•with cocoa-nut oil, melted butter, or water of the 
Ganges. They often rub them with oil or butter 
when they address prayers or present offerings 
to them, so that all their idols are black, smoked, 
plastered, and dirtied with a fetid grease. The 
Talopoins of Pegu and Ava, and the priests of 
Siam, also wash their idols with milk, oil, and 
other liquids. The Jews had sacred stones, which 
they anointed with oil, and to which they give 
the name of Betyle. — Sonnerat's Voyage, pp. 159, 
160. See Betyle ; Eagle Stones ; Ban-lang ; Sala- 
gram ; Stone Worship. 

ABHIYADAYA, in Hinduism, offerings to the 
manes of an individual's progenitors. 

ABI. Hind. Land cultivated by artificial 
irrigation from streams or tanks. Lallam, in Af- 
ghanistan, means cultivation dependent on natural 

ABID. Arab. A devout person; constantly 
engaged in the worship of God. 

AB-i-DHANG, Pers. This is a usual drink 
amongst the Ilyats in Northern Persia. It is 
butter milk weakened with water, and to which 
a little salt is added. 

ABIES, the fir genus of trees of the coni- 
ferous tribe, known for their valuable timber. 
Species of several coniferous plants, abies, 
cedrus, cupressus, juniperus, picea, pinus, and 
taxus, grow in the Himalaya, in Japan, the 
Philippines, and China. A. Araragi, Siebold, is 
a Japan tree with a brown wood, used for various 
domestic purposes ; and the A. Momi, Sieb., also 
of Japan, is valued for the whiteness and fine 
grain of its wood. A. leptolepis, A. firma, 100 
to 120 feet, A. bifida, 90 to 100 feet, and A. 
tsuga, 60 to 70 feet, grow on Mount Fusiyama. 
— Hooker^s Him. Journ. ; Hodgsoii's Nagasaki; 
Panjab Report. See Coniferse. 

Pinus Brunoniana, Wall. | P. dumosa, Lamb. 
Deciduous silver fir, Eng. | Semadoung, . . . Tib. 

Grows in Nepal, Bhutan, and at Gossain Than. 
A beautiful species, which forms a stately pyramid 
growing to 70 or 80 feet, with a trunk 15 to 20 feet, 
and with branches spreading like the cedar, but 
not so stiff, and. drooping gracefully on all sides. 
The wood is not durable; its bark is, however, 
very useful. Dr. Hooker found stacks of different 
sorts of pinewood stored for export to Tibet, all 
thatched with the bark of Abies Brunoniana. In 
the dense and gigantic forest of Abies Brunoniana 
and silver fir, he measured one of the larger 
trees, and found it 28 feet in girth. It grows 
occasionally in dense forests to a height of 70 to 
80 feet, with a clear trunk of from 14 to 20 feet, 
and a spreading, very branching head. Abies 
Kaempferi, the Pinus Kaempferi, Lamb, a native 
of Japan, is found wild upon the mountains of 
Fako. — Eng, Cyc. ; Hooker s Him. Journ. 

ABIES SMITHIANA. W. Himalayan spruce. 
Kachan . . of Jheltjm. | Seh, Lep. 

A handsome tree, common in many parts of the 
Panjab Himalaya, at from 3500 to 11,000 feet. 

Trees of 10 to 12 feet girth, and 130 to 140 feet 
high, are not unfrequent. Thomson notes one of 
17, Madden mentions one of 20, and Dr. Stewart 
had seen one of 21, feet girth. The timber is soft 
and light, often with much sap-wood, and the fibres 
are frequently twisted. It is the least valued of 
all the conifers, by the natives, for construction. 
In some parts, however, especially on the Beas, it 
is largely used for shingles, which are said to last 
for two or three years, and under cover it will 
last twice . that period. — Hooker[s Him. Journ.; 
StewarCs Panjab Plants; Cleghorn's Panjab 
Report ; -Royle. 

Pinus spectabilis, Lamb. \ P. AVebbiana, Wall. 
Cliilrow, of Himalaya. I Gobrea, Sallur, Panj. 

Tos of KULUand Kangra. | Oonum, Dunshing, Hind. ? 

Tliis fir tree grows at great elevations on the 
Himalaya, where it is one of the principal orna- 
ments of the forests. It attains a height of 80 or 
90 feet. At Choongtam this tree attains 35 feet 
in girth, with a trunk unbranched for 40 feet. 
According to Dr. Hooker, it splits well, is white, 
soft, and highly prized for durability, but Dr. 
Cleghorn says it is not much valued, and is used 
for shingles. — Hooker^s Him. Journ. ; RoyWs III. 
Him. Botany ; Timber Trees ; Panjab Report. 

AB-i-GUM. Pers. Literally 'lost water,' 
thirty-six miles from the east entrance of the 
Bolan pass. The stream in the pass sinks into 
the loose pebbly stratum, but, percolating through, 
it reappears at Bihi Nani some miles below. — 
MacGregor's Beluchistan. 

AB-i-MA. Pers. Literally 'mother of the 
waters ; ' the Amu Daria, or Oxus river. 

ABIR. Arab. Crocus sativus, Linn. 

ABIR. Hind. A perfumed cosmetic powder, 
which is rubbed on the face or body, or sprinkled 
on clothes to scent them. There are many re- 
ceipts for it ; one kind is composed of rice flour, or 
the powdered bark of the mango tree or deodar, 
camphor, and aniseed. A superior kind is pre- 
pared from powdered sandal wood or wood-aloes, 
Curcuma zerumbet (Kuchoor), or Curcuma zedo- 
aria (ambi huldee), rose flowers, camphor, and 
civet cat perfume, pounded, sifted, and mixed. 
In every case it is a mixed cosmetic perfume, 
and other ingredients used are yellow sandal, 
violets, orange flowers, aloes wood, musk, true 
spikenard, and rose-water. It is a term applied 
in India to any perfumed powder, and is also 
often given to Curcuma zerumbet and saffron. — 

AB-i-SHEREEN. Pers. The Hindyan river. 

AB-ISTADA, a lake 17 miles' long, 65 mUes 
S.S.W. of Ghazni. 

ABJAD. Arab. The name of an arithmetical 
verse, the letters of which have different powers, 
from one to a thousand. This was the ancient 
order of the alphabet as it is now used in the 
Hebrew alphabet. The system is much used in 
chronograms and in books of astronomical tables. 

ABKARRY. Hind. Excise revenue derived 
in India from duties levied on the manufacture 
and sale of inebriating liquors, as toddy, pachwai, 
and arrack ; also on intoxicating drugs, whether 
in substance, infusion, or extract, as opium, bhang, 
churrus ; also on certain licensed distilleries, and 
on shops licensed to sell by retail. — Wilson. 

ABKHORA. Hind. A drinking pot, with or 
without a spout (tuti) ; it has a handle and lid. 



Whzu, Ar. j Sth'nnnam, . . Sanhk. 

Ahlurinne, .... It. Abluciun, .... 8p. 
Sir Niihunn, . . Hind. | 

Ablutions, amongst the Hebrews, Hiiidos, and 
Mahoujeclans, are include<l as part of their 
nli^'ious rituals. They are allotted to several 
jtiriods of the day, and varied to meet particular 
forms of purificntion. The Hebrew ceremonial, 
as still practised by their Jewish successors, is 
laid down in the books of Moses, and is that 
}4onorally followed by Mahomedaiis, both for men 
and women. Both Mahomedans and Hindus 
carefully act up to their ordinances, as to puri- 
lication. The Hindu ritual is severe on this 
point, and along the banks of their sacred 
(langes, crowds of men and women may be daily 
lobserved. Their Sth'nanam, however, as also 
their ritual purification before eating, may equally 
be performed in their own houses. The Buddhists 
of Asia are less strict. Although frequently en- 
joined in the Bible as parts of Hebrew cere- 
monials, they are even more stringently carried 
out by Hindus, but less so by Mahomedans. 
The Hebrews, in Gen. xxxv. 2, were ordered to 
' put away the strange gods ; be clean, and change 
your garments ; ' and a Hindu considers those 
clothes defiled in which he has been employed in 
I business, and always changes them before eating 
or worship. Again, in Gen. xliii. 24, ' The man 
bronght the men into Joseph's house, and gave 
them water, and they washed their feet' And 
with Hindus, as soon as a guest enters, one of the 
Urst civilities is presenting water to wash his feet. 
3o indispensable is this, that water to wash the 
feet makes a part of the offerings to an image. 
Solomon's Song, v. 3, says, ' I have washed my 
feet ; how shall I defile them ? ' A Hindu wipes 
or washes his feet before he retires to rest. If 
called from his bed, he often excuses himself, as 
he shall daub his feet ; and as he does not wear 
shoes in the house, and the floor is of clay, the 
excuse seems very natural. I^ev. xiv. 8, 9, and 
B3, relate to personal uncleanness, and there are 
similar customs prevalent among the Hindus ; but 
in the Mosaical institutions there is no law like 
that of the Hindus, which rules that a Bnihman 
becomes unclean by the touch of a Sudra, or a 
dog, or the food of other castes. The Hindu food 
ritual, is given in Mark vii. 3, where the Pharisees 
md all the Jews, except they wash their hands 
oft, eat not, for with Hindus bathing is an indis- 
(wnsable prerequisite to the first meal of the day, 
ind washing the hands and feet is equally so 
before the evening meal. Mahomedans use water 
3r sand before prayers, before meals, and after 
many ordinary occurrences. — Ward's Hindoos ; 
Ihrklots' Qanun-i- Islam. 

ABNOOS. Arab. Ebony. 

AB-o-HOWA. Hind. The climate of a country 
3r locality, literally the water and air. 

ABOO, Arab., also written Abu, an affix to 
nany banks, islands, reefs, mountains, headlands, 
md shoals in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. 

ABOR or Abar is a name applied very inde- 
Snitely by the Assamese to independent hill 
iribes on both sides of the valley, but it is 
more especially the appellation of the great 
jection called Padam or Padgam. They have 
ive settlements in the lower ranges border- 
ng on Assam, in the vicinity of the Dibang 

ABORIGIKK^^ «jr i.>UIA. 

river, viz. Membu, Silook, Psfdoi, Paabee, Md 
Bomjeer. Thu yuuug wuioeti at Mambil, aalil 
they become mothon, wear m tax nniiiii ^\\nm\, 
suspended in front from the loinc, • row of fiiMi 
five to a dozen round emboMud plaUs ol bill- 
metal, which rattlu and chink wbco th«j 
Very young girls, except for wamtb, wa 
thing else, but the snuUlett of tlM sex k nevt 
without these appendages. In tbe end of 1861« 
the Meyong Abor attacked and plondarad • 
village in the British territory, bat tbe ItUm 
expressed a desire to renew friendly reUtkNM, 
and begged that their offences might be ow- 
looked. On the 5th Novemljer 18C2, an ■pnwimnt 
was ma^le with them, binding them to wp ejl 
British territory, and the same engagement wm 
subscribed on the 16tb January 1868 br the 
Kelong Abor. On the 8th November 18iS2, a 
similar engagement was concluded with the Abor 
of the Dihong - Dibang duar. The Abor are 
polyandrous, it being not uncommon for an Abor 
woman to have two husbands, brothers, living under 
one roof. They do not eat beef, but hunt and eal 
the flesh of the buffalo. Their bachelors live in 
the Morang, a large building in tbe centre of tbe 
village for the reception of strangers, and in this 
custom they resemble the Naga on the south of 
Assam, and some of the Archipelago races. 
Numbers of the Abar people are also found on the 
shores of the two great northern branches of the 
Brahmaputra river. When first known, they made 
periodical descents on the plains. Colonel Dalton 
thinks that the Abor, Aka, Dafla, and Miri are 
of a Tibetan stock. The Abor Miri langnago 
belongs to the old Assam alliance, but it has been 
greatly modified by Tibetan. It has a strong 
ideologic resemblance to the Dhimal, Bodo, Garo* 
and Naga, but with some specific Tibetan traits.— 
Jotir. hid. Arch. 1853 ; Treaties, etc., vii. p. 343 ; 
Indian Annals; Latham's Ethnology; Mr. Camp- 
bell, p. 54: Dalton' s Ethn. of Bengal; Imp. Gaz. 
ABORIGINES. In British India, in the south- 
east of Asia, and in China, many of the races 
dwelling in political dependency are supposed to 
be the prior occupants, aud on that account are 
distinguished by this term. Some of them are 
in large nationalities ; others broken, dispersed, 
disconnected, even homeless. The census of 1871 
showed that the aborigines of British India then 
numbered twelve millions, or one-twelfth of tbe 
population : — 

Madras 660,000 

Central Provinces, . . 1,995,668 

South Bengal, .... 4,000.000 
North-East Bengal, . (say) 1,000,000 

Karen, 402,117 

Khyen and Yabang, . . . 51,563 

Rest of India, . . (say) 4,000,000 
Dr. Hunter says 17,716,825, excluding Madras and 
feudatory states. 

The dates of the first arrivals in Britisli India 
are, however, wholly unknown. But the bulk of 
the immigrants seem to have come from beyond 
the Himalaya on the north, at intervals ranging 
between 3000 and 1000 years before the Christian 
era. Small bodies in the N.W. comer of the 
Peninsula appear to be of Western origin. Then 
are also peoples in the southern parts of tbe 
peninsulas of India and Malacca with marked 
Negro features, and such recur as large or small 
nations in the Andamans, the Malay Peninsula, 



and in the Archipelago islands, with traces also, in 
the valleys of Northern India, as if there had once 
been a great Negro wave setting to the east, or 
had been prior Negroid races occupying the 
southern parts of Asia. 

A great bulk of the original settlers in India 
— labourers, farmers, foresters, shepherds, cow- 
herds, artificers, and professional races — seem to 
have come down the valleys of the Indus, of the 
Ganges and Brahmaputra, and to have streamed 
through the gaps in the Himalayas ; and, from 
the practice followed of living apart, as castes, 
who neither eat together nor intermarry, most 
of the immigrant tribes and races are now as 
distinctly marked as on the days of their first 
appearance. The Mahomedans even, who have 
less of such separatist habits, although they also to 
a considerable extent follow the ancient custom 
of marrying amongst their own people, are still 
readily distinguishable from one another, — tail, 
powerful, fair men of the Afghans ; fair, robust 
Moghuls from Tartary ; the fair, slender Nou-ait 
race from Southern Persia ; the darker men of 
Arab origin ; and the powerful, large-made trading 
race, known in the south as Labbay. All these — 
amongst the Hindus, Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya, 
and Sudra, and amongst the Mahomedans, Syuds, 
Shaikhs, Moghuls, and Fathans — are in great 
numbers. But, throughout all India — in hamlets, 
in forests, and on the plains, in towns, and in 
valleys, and on the mountains — are numerous 
smaller bodies or tribes, with physical forms and 
habits and pursuits quite distinct from each 
other. The native races readily distinguish each 
other, but this is a capability which most Euro- 
peans fail to acquire, in consequence of which 
ethnologists have formed very dissimilar opinions 
as to the origin of the nations in the south of 

Mr, Hodgson includes aU the people of India 
under two races, the Aryan and Tamulian. Dr. 
Caldwell, referring to the great variety of feature, 
colour, etc., and to the influence of caste restric- 
tions and climate, finds no indication either of 
the Mongol or Negro tribes among the Dravidians ; 
>[r. Hislop says he has never found an instance of 
Negro physiognomy among the barbarous people 
of Central India, but considers both their hair and 
features to be decidedly Mongolian. Sir "Walter 
Elliot says that in the Camatic, also from Tan- 
jore west through the Western Dekhan, both 
above and below the Ghats, — in Gujerat, amongst 
the southern Rajputs, and as far north as Mount 
Abu, in Kutch and Kathiawar, — also in the 
Northern Circars, as far north as Orissa and the 
country of the Konds, — he had never, during 
forty years' sojourn, observed any indications of 
true Mongolian features, nor had he seen any signs 
of Negro blood, save in the instances of imported 
Africans. But, on the other hand, he has been 
struck with the remarkable diversity of form and 
feature observable in every class of the population. 
Amongst Brahmans, Tamil, Telugu, Canarese, and 
Deshasth Mahratta, some, he says, will be found 
of a clear, light-brown colour ; others as black and 
dusky as any agricultural Pariah ; some with fine, 
tall figures, and sharply cut, aquiline features ; 
others with stout, ungainly figures, and thick, flat, 
coarse physiognomy. It would, he adds, puzzle 
a stranger to point out a group of Panchalar 
artisans, of Kanakapilli writers, of Buljawar, of 

Komati merchants, and an equal number of Brah- 
mans ; and the same diversity runs through all 
the castes. Many Pariahs, he continues, are very 
fair and tall, with good, prominent, sharp-cut 
features; others are black and squat, with the 
lowest and most debased cast of countenance. 
But all converge to a common type, — one sui 
geneiis, — which might almost entitle the Hindu to 
be recognised as a distinct family of mankind; and 
he concludes by observing that it is a mistake to 
attribute any marked influence on existing forma 
to Aryan blood, except in a few special cases. 
Aryan missionaries penetrated to the south of 
India, but they were too few to make any impres- 
sion on the community. He considers the origin 
and affinities of the classes comprising the Indian 
population to be still involved in obscurity. 

Professor Miiller and Dr. Pri chard arrived at the 
conclusion that when the Aryan Hindus crossed 
the Indus, they drove the aboriginal inhabitants 
across the Vindhya mountains and the Nerbudda 
into the Dekhan, where they still dwell, speaking 
their native languages, though mixed more or less 
with the Sanskrit of their Aryan conquerors. 
Their idioms — the Tamil, Telugu, and Karnatica — 
are sister dialects of one speech. Dr. Prichard 
concurs with Professor Rask in regarding the lan- 
guages of the mountain tribes of India — the Bhil, 
the Gond, the Toda, and others — as likewise of 
the Tartar stock ; and he mentions also that some 
curious analogies have been observed between the 
Tamulian and other dialects of the peninsula, and 
the languages of Australia. Mr. Hodgson, also, is 
of opinion that all the aborigines of India are 
northmen of the Scythic stem. Members of that 
stock are found from their original seats on the 
north of the Himalayas southwards to the seas ; 
and between Gilgit and Chittagong there are a 
hundred passes over the Himalayas and their 
south-eastern continuation to the Bay of Bengal, 
through which they may have migrated ages upon 
ages before the dawn of legend and of chronicle. 
In every extensive jungly or hilly tract throughout 
the vast continent of India, there exist hundreds 
of thousands of human beings in a state not 
materially differing from that of the Germans as 
described by Tacitus. These primitive races are the 
ancient heritors of the whole soil, from all the rich 
and open parts of which they were expelled by 
the Hindus. 

Sudra is now the common caste appellation of the 
mass of the Hindu inhabitants of southern India. 
It cannot, however, be doubted that by the Aryans 
the term was extended in course of time to all who 
occupied, or were reduced to, a dependent condi- 
tion, whilst the name M'hlecha continued to be 
the appellation of the unsubdued un-Aryanized 
tribes. Lassen aud Max Miiller suppose that the 
whole of the Sudra or primitive servile classes 
of Northern India belonged to a race different 
from their Aryan conquerors ; but Dr. Caldwell 
thinks it probable that a considerable portion of 
them consisted of the slaves, servants, dependants, 
or followers of the high caste Aryans, and, like 
the latter, belonged to the Aryan race. And the 
legend that the Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and 
Sudra all sprang from Brahma's body, though 
from different parts of it, is in favour of the idea 
that the Sudra differed from the twice-born Arya 
in rank only, not in blood. 

Mr. Logan remarks that, physically, the popula- 



ion of southern India is one of tbo most rariable 
iiul mixml which any ethnic province displays. 
Souio are exceedingly Iranian; some are Semitic, 
•tlu're Australian ; some remind us of K^yptians, 
vhile others again have Malaya-Polynesian and 
yen Simang and Papuan features. ^ et when the 
ye takes in the whole group at once, they are seen 
o have all something in connnon. They are not 
ranians, Polynesians, Papmuis, etc., but South 
ndians. The Dravidian language, however, or one 
f its principal elements, was probably an exten- 
ion of a Mitl or Western Asiatic formation, and it 
lay be iuferre<l that the common element of the 
)ravidian, the Fin and Japanese languages, must 
temuch more ancient than the occupation of Japan 
»y the Japanese, India by the Dravidians, and 
''inland by the Fins, He says the main af&ni- 
ies of the Dravidian formation thus point two 
vays, — the linguistic chiefly to a Scythic, and 
he physical chiefly to an African origin or fra- 
ernity. The more important of these characters 
ire a pointed and frequently hooked pyra- 
nidal nose, with conspicuous nares, more long 
aid round ; a marked sinking in of the orbital 
ine, producing a strongly-defined orbital ridge ; 
yes brilliant, and varying from small to middle- 
ized ; mouth large, lips thick and frequently 
urgid ; lower jaw not heavy, its lateral expansion 
nreater than in the Aryan and less than in the 
Puranian type ; cheek bones broad and large 
ather than projecting, as in the Turanian type, 
,'iving to the middle part of the face a marked 
levelopment and breadth, and to the general 
on tour an obtuse oval shape, somewhat bulging 
it the sides ; forehead well formed, but receding, 
ncliuing to flattish, and seldom high ; occiput 
omewhat projecting ; hair fine, beard considerable, 
md often strong ; colour of skin very dark, fre- 
luently approaching to black. AVe may, he adds, 
;onclude from the ethnic character and position 
f the ancient Indian population, that it belonged 
o the small Turano- African type. But successive 
nodificatioDs of race seem to have been going on 
n India from times long anterior to the Aryan or 
iven Tartar eras, and imply linguistic changes 
dso. The above is the higher and much-improved 
y pe. But, as in Africa', U Itra- 1 ndia, ^nd Asionesia, 
k smaller, more Turanian, and less Semiticized 
ype is still preserved, although variously crossed. 
The peculiarities in the variable physical character 
)f the Dravidian physical types, when compared 
ivith the Scythic, are African and Africo-Semitic. 
The very exaggerated occipital and maxillary 
protuberances are not characteristic of the typical 
Vfrican head, but of a debasement of it confined 
/O certain localities. Several East and Mid African 
lations have the so-called African traits nmch 
loftened, and differ little from the Dravidian. 
Even woolly or spiral hair is not a universal 
'eature in Africa, some tribes having fine silky 
lair. The Dravidian pyramidal nose, the sharp 
lepression at its root, the slight maxillary and 
)ccipital projection, the turgid lips, the oval con- 
X)ur, and the beard, are all African. Mr. Logan 
:.binks there is reason to believe that the strong 
Africanism of some of the lower South Indian 
wastes is really tlie remnant of an archaic fonna- 
siou of a more decided African character. The 
position of India between two great Negro pro- 
inces, that on the west being still mainly Negro, 
ven in most of its improved jaces, and that on 

I the cut prooervinK the anoieot Negro beeia in 

iK>int8 so near India a« the AnduoMM mm! KMlah. 

It is therefore highly probable that the Afiicaii 

! element in the ix>pulation of the peoineuU of 

j India has been trnnHinittcd from an archaic period, 

I before the Semitic, Turaoiaa, aod Iraaba neee 

entered India, aod when the ludiaii Ooean bad 

, Negro tribes along iu nortbern aa well aa iu 

eastern and western shores. 

Many of the Non- Aryan races hare long been verj 
severely repressed. Mann, in the tenth chapt4rr 
of his Institutes, says they most dwell Ottliide <d 
the town, their sole property dogs and aasea, tbeir 
clothes such as have been left by the dead, their 
ornaments rusty iron. They umst roam from plaM 
to place ; no respectable man muxt hold inter* 
course with them ; they are to be the ]iublic exe« 
cutioners, and may retain the bedding, the clothes, 
and the ornaments of those they have executed. 
In the eighth chapter, he says the Cbandala can 
never be released from bondage, though he be 
emancipated by a master. 

Under Mahomedan and Christian rulers, the 
primitive races have been very largely freed from 
all open persecution ; but, to the present hour, 
the Pariah, the Chakili, the Mhar, the Mang, the 
Holyar, the Pullar, the Chamar, and others, do 
not reside within the towns. Not only their touch, 
but even their near presence or look, entails cere- 
monial pollution. The workers in hides and 
leather — the Chamar, Madaga, Muchi, Chakili, 
Dhor, and Mang — are, everywhere throughout 
India, regarded by Hindus as unclean. 

Colonel Dalton arranges the aboriginal races of 
Bengal, Chutia Nagpur, and Behar, as under : — 

o. Kolarian, viz. : — 
Santal, Mundah, and Kharriah of Chutia Nagpur. 
Bhumij of Manbhum. 
Ho of Singbhum. 
Savage Korwa of Sirguja. 

Kur or Kurku or Muasi of the Central Provinces. 
Juang, Binhor, and others. 

h. Dravidian, who, in Bengal, comprise four 
great divisions of the aborigines, rix. : — 

Oraon 600,000 

Male, Paharia, or 
Kajmabali hill- 
men 400,000 

Gond, in Bengal, 
Khond, ,. 
and others. 


c. Broken Tribes, viz. ■ 
Kaur or Kaurava. 


Kiaan or Nageaar. 


Mar, and others. 

d. Hinduized Aborigin 




Kaur or Kaurava. 

es, viz.: — 
Kiaan or Nagenr. 

To the south-west of Bengal, in the Peninsula 
of India, are several great prior nations, engaged 
in all the avocations of civilised life, spoakinff the 
cultivated Canarese, Malealam, Tamil, and Telugu, 
with other races and tribes speaking uncultivated 
tongues, aa Beder, Kurgi or Kodaga, the Tojlava, 
Baddaga, Kohtar, Irular, Kurumbar, Gond, Khond 
or Khand, Gadaba, Yerkala, Korawa, PuUax, 
Savara, Yenadi, au<l others who have remained in 
an unsettled 8tat«, many witli no houses or villagca. 
Among these may be mentioned — 

The migratory Wadawar, or road-maker and 



quarriers; the Uparawar, salt-makers and tank 
diggers ; and the Medarawar, or basket-makers. 

The homeless Lambari, Binjara, Yerkala, 
Korawa, Korchawar, Kammarawar, Nat, and 

The athlete and juggler Jatti-gymnasts, KoUati 
(Khelati?), Dommar, Modewar, and Bommalati- 
war; Kaikara, Ramusi, Warali. 

The begging Jogi, Pitchigunta, Budu-budu, 
Kalawar, Satani, Dasari, Bairagi, and Viramusti. 

The shepherd and cowherd Betla Kuruba, Genu 
Kuruba, Ahir, Gardarga, Garaiya, Dhangar, and 

The hill races, Bhil, Badaga, Ho, Gond, Kol, 
Irular, Katar, Kurumbar, Malai Arasar, Todawar, 
Saora, Cheru, PuUar, Male, Munda, Bhumij, Son- 
thai, and on the north-east frontier, the Abor, 
Aka, Dafla Garo, Klhassya, Mikir, Miri, Naga, 
and many others. 

The forest Chenchwar, Villi or Yenadi, and 

The Non- Aryan Pariah, Mhar, Holyar, and 
Eskar, who are landless labourers, with the Koli, 
and Yerawar, the Chamar, the Dom, the Chandal, 
Koch'h, and others. 

The fisher Boya, Parawar, and Besta. 

The agricultural and farming Reddi, Vallalar, 
Kammawar, Patra Yakari. and Gujjulawar, Yer- 
lam-wandlu, Kunbi, Kurmi, Ukali, and Mutarcha- 
wandlu, with the Kallar and Marawar of the 
south, who are settling down to agriculture. 

The palm-wine drawing Shanar, Balaja, and 

The Kurg mountaineer. 

The Jut or Jat, of aU the north-west of India, 
are an immigrant race, who have the two princi- 
palities of Bhurtpur and Dholpur. They are 
everywhere industrious and successful tillers of 
the soil, and are hardy yeomen, but equally ready 
to take up arms and to follow the plough. They 
form, perhaps, the finest rural population in India. 
On the Jumna, their general superiority is appar- 
ent ; and on the Sutlej, where many adopted the 
Sikh faith, religious observances and political 
ascendency served to give spirit to their industry 
and activity, and purpose to their courage. The 
Jat of both sides of the lower Indus rear camels. 

The Gujar race, living among the Jat, continue 
predatory, but they have given their name to 
Gujerat, and are settling down. 

Throughout British India, the aboriginal races do 
most of the work as agricultural labourers, more 
rarely as handicraftsmen or artisans. Many of 
them are still predatory, but they are faithful, 
brave, and truthful, make good soldiers, and are 
capable of being readily advanced in civilisation. 
Sir Walter Elliot and Dr. Campbell, in Jour. Ethn. 
5o. 1869 ; Colonel Dalton, Eth. of Bengal ; Cheva- 
lier Bunsen, Dr. Prichard, and Professor Max 
Mailer, in Report British Association, 1847 ; 
Hodgson'' s Aborigines of India ; Logan in J. Ind. 
Archip. ; Imp. Gaz. 

AB-PASHI. Pers. Irrigation of fields. 
ABRAH, surnamed Moochwal, or whiskered, 
one of the Bhuj family who came from Cutch in the 
time of Rinna Sowah, into whose family he inter- 
married. His son had offspring by a woman of 
impure caste, and they assumed the name of 
Waghair, with the distinctive appellation of manik 
or gem. The last four chieftains of this race were 
Mahap, Sadul, Samiah, and Mulu-manik, who, 

with all his kin and company of Waghairs, Bad- 
hails, Arabs, etc., after a desperate defence, was 
slain.— rod's Travels, pp. 220, 440. See Kat- 

ABRAHAM or IBRAHIM, the patriarch of 
three religions, Jewish, Christian, and Mahomedan. 
He was a son of Terah, and brother of Nahor and 
Hanan, and is commonly called Khalil Ullah, the 
Friend of God. He was born at Ur in the Chaldees, 
B.C. 2927 ; and B.C. 2900 he withdrew with his 
father into the south-western part of Mesopotamia. 
B.C. 2877 he emigrated into Canaan. His grand- 
son Jacob went to Egypt B.C. 2747 or 2746. — 
Kennedy on the Origin of Languages, p. 25 ; Bunsen. 

ABRAK or Abraka. Hind. Mica. 

AB-RAWAN. Pers. A delicate cotton manu- 
facture of Dacca, meaning like running water. 

ABROMA AUGUSTUM, L., the Ulut kambal 
of Bengal, the perennial Indian hemp ; a small 
tree or shrub, one of the Sterculiacese, with soft 
velvety branches and drooping flowers, a native 
of various parts of India, and as far east as 
the Philippines. It grows so rapidly as to 
yield annually two, three, or even four cut- 
tings, fit for peeling. On this account, and 
on account of the beauty, strength, toughness, 
and fineness of its fibres, it is deserving of 
more than common attention. The produce is 
said to be three times greater and one-tenth 
stronger than that of Sunn (Crotalaria juncea). 
It can be cultivated as an annual. If maceration 
be employed, its continuance must be guided by 
the heat of the weather. To prepare the fibres, 
the bark is steeped in water for about a week, 
beyond which they require no further cleaning, 
and in this state, without any subsequent pre- 
paration, they are not liable to become weakened 
through exposure to wet. A cord made from 
these fibres bore a weight of 74 lbs., while that 
of Sunn only 68 lbs. — Boyle ; Riddell; Roxb. ; 
Voigt ; Useful Plants. 

AERU. Hind. The eyebrow; the Char-abru 
of Mahomedans are the eyebrows, the moustaches, 
the beard, and the hair of the armpits. 


Abrus minor, Desv. 

Abrus pauciflorus, Desv. 

Ain-ul-dik, . . , 


Chashm-i-khoras, Pees. 

Sweta Kunch, . 


Gunja, .... SAN8K. 

Kalo Kunch, . 


Maklam, . . . Si am. 

Khyen rwse, , 


Olinda, .... Singh. 

Rwagnay, . . 


Gundamani, . . Tam. 

Gimch ; Ketti, . 

, Cash. 

Gulivenda, . . . Tel. 

Siang-sz-tsze, . 


Guruginja, ... ,, 

Hung-tau, . . 


Guruvenda, . . ,, 

Bead seed tree, 

. Eng. 

Yashti-madhukam, „ 

Liane a reglisse, 


The white vai-iety, a. 

Pater-noster erbze 

, Geb. 

Leucospermos — 

Gumcha, Guncha, 


Telia Guruginja, . ,, 

Rutti, . . . 


The black variety, /S. 

Dan-sot-ga, . . 

. Malay. 

Melanospermos — 

Kuni-kuru, . . 


Nalla-guniginja, . ,, 

Khak-shi? . . 

. Pers. 

Khoroo-gzuei, . . Turk. 

A native of all the south-east of Asia, but 
now introduced into Africa and America. 
There are three varieties of this tree, designated 
from the colour of the flowers and seeds, — 
erythrospermos, or red-seeded with a black eye ; 
leucospermos, or white-seeded, also with a black 
eye ; and melanospermos, or black-seeded with 
a white eye, — the colours of their flowers being 
respectively rose, dark and white. Those of a 
bright scarlet colour, with a jet black spot at the 
top, are used by the jewellers and druggists as 




wei^hUi, also for beads and rosaries, whence the 
i tic name. From their extreme hardness and 
!y ai){)earanco, people prize them for necklaces 
and other ornaments. They are said to form an 
article of food iu Kgypt, though con8idero<l hard 
and indigestible. In fine powder, goldsmiths use 
them to increase atlhesiou in the more delicate 
parts of ninnufacture<l ornaments. The roots 
abound in sugar and mucilage, and are employed 
as a substitute for liquorice, for which tliey are 
perfectly suited. The leaves have a similar taste, 
und, mixed with honey, are applied externally in 
swellings of the body. It is a popular belief that 
the seeds almost uniformly weigh exactly one 
grain troy ; but they vary from one to two grains. 
Tlie Burmese use them within a fraction for two 
grain weights. 120, by one mode of reckoning, 
and 128 by another, make one tikal, which weighs, 
according to Captain Low, 26375 grains troy. 
Its Chinese name means 'anxious desire,' and 
refers to the sorrows of a widow who wept under 
one of these trees, and died of her grief. — Smith, 
Chin. Mat. Med.; Riddell, Useful Plants ; Mason; 
O'Sh. ; Ainslie; Boxb. ; Voigt; Bombay Products, 
See Liquorice Root. 

ABSAN-UL-FIL. Arab. Colocasia esculenta. 

ABSHAR. Hind. A stripe pattern. 

ABU or Aboo, the ancient Arbuda, is in Rajwara, 
in lat. 24" 35' 37" N. and long. 72° 45' IG" E. It 
is a large isolated mountain, in the territory of the 
liao of Serohi ; 45 miles N.E. from the military 
cantonment of Deesa, and to the S.AV. of the 
Aravalli range. It is situated on the western 
border of tlie desert of Rajputana, and one of the 
philanthropic Lawrence Asylums has been located 
on it. It is a magnificent mass of mountain, 
•with a fine lake, the Nakhi Talao, on the top of 
the hill. Its summit is covered with exquisite 
vegetation, in which white and yellow jasmin and 
wild roses predominate. Every glen and knoll has 
its tradition and romance ; and the Jain temples 
of white marble offer examples of architectural 
decoration which probably are unequalled in the 
world for elaboration and costliness. Its fame is 
of great antiquity ; and pilgrims appear to have 
been attracted to its sacred temples since a.d. 
lUo4. Hindu temples are said to have existed 
here in remote ages, dedicated to Siva and Vishnu, 
but all traces of them have disappeared. On their 
traditional site at Delwara, the famous Jain tem- 
ples now stand, built by Bimul Sah, a rich Jain 
merchant, and others ; for, in Jain estimation, 
Abu is the holiest s^wt on earth. At Delwara 
are five Jain temples, the largest being dedicated 
to Risbabbanath, the first tirthankara, whose 
image there is quadruple. Another is dedi- 
cated to him, A.I). 1031, as Adisvara or Adina- 
tha ; and one to Neminath, the 22d tirthankara, 
built of white marble, and delicately and richly 
carved. The base of mount Abu is about 13 
miles long, 11 broad, and 50 in circumference. 
It rises abruptly from the sandy plains, and the 
ascent is consequently steep and winding. The 
summit of the hill is very irregular, consisting 
of peaks, ridges, and valleys, sloping plateaux, 
and extensive basins. The highest point is called 
Guru Sikhar, and is 5653 feet above the level of 
the sea. The average height of the station is 
4000 feet. Colonel Tod described the neighbour- 
hood of mount Abu, as the site in which, from 
the most ancient times, ascetics known as Aghora, 

Mard-klior, or man-eateni, had resided. Tho 
aboriginefi of the hill apiiear to have been a 
tribe of Bhils. They seem at some time or other 
to have become mixed with marauding liajputa 
from the plains, and with the workmen who wt-ro 
BO long engaged in building the Delwara temples. 
This mixed race call themselves Lok, and are now 
in possession of almost all the land uitder cultiva- 
tion. He says, taking a section of about sixty 
miles in the alpine Aravalli, from the ascent at 
the capital of Udaipur, passing through Oguna, 
Panunia, and Mirpur, to the western descent 
near Sirohi, the land is inhabited by communities 
of the aboriginal races, their leaders, with the 
title of liawut, being hereditary. Thus the Rawut 
of the Oguna commune could assemble five 
thousand bows, and several others can on occa- 
sions muster considerable numbers. Their habi- 
tations are dispersed through the valleys in small 
rude hamlets, near their pastures or places of 
defence. The Bhils latterly have been settling to 
agricultural pursuits. Abu is subject to frequent 
shocks of earthquakes. The Rao of Sirohi, with 
some difficulty, was induced to approve of the 
sacred ground being used as a station for European 
residents and soldiers. Abu is one of the five 
mountains which the Jains of Western India con- 
sider sacred, the others being Gimar, Palitana, 
and Tallijah in Saurashtra, and Parasnath hill 
in Bengal, far to the east. Abu is the head- 
quarters of the Rajputana Political Agency. — 
Dr. Cook, in Bo. Medical Transactions, 1860 ; 
BuisCs Catalogue; Cunningham's Bhilsa Topes; 
Tod's Travels, p. 84 ; Postun^s W. India, ii. p. 2 ; 
Imp. Gaz. 

ABU. Arab. Father ; also meaning possessed 
of, or endowed with, and is numerously combined 
in Arabic. 

BOKHARl, born a.h. 194, died a.h. 266. He 
was one of the six principal collectors of the 
Hadis, or traditions of Mahomed. 

ibn SINA, a learned physician and philosopher, 
A.D. 980-1037, known to Europe as Avicenna, 
but to his contemporaries by his titles us-Shaikb, 
the chief, and ur Rais-ul-Ataba, literally phy- 
sician-general. He was bom a.d. 980 at Khar- 
matain (also, as is said, at Assena), a village near 
Bokhara, and was educated at Bokhara, studying 
under Abu Abid Ullah un-Natlieli. His name 
ruled in the realm of medical science for a longer 
time than that of any other writer except Aris- 
totle and Galen. In his twenty-first year he wrote 
a book, which he called Al Kitab al Majma, a 
cyclopaedia of twenty volumes ; and he subse- 
quently wrote a commentary of it, which also 
extended to twenty volumes. When the Samani 
dynasty fell, in the beginning of the 11th century, 
he quitted Bokhara, and for a short time was 
employed imder the Dilemi ruler ; but in 1012 he 
returned to Jorjan, where he began to write his 
most celebrated book on the principles of medi- 
cine, Kitab ul Qanun fi't Tibb. He subsequently 
lived for short periods at Rai, Kazwin, Hamadah, 
and Isfahan. He wrote about 100 other treatises, 
amongst them us Shjifa, Shafa fi'l Hikmat, Najat, 
and Isharat. His Qanun was printed at Rome 
a.d. 1695 ; was translated into Latin, and printed 
at Venice 1608 ; and for many centuries was, 
even in Eiux»pe, the most celebrated authority in 



medical science. It went through several editions. 
He died while on a journey at Hamadan a.d. 
1037, at the comparatively early age of fifty-seven, 

ABUBA. Tkl. Capparis Roxburghii, D.C. 

ABUBAKR, the father-in-law of Mahomed, 
and his successor, as khalifah. He received from 
Mahomed the title of Al Sadiq, the sincere friend. 

Arab traveller who was at the court of Nasri bin 
Ahmad bin Ismail of the Samanidse at Bokhara, 
when ambassadors arrived from the king of China, 
Kalatin-bin-us-Shakhir, to negotiate a marriage 
between his own daughter, and Noah, the son of 
Nasri (who afterwards succeeded to the throne of 
Bokhara). Abu Dulif accompanied the ambas- 
sadors on their return, about the year 941. The 
whole narrative of this traveller is not extant, 
but much of it has been preserved in citations by 
Yakuti (a.h. 617, a.d. 1220) and Kazvini (a.h. 
667, A.D. 1268-69) ; and a German editor col- 
lected these passages into a tolerably continuous 
narrative, and translated them into Latin. — Yule, 
Cathay, i. cxi. 

ABU HANIFA, one of the learned doctors of 
the Mahomedan faith, born A.D. 699-70. He was 
a commentator of the Koran. See Imam ; Hanifa ; 

ABU ISHAQ of Istakhr, or Persepolis, author 
of Kitab-ul-Akalim, or book of countries, which he 
wrote A.D. 961 (a.h. 340). He travelled through 
the Mahomedan principalities, from India to the 
Atlantic Ocean, and from the Persian Gulf to 
the Caspian Sea. He and Ibn Haukal met on 
the banks of the Indus, and compared notes to- 
gether. Ibn Haukal made Abu Ishaq's writings 
the basis of his own work. 

ABU KARIB, the most powerful of the Him- 
yaritic monarchs. He was commonly called 
Tobba. In a.d. 206, he covered the Kaaba with 
a tapestry of leather, and supplied its door with a 
lock of gold. See Kaba. 

ABU KUBAYS, a hill which bounds Mecca 
on the east. According to many Mahomedans, 
Adam, and his wife and his son Seth, lie buried 
in a cave here. Others place Adam's tomb at 
Muna ; the majority at Najaf. The early Chris- 
tijwis had a tradition that our first parents were 
interrtd under Mount Calvary; the Jews place 
their gi'^ve near Hebron. Habil (Abel) is sup- 
posed to be entombed at Damascus; and Kabil 
(Cain) is believed to be imder Jabal Shamsan, 
the highest wall of the Aden crater, where he and 
his progeny, tempted by Iblis, erected the first 
fire-temple. This worship, however, was pro- 
bably imported from India, where, according to 
the Vedas, Agni (the fire-god) was the object 
of man's early adoration. — Burtoii's Mecca, iii. 

Hanafi, author of a cyclopaedia of the sciences. 

ABULCASIS or ALBUCASA, a Spanish phy- 
sician of the 11th century, who wrote several 
medical and surgical treatises that are still ex- 

ABULFADA, author of the geographical book 
Taqwim - ul - baladau, and other books, was the 
sovereign prince of Hama in Syria. His name and 
titles at length were. Sultan Almalic Almuayd 
Amad-ud-Din Abulfada Ismail, the son of Malic 
Alafdal Nur-ud-Din Ali, son of Jamal-ud-Din 
Mahmud, son of Umar, son of Shahinshah, son 

of Ayub, of the Ayubi family. Born a.d. 1273^ 
died in the year 1331, a.h. 732. He mentions 
the abundance of pepper grown in Malabar, and 
the fine cotton manufactures of Coromandel. He 
divides Hindustan into al Sind, the country of 
the Indus, and al Hind, the country of the 
Ganges. — Hif.tory of Genyhizcan, p. 409. 

ABUL FARAGH, styled Al-Mufrian ; Mar Gri- 
gorius Abul Faragh bin ul Hakim Harun ul 
Malati, author of the book of dynasties, wliich 
he finished, in Arabic, in the reign of Arghun 
Khan, the last of Chenghiz Khan's grandsons. 
He was a Jacobite Christian of the city of Malatia 
in Cappadocia. It was arranged in ten chapters. 
1. On the Saints since Adam. 2. The Judges 
of Israel. 3. The Kings of Israel. 4. The Chal- 
dean Kings. 6. The Kings called the Magi. 6. 
The Ancient Greek Kings. 7. Latin Roman 
Kings. 8. Christian Greek Emperors. 9. Maho- 
medan Arabic Kings. 10. The Mogul Kings, 
tie is the Abul Pharagius of history ; Prideaux 
notices him. — ChatJieUrs Hindustan, p. 245. 

ABUL FAZL, the minister and favourite of Ak- 
bar, emperor of India. He wrote Akbar's memoirs. 
He was a man of enlarged views and extraor- 
dinary talents, but he was a professed rhetorician, 
and is still the model of the unnatural style which 
is so much admired in India. He was an assiduous 
courtier, eager to extol the virtues, to gloss over the 
crimes, and to preserve the dignity of his master, 
and those in whom he was interested. His dates 
and his general statements of events are valuable ; 
but he had a dishonest way of telling a story, and 
his narrative is florid, feeble, and indistinct. He 
wrote the greater part of the Akbar Namah, 
which was continued for the last three years 
by a person named Inayat Ullah or Muhammad 
Salia. Selim, the eldest son of Akbar, took a dislike 
to him, and to obtain peace, Akbar sent Abul 
Fazl to a command in the Dekhan ; but when 
recalled from there in the 47th year of Akbar's 
reign, and while advancing with a small escort 
towards Gwalior, he fell into an ambuscade laid 
for him by Narsing Deo, raja of Orcha in Bundel- 
kand, at the instigation of Prince Selim, and 
although he defended himself with great gallantry, 
he was cut off with most of his attendants (a.d. 
1602, A.H. 1011), and his head sent to the prince. 
Akbar was deeply affected by the intelligence of 
this event ; he shed abundance of tears, and passed 
two days and nights without food or sleep. He 
sent a force against Narsing Deo, with orders to 
seize his family, ravage his country, and exercise 
such severities as on other occasions he never 
permitted. He does not seem to have been aware 
of Selim's share in the crime. But Selim, in his 
memoirs, written after he was emperor, acknow- 
ledges the murder, and defends it on the ground 
that Abul Fazl had persuaded Akbar to renounce 
the Koran and deny the divine mission of Maho- 
med. — Price's Jahangir, p. 33 ; Elph. pp. 384, 462, 
See Mubarak ; Faizi. 

ABUL-HASAN-ABI, known by the patro- 
nymic surname Al Masudi, a native of Baghdad, 
and great traveller, acute observer and writer. 
He wandered to Morocco and Spain on the west, 
and eastwards to China, through all the Maho- 
medan and other countries, and he wrote his 
travels, which he styled Miraj-ul-Zahab, or 
Meadows of Golcl. — Elliot, p. 19. 

ABUL HASAN-RUDIKI, the oldest of the 




Persian poots, still well known and popular in 
Central Asia, Ho is remarkiible for tho fertility 
of his pen, and tho purity of hin language, 
llainmer states that, according to tho cotnmen- 
tatora of the Yaniiui, his history of Persian poetry, 
' s said to have written 1,300,000 disticlies, 
ted in a hundred books. His rnagnificonce 
princely. Ho went about preceded by 200 
s, and followed by 400 camels laden with 
.. ...iibles. — P.Arminius Vamltery, Bokhara, p. 77. 
ibn MUHAMMAD-ibn KASHID, is known to 
Western Europe as Averhoes. He was a philo- 
sopher and physician of great eminence. He was 
bom at Cordova, of illustrious parentage, about 
A.D. 1149. He studied under Avanzoar and other 
distinguished Arabian scholars, and his education 
extended to all the branches both of literature 
and science, as then taught in the Saracenic 
colleges of Spain. He followed Aristotle as a 
philosopher, and Galen as a physician. His 
treatises, seventy-two in number, acquired the 
highest reputation, and for many centuries were 
standard works. He also wrote an epitome of 
Ptolemy's Almagest, and a treatise on astrology. 
His medical writings were gathered together as 
the KuUiat, or complete works, and were trans- 
lated into Latin, and have been repeatedly printed 
along with the Tasir of Avanzoar, one of them 
reappearing at the commencement of the 17th 
century. He carried Aristotle's mode of reason- 
ing by induction into the religious doctrines 
of Mahomedanism, and twice suffered persecu- 

ABU RIHAN, AL BIRUNI, a native of Khar- 
asm (born A.D. 970, died 1038), spent forty 
years in India, and composed his excellent work, 
the Tarikh-i-liind, which gives a complete account 
of the literature and sciences of the Hindus at 
that time. Al Biruni had been appointed by the 
Sultan of Kharazm to accompany an embassy 
which he sent to Mahmud of Ghazni and Masaud 
of Lahore. — Milller^s Lectures, p. 141. 

RAH was a Sabian, physician, astronomer, 
and mathematician. He was born at Haran 
in Mesopotamia, and died at Baghdad a.d. 
942. He was physician to Mukhtasar and 
Kahar, the 18th and 19th of the Abbasside 
Khalifa, who reigned from a.d. 908 to 934. 
Mukhtasar gave him the title of Rais ul Ataba, 
physician-general, and he was appointed public 
examiner a.d. 931, no one being allowed to 
practise until licensed by Senan. The number 
who were examined at Baghdad are stated at 
830. Under pressure from Kahar, he became a 
Mahomedan ; but as Kahar continued to treat 
him harshly, he fled to Khorasan, though he after- 
wards returned to Baghdad, where he died a.d. 

ABUSHAHR, generally abridged into Bushahr, 
or Bushire, a town in the Persian Gulf, which 
roee into notice during the 18th century, and 
Si said to have been previously an inconsider- 
able village. In excavating to form reservoirs 
for rain water, architectural remains have been 
discovered, indicating that a succession of towns 
have stood there. The well water is brackish, 
and causes diarrhoea in new-comers. — Ouseley's 
Travels, vol. i. p. 192. See Bushire, 
ABU SHAM, a familiar address in the 

Hejaz to Syrians. Thoy are called 'abusers of 
the salt,' from their treachery, and ' offMpring 
of Shimr' (tho execrated murderer of the Imam 
Husain), because he was a native of that country. 
— yjur/«w'» Mecca, iii. p. 114. 


Sida Indioii, Linn. 

Sida iMpulifulia, Boxb. 

Potari Ubno. 

Tlia ma khai ok, . BURM. 
Kaiigni, Kaiighi, . HlNli. 
Ati or Kliiniti [>ala, I'ANJ. 
I'ataku, Siinbal, . „ 
Uram, Pettaka, Malbal. 

Abut AxUtioum, W.andA. 

Pajnrun tuthi, . . 
Tuttura-btiiula, . 
Nugu or Botla- 

benda, . . . 
Podda or Tutti 

bonda, . . . 



This is a small plant, of two to three feet, 
common in most parts of India, and cultivated 
in Burma. It yields a rather strong fibre, fit 
for the manufacture of ropes. The leaves are 
used in India and Burma in the same manner 
as the marsh - mallow in Europe, in decoction 
as an emollient fomentation, and an infusion 
of the root is a cooling drink in fevers. To 
obtain the fibre, the plants are gathered and 
freed of their leaves and twigs, and are put out 
to dry in the sun for a couple of days. They are 
then taken up, tied into bundles, and placed 
under water for about ten days, after which they 
are taken out, and the fibres are well washed to 
remove the bark and other foreign matter that 
may be adhering to them, and then placed in 
the sun to dry. — Voigt, 114; Roxburgh, iii. 179; 
Drs. Wighty Mason, Shorlt, Stewart, and Mr. 

Sida pol3'andra, . JRoxb. \ Sida Persica, . . BOBM. 
Grows at Kandalla, on the Neilgherries and 
Nundidroog; yields a long silky fibre resembling 
hemp, fit for making ropes. — Boxb.; Jur. Rep. 
Mad. Ex. ; Useful Plants. 

Sida tomentosa, . Boxb. \ Too-thi, .... Tax. 
Fibres from this were exhibited from two 
or three districts at the Madras Exhibition of 
1855. — Roxburgh; Madras Exhibition Juries' 

ABUVVA. Tel. Trichosanthes palmata, iJ.— 
Tr. bracteata. 

ABU-ZAID-UL-HASAN, anativeof Siraf, who 
wrote a continuation of the Arabic work by Suli- 
man the merchant. He never travelled in India, 
but he made inquiries of travellers, and completed 
the account given by the merchant Suliman. Abu 
Zaid met Masudi at Basra in (a.h. 303) a.d. 916, 
and he obtained from Masudi much information. 
He begins by remarking the great change in the 
commerce of the East that had taken place in 
the interval since Suliman wrote. A rebellion 
had broken out in Khan-fu, which had utterly 
stopped the Arab trade with China, and carried 
ruin to many families in distant Siraf and Oman. 
He gives also an account of a visit which an 
acquaintance of his own had made to Khumdan 
(Chang -gan or Sin-gan-fu), the capital of 

ABWAB. Arab. Heads or subjects of taxa- 
tion ; miscellaneous cesses, imposts, and charges. 
— Wibon. 

ABYSSINIA, a country in the N.E. of Africa, 
known to the people of Persia and India as 
Habash and Habashthn, and its people as the 
Habush or Habshi, though in India this latter 



term is applied to all the Negro races from Africa. 
It is one of the most ancient monarchies in the 
world. Its principal provinces are Tigre, Amhara, 
and Shoa ; at an early period they extended 
their power over Southern Arabia. But when the 
Arabs threw off the Abyssinian yoke, the remnants 
of the Abyssinians in remote parts of Arabia were 
reduced to servile avocations, and form the Khadim 
of Yemen. The people of Tigre and Amhara are 
of Semitic origin, and profess Christianity. In 
1864, Theodore, the king, imprisoned Captain 
Cameron, H.B.M. Consul at Massowah, and 
subsequently put several Christian missionaries 
and others in chains, and confined Mr. Kassam, 
and, in the year 1869, an army under Sir Kobert 
Napier was sent from British India, which effected 
their relief, and Theodore destroyed himself as 
the army reached Magdala. General Napier was 
created Lord Napier of Magdala. 

ACACIA, a genus of plants, numbering about 
three hundred species. Several are well known 
in the south and east of Asia, the foliage of 
some being attractive, while others furnish 
valuable timber, useful gums, and other important 

The Rewa is a large tree common in Rajwara, 
sacred to the Matajee, around whose shrines 
groves of this tree are commonly found. 

The Rheonj is a very common tree in par- 
ticular parts of Rajwara, upon which travellers, 
at certain parts of the roads, suspend shreds of 
their clothes, as in other parts of India. To the 
extremities of the young branches are suspended 
innumerable masses of exuded sap of large size. 
Several quick-growing species, introduced from 
Australia, are reared for f uelon the Neilgherry Hills ; 
and other Australian species still might be brought 
to India, viz. A. armata, R. Br., the kangaroo 
thorn, avaluable sand-binding plant ; A. fioribunda 
is the Willow Acacia ; A. longifolia, Willde, var. 
A. sophora of R. Br., a bushy t^ee, renders most 
important services in subduing loose coast sand ; 
bark used for sheep skins. Wattle trees yield 
also an abundance of gum arable. A. decurrens 
is the Black Wattle. Its bark sells in Great 
Britain from £8 to £11 per ton, and it yields 30 
to 51 per cent, of tannin. A. falcata, Willde, the 
Koa tree of the Sandwich Islands, yields a very 
durable wood. A. melanoxylon, R. Br., is the 
valuable South Australian black wood tree. A. 
mirobotrya, Benth., yields about 50 lbs. of gum 
annually. A. glaucescens, A. homalophylla, and A. 
pendula, Bennet, are the valuable Myal woods of 
Australia. — Genl. Med. Top. p. 197 ; von Mueller ; 
JEng. Cyc. ; G. Bennet. 

ACACIA AMARA. Willde. Babul tree. 
Minjosa amara, Eoxb. 
Bel kambi, . . Can. I Wunjah maram, . . Tam. 
Lallye, .... Make. | Nalla-regu, . . . Tel. 

This tree grows above the ghats of Canara and 
Sunda, not inland, and not north of the Gunga- 
walli river. It is a tolerably large tree in Coim- 
batore, but of rather low stature. Its flower is 
very beautiful. In Coimbatore the wood is dark- 
coloured and hard. In the Bombay Presidency, 
the wood is always very crooked, otherwise, when 
ripe, it is strong and tough, and might be applic- 
able to domestic purposes. From its black colour, 
the natives of Canara and Sunda deem it (wrongly) 
a species of ebony. — Rozb. ii. 548 ; Voigt, 261 ; 
Dr. Wight; Dr. Gibson, 

ACACIA ARABICA. Willde. Babul tree. 
Mimosa Arabica, Lamarck. 

Amghautan, . . 
Akakia, . . . 


NaUa tumma, . Tel. 
Tumma chettu, . „ 

Babla, . . . 


Barbaramu, . . „ 

Nan-lung-kyen, . 


Babul, .... 


Its gum : 

Mughilan, . . 


Babul Gond, , . HlND. 

Andere, . . . 


Vallam pisin ; Karu- 

Karru-vaylam, . 


velam pisin, . . Tam. 

This yellow flowering and rather ornamental tree 
is met with in varying abundance throughout India, 
Sind, and Ceylon. It is of rapid growth, and re- 
quires no water, flourishing on dry arid plains, and 
especially in black cotton soil, where other trees 
are rarely met with. It can never be had of large 
size, and is generally crooked, but it is a very 
hard, tough wood, and is extensively employed 
for tent pegs, ploughshares, sugarcane rollers; for 
the spokes, naves, and felloes of wheels ; for the 
knees and ribs of country ships ; and generally for 
all purposes to which a hard bent wood is applic- 
able ; it is not attacked by white ants. Amongst 
its other useful products, may be named its gum, 
bark, and seeds ; the latter being extensively used 
in the Dekhan for feeding sheep. The bark is 
very largely employed in the centre of the penin- 
sula as a tanning material, and, when properly 
managed, makes a good leather, with a reddish 
tinge, though in native hands the leather is often 
porous, brittle, and ill-coloured. Dr. Buchanan 
mentions that, in Mysore, the bark Avas em- 
ployed in the process of distilling rum. The 
ground bark mixed with the expressed seeds of 
the Sesamuni orientale has been used as food in 
times of scarcity. A decoction of the bark makes 
a good substitute for soap, and is used in dyeing 
various shades of brown. It yields an abundance 
of transparent gum, which flows out from incisions 
or fissures in the bark, and hardens in lumps of 
various sizes and figures, and is used in India as 
a substitute for the true gum arable, which is the 
product of A. vera. In the medical practice of 
the people, the bark is used internally as a tonic 
and astringent ; in decoction, as a wash for ulcers ; 
and, finely powdered and mixed with gingelly oil, 
externally in cancerous affections. Dr. Gibson 
for years advocated extensive planting of this 
useful tree in the Bombay side of India, and 
several forests of it at Khan gaum, Kasoordee, 
and other places have been preserved. The pods 
have long been employed in tanning on account 
of their astringency. In Smd, logs of 24 inches 
square and 14 feet long are obtainable. In the 
Panjab it has a girth of 9 to 16 feet. — Drs. Ckg- 
liorn; Gibson; Riddell; Mr. Rohde; Useful Plants; 
Captain Macdonald ; Roxb. ii. 548 ; Voigt, 262 ; 
Beddome, Fl. Sylv. 

ACACIA C^SIA. W. and A. 
Mimosa caesia, Linn. I Acacia arrar, Buch. 
Acacia alliacea, Buch. | „ intsioides, D. C. 
Telia Korinda, . . Tel. | Konda Korinda, . . Tel. 
This climbing shrub grows in Coromandel, 
Alipur, Monghir, and Saharunpur. — Voigt, 263. 

Mimosa catechu, Linn. 
„ catechoides, Wall. 
Khadiramu, . Sans., Tel. 
Kiliiri, Rot kihiri, . Sing. 
Wodalay, . . . Tam. 
Podala manu, . . Tel. 

A. polyacantha, Willde. 
A. Wallichiana, D. C. 
Khaira gach, . . Beng. 
Sha-bin, .... Burm. 
Khair; Kat'h-khair,HiND. 
Kat'ha kikar, . . DuK. 
Kwarech, . . . Panj. 
This tree is common 


all over the plains and 



lills of British India; ia in groat quantities in 

[ho forest* of tlio Trome and Tharawaddy diB- 

tricts; and imniense nuinbera aro annually cut 

lown and made uso of for the extraction of 

:atechu. Tlioro are several varieties, differing 

in shiide, specific weight, and yield of catechu. 

In a full-grown tree on good soil the average 

li of the trunk to the first branch is 20 

and average girth, measured at 6 feet 

the ground, is G feet. It attains its full 

t in fifty years. The wood possesses great 

Ljth, and is considered more durable than 

It resists the attacks of insects, and is 

.iiiployed for posts and uprights of houses, for 

Apear and sword handles, bows, etc. The timber 

is dark-coloured, hard, and heavy ; unseasoned, it 

weighs 85 to 90 lbs. the cubic foot, and nearly 

:!0 lbs. when seasoned, and has a specific gravity 

)f r2;52; it is close-grained and durable, works 

imoothly, and stands a good polish, and though 

nomewhat brittle, is much valued where strength 

is required ; it is used for ploughs, pestles, etc., 

11 machines, sugar mills, and in house build- 

aiid the construction of carts. It flowers in 

July, and the seeds ripen in the cold weather. In 

Ceylon, an infusion of the wood is much esteemed 

by the natives as a purifier of the blood, and 

drinking cups are made of it. Catechu, or terra 

japonica, is extracted from the wood. Chips of 

the heartwood are boiled in earthen pots, the 

lear liquor is strained off, and when of sufficient 

cjonsistence it is poured into clay moulds ; the 

ixtract is used in dyeing, and also medicinally as 

m astringent, and also externally as an ointment 

for itch, syphilis, and bums. Very good catechu 

IS obtained from Burma, a considerable quantity 

IS made in South Canara, and it is largely ex- 

ijorted from Bengal. One pound of catechu has 

ijeen found to be equal to seven or eight pounds 

)f oak bark for tanning purposes. — Drs. lioxh. ii. 

)G2, Voigt, 259, 2C0, M'Clelland, Gibson, Bratidis; 

flooker, Him. Journ. i. p. 52 ; Stewart's Panjah 

Plants; Cteghorn's Panjab Report; Beddome's Flora 



Dichroatachys cinerea, W. and A. 

Vellatooroo, . 
Nela Jami, . 


WTerdil, .... Hind. 
Vedatil, .... Tam. 
Jbinna Jami, . . Tel. 

This tree is said to grow in the Circars. 

ACACIA DEALBATA. Link.— A handsome 
.ree, from 15 to 30 feet high, abundant in Port 
?hilip and Twofold Bay, forming luxuriant groves 
>li the banks of streams, between lat. 34° and 30". 
its bark contains a greater percentage of tannin 
;han any other, and pays to ship to England. It 
iras introduced from Australia, and grows on the 
STeilgherries. — Simmonds, Cat. Paris Ex. 1879. 


Mimosa data, Roxh. 

and 8 in girth. It grows readily from cut- 
tings. \Yhen seasoned, it float* in water. It« 
timber is straight, lengthy, and of large girth, 
red - coloured, hard, and strong, and very 
durable. It is much valued and useful for house- 
building. It is use<I for posts for buildings. It 
is adapted for cabinet-making, and of sufiicient 
girth to be advantageously employed in Govern- 
ment buildings, and for packing-cases. — Voigt^ 
p. 2(il ; J. L. Stewart; Itoxb. ii. 516; Captain 
Beddovie; Drs. Gibson and M'Clelland ; Captain 
Dance; linyle, Ilim. Bat. p. 181; Mr. ThompHon, 
Report on Kamaon ; Clc<jhoi~n, Punjab Report, 
Ktdla and Kanqra, p. 82. 

Acacia Indica, Degv. | Mimosa Famcsiana, Roxh. 

Vachellia Famesiana, W. \ „ Indica, Foir. 

■Mt, Tbaeet seet, 


Dun-siris, . . 

. Hind, 

iThaeet-tha, . . 


Safed-airis, . . 

. Panj. 

IJhukuI mara, . . 


Telia Bopara, . 


This large, tall, stately, and excellent timber 
rce is pretty common in Canara and Sunda, 
)oth above and below the ghats ; it occurs 
n the Godavery forests, Panjab ; in Dehra 
)oon, Assam ; is plentiful in the Pegu, Toung- 
loo, and Prome districts, and vcrv abundant 
11 along the sea - shore from Amherst to 
lergui. Its maximum length is 40 feet. 

Guya babula, . 
JaUi, . . . . 
Iri babul, . . . 
Vel velam, . . 
Walayati kikar, 
Hanja, . . . . 






Baver, .... Si»n. 
Vaday vulli raaram, Tam. 
Kasturi petuma chettu, 

Kampa tumma, , . „ 
Nugu tumma, . . . „ 

A native of every part of India, the Panjab, 
Sind, Silhet, Assam, Bengal, both peninsulas; and 
grows up to 5000 feet. It is also a tree of Africa 
and Australia. In waste places m the Western 
Dekhan, where it occurs also in garden hedges, 
it is only a scrubby shrub, and Dr. Gibson says its 
wood is only applicable for tent pegs and firewood ; 
but Voigt mentions that the wood is hard and 
tough, and used for ship knees ; and Beddome also 
says for ship knees. A delicious perfume is dis- 
tilled from the sweet-scented yellow flowers, and 
the tree exudes a considerable quantity of useful 
gum. — Dr. Gibson; Major Drury ; Roxb.W. bbl \ 
Timber Trees ; Voiqt ; Beddome ; Dr. Stewart. 

Mimosa ferruginea, Roxh. 
Seet net, . . . Burm. I "Woni, Anasundra, Tel, 
Simai vel velam, . Tam. | 

This tree much resembles A. catechu and A. 
sundra, and differs chiefly in the smaller number 
of pinna; ; it is common in the jungles, grows 
in the Madras Presidency, on the Coromandel 
coast and- Northern Circars. and is found 
at Courtallum, in the Bombay Presidency. 
It attains a height of from 20 to 25 feet. It 
flowers in April and May, the bark is very astrin- 
gent, and is used by the natives in the distillation 
of arrack from jaggery in the same way as the 
bark of A. leucophlsea. The wood is of a 
reddish brown, streaked with a darker hue, heavy 
and durable, and does not warp or crack, the 
grain rather coarse and even, works well, and gives 
a smooth surface ; it is used in building and in 
the construction of carts, ploughs, etc. ; it weighs 
60 lbs. per cubic foot when seasoned, and 65 to 
70 lbs. unseasoned, and has a specific gravity of 
•960. — Voigt, 260; Drury; Roxb. ii. 561; Ainslie; 
Beddome, Fl. Sylv. part v. p. 51. 


Babul, . . Hind., Panj, 
Baburi, . . „ ,, 

Ilanza, SUTLEJ. 

Kakohi, .... PanJ. 

Kikkari, . 


A small shrub of the Panjab and Trans-Indus, 
with immense white spines ; it grows in clumps, 
and from 6 or 7 up to 10 feet high. It is common 
on sandy knolls and ridges in many parts of the 
arid tract from Dehli, westward by Harriana, 
Sirsa, Montgomerie, etc, to Trans- Indus, to about 




2000 feet. The bark of the root is used in the 
distillation of native soirits. — J. L. Stewart, M.D. 

ACACIA LATRONUM. D. C. Buffalo-thorn. 
Mimosa latronum, Koen. \ M. coringera, Linn. 

Common in the barren tracts of the Dekhan, 
and found on the Madras side of India. — Voigt. 


Acacia alba, Willde. 






Mimosa alba, Roxb. 
Gargusa, . Salt Range. 
Katu andara, . Singh. 
Vel velam, Vellai tumma, 
Telia tumma, . . Tel. 


Safed Kikar, . 
Karin, . . . 
He war, . . . 
Rfiuni, Raunj, 
Nimbar, Jand, 

Its specific name, and its Hindi, Tamil, and Te- 
lugu synonyms, are given from the whitish or pale 
yellow colour of its bark, which, in S. India, is one 
of the ingredients used in distilling arrack from 
jagari. It extends from about Lahore along the 
arid tract to Dehli, and to Ceylon. In Coimbatore 
the tree attains a medium size, with a round head, 
bub in the Dekhan it is never of a size fit for any- 
thing beyond posts to small houses. The wood 
it furnishes, however, is strong, good, and dark- 
coloured, though generally small. It is easily 
distinguished by its panicled globular inflor- 
escence and stipulary thorns. A tough and strong 
fibre, in use for large fishing nets and coarse kinds 
of cordage, is prepared from the bark by macera- 
tion. Major Beddome says the timber is hard and 
strong, much like Babul, but closer grained and of 
a deeper colour ; it is used for the same purposes. 
A cubic foot unseasoned weighs 62 lbs., and 55 
lbs. when seasoned; its specific gravity is •880. 
It makes excellent fuel for locomotive purposes. 
Mr. Jacob says its wood decays more rapidly, and 
is more speedily attacked by the Goon insect, than 
any timber of which he had knowledge. He says 
it occasionally reaches tolerable dimensions; but 
even were it possible to preserve it, it would not 
be worth doing so, from its brittleness and the 
coarseness of its grain. — Drs. Cleghorn and Wight 
in M. E. J. R. ; Dr. Gibson in Bomb. Geo. Soc. 
Journal; Voigt; Roxb. ; Beddome, Fl. Sylv. p. 48 ; 
Dr. J. L. Stewart. 

Mimosa microphylla, Roxb. 

Tetulia of Silhet. A tree growing in Silhet to 
about twelve feet in height, and the people use 
its bark in distilling an intoxicating liquor. — 
Roxb. ii. 649. 

Phala, Phullah, . Hind. | Palosa, Pulasa, . Pusht. 

A tree of slow growth, a native of the Panjab, 
Cis and Trans Indus, and in the Doabs. The wood 
of an old tree is very dark brown, or nearly black, 
hard, strong, and heavy. Green it weighs 69^ 
lbs., and dry 63^ a cubic foot. It is very durable, 
and is a favourite for cart-wheels, sugar-mills, 
plough stocks and shares (? Bellew), Persian 
wheels, the mallets for cleaning cotton, etc. The 
tree yields sparingly a gum (Bhimbri gond) 
similar to gum arable, which Bellew states the 
people of the Peshawar valley consider to be 
restorative. — J. L. Stewart, M.D. 


Mimosa arborea, Lo^vreiro. 
Ho-hwan, . . . Chin. | Ye-hoh, .... Chin. 

This plant grows in China and Cochin-China, 
and is used for ornamental purposes. At Ning- 
po, bark used for tanning sails. — Smith, Mat. 

ACACIA RAMKANTA. Gi6.son.— Under this 
name Drs. Gibson and Riddell describe an orna- 
mental species of Acacia, or a variety of A. 
Arabica, common in the Dekhan, though less 
abundant than A. Arabica, from which it is 
distinguishable by its straight, tall, erect stem 
and general cypress-like appearan«e, or resem- 
bling a gigantic broom, and by the colour of its 
legumes. Its wood is quite equal to that of the 
A. Arabica, being hard, and used for cart-wheels, 
ploughs, etc.; but the natives attach some super- 
stitious notions to the use of the tree. — Drs. 
Gibson and Riddell. 

ACACIA ROBUSTA, introduced from the Cape, 
is growing freely on the Neilgherry Hills. At the 
Madras Exhibition of 1857, Mr. M'lvor exliibited 
specimens of bast from this tree, strong, very 
tough and durable, also pliable when wetted, 
and constantly made use of for all the purposes 
to which Russian bast is put in gardens in Europe. 
This bast can be procured cheaply and in large 
quantities, as the trees when cut down throw up 
numerous young shoots, to the height of from six 
to twelve feet, in one year. The bark of the tree 
is also a powerful tanning material. — Mr. M'^Ivor, 
Madras Exhibition of 1857. 

ACACIA RUGATA. Buch. Soap Acacia. 

Acacia concinna, D. C. 

Mimosa rugata, Lam. 

Mimosa concinna, Roxb., 

„ saponaria, Roxb. 


„ abstergens, Spr. 

Kochai, .... Beng. 

Chinik, . . . Maleal. 

Ken-bwon, . . . BuRM. 

Go-go, .... Tag. 

Fei tsau-kiah, . . Chin. 

Shikai, .... Tam. 

Chi-kaya, . . . Mahr. 

Sikaya, .... Tel. 

This plant has a long flat pod or legume, con- 
taining separate, small, oval, dark-coloured seeds. 
It grows in the Peninsula of India, Bengal, Nepal, 
Silhet, Assam, Moulmein on the Ataran, and in the 
Archipelago. The legumes are used for washing 
the hair, and by Hindus for marking the forehead. 
The leaves are acid, and used in cookery instead of 
tamarind, and with turmeric they give a beautiful 
green. The pods or legumes are three or four 
inches long, and about oue and a half inch broad, 
greasy, yellowish, or reddish brown. They abound 
in an acrid, detergent, fatty principle. In Chma 
they are roasted, pounded, and kneaded into small 
balls, and used to wash the person or clothes. 
Three or 'four of the black seeds are in one pod. 
They are roasted and eaten, and are used by arti- 
ficial flower makers to wax their thread. Pods 
and bark are exported from Canara, the former 
as a washing material, the latter for dyeing and 
tanning fishing-nets. — Smith, Chin. Mat. Med.; 
Elliot, F. A.; Drury, U. P.; Voigt; Roxb.bQb; 
Drs. Gibson, Mason. 


Acacia sirissa, . . Buch. 

Mimosa flexuosa, . Rottl. 
,, sirissa, , Roxb, 
„ speciosa, . Jacq. 

Sirin, Sburungru, Beas. 

Sirisha, , . Beng. , Uria. 

Sect, Tseek-tha, . BuRM. 

Lasrin, lasrian, Chenab. 

Siriss, .... Hind. 

Willde; W. and A. 
Albizzia lebbek, . Benth. 
„ mollis, var. 
Julibrissia, . , „ 

Buna, .... Hind. 
Sarin,. . . JuBBULPUR. 
Kali-sirin, . . . Ravi. 
Katu vage, Vel vangai, Tam. 
Dirasana, Sinduva, Tel. 

This large tree grows wild in the Himalayas up 
to 5000 feet, and it is cultivated in the plains of the 
Panjab. It occurs throughout the N. W. Provinces ; 
it is plentiful in Pegu, particularly in the Toung- 
hoo district, and is found on the Irawadi. In 
Ganjam and Gumsur it is very plentiful, attains 




an I xtreme height of SO feet, and circumference 
. t, the heij;ht from the ground to the intt'r- 
.11 of the first branch being 22 feet; and it 
18 uHe«l for sugar crushers, pestles, mortars, and 
plonglislinrcs. It is common in the forests of the 
'v.'iy Prt'sideucy, grows in Travancore, on the 
luandel coast, and is a connnon tree in Coim- 
biitoro, where it is frequently seen growing by 
the road-sides on account of the shade that its 
largo head affords. The timber is large, and 
in old trees dark- colon ret^, very hard, and close 
enough grained for furniture ; and large masses of 
very pure gum are often found on it. It is 
common in the hills and gardens of Murree and 
Hazara. The heart-wood makes good charcoal; 
the leaves and twigs are gathered as fodder for 
camels and other animals. The bark is stated to 
be applied to hurts of the eye (Madden) ; and the 
seed is officinal, forming part of an aujan for 
ophthalmic disease. The specific name of Juli- 
brissia, used by Bentham for the variety A. mollis, 
is a corruption of Gul-abresham. — Capt. Mac- 
donald; Drs. Mason, Stewart, M''Clellan(l, 
Cleqhorn, Wiriltt, Gibson ; Voigt ; Roxh. ii. 544 ; 
Cal Cat. 186'2. 

Ac. Kangraensis, Jameson. 

Ban-drcnkh, . Chenab. 
Valaiti Siris, . . Hind. 
Lasren, . . . Jhelum. 
Ola, Kavi. 

has flowers of a pink 

Mimosa atipiilata, Roxh. 
,, stipulacca, Roxb. 
Oi, Ohi, Durgari, Bear. 
Amulki, .... Beng. 

Soet, BuRM. 

Surangra, Kaair, Chenab. 

This unarmed acacia 
colour. It is one of the largest trees of the genus, 
and is found in Dehra Doon, in the mountains 
north of Bengal, in Travancore, Courtallum, in 
most parts of the Peninsula, in Assam, in the 
forests from Rangoon to Tounghoo, and on the 
banks of the Ataran river. Dr. Stewart says 
that on the various rivers of the N.W. Himalaya, 
it grows at from 3000 occasionally to 6000 feet. 
It is handsome in appearance, resembling some- 
what Poinciana regia, and is seen in great abun- 
dance and luxuriance in portions of the Kangra 
valley, where its girth reaches 7, and occasionally 
!) feet. In Kumaon, logs are obtained 20 to 30 
feet long, and 4 to 6 feet in girth. Its wood is 
;!oarse-grained and tough, but not easily worked. 
—Stewart's Faiijah Plants; Mr. Tliompson^s Itejwrt. 

ioacia ohundra, WUlde. \ Mimosa simdra, Roxb. 
[All kheir, HiND., Mahb. I Nalla chandra, . Tel. 
Ilurangally, . . Tam. | Sundra, .... ,, 

This tree grows throughout the Peninsula and 
he Sunderbuns, but varies in size in different 
localities. It is common in the jungles of Bombay, 
;here always scrubby, small, and crooked ; and 
though rather plentiful in the forests under the 
;hats, Dr. Gibson had not seen it of a size capable 
)f affording planks. Mr. Rohde mentions that he 
lad obtained, at Guntoor, planks 1 foot broad ; 
;lmt posts 5 feet long were procurable at twelve 
>apees per hundred, well suited for fencing and 
'or rice pestles. The natives regard it as the most 
lurable wood for posts in house-building, though, 
rem its non-elastic nature, it is unfavourable to 
he holding of nails driven into it. The wood is 
»f a dark colour, close-grained, very hard, heavy, 
md very strong, a one-inch bar sustaining a 
veight of 500 lbs. Sp. gr. 1'296. It is also used 
or plouglis, mortars, and pestles, and for railway 

sleepers. A resin similar to that which exode* 
from the A. catechu is procured from this tree. 
The two trees are nearly alike, the uncertainty of 
the prickles absetit or ])ruficnt being a distin* 
guishing characteristic of this one. — Mr. Jlohile ; 
Dr. Wight; Voigt ; Cleghom'n lUport; Uieful 
Plants; Reddome, Fl. Sylv. p. 50. 

Mimosa tomentosa, Roxb. | Mimoaa kleinii, . Pair, 
Salsein babula, . Beno. I Jungle nail tree, . Eva. 
Elephant thorn, . £nu. | Aui muUu, . . . TaM. 

Grows on the Madras side of India, conimou 
near Sholapore, in the Kaiidesh jungles and iha 
Bombay Dekhan, and is found in Bengal. — Voigt. 

ACACIA VERA. Bauh. Gum arable tree. 
Acacia nilotica. | Mimosa nilotica, Linn. 

The Acacia vera is a tree of the African desert, 
and, according to Wellsted, of Arabia, its leaves 
yield the camel the sole forage it can meet in 
those arid regions. Two products are obtained 
from it, one natural, the other artificial, namely, 
gum arable and the dried acacia juice (Akakia of 
Dioscorides), a solid, dark -coloured, shining sub- 
stance, soluble in water, which it colours red. 
It is obtained by pounding the unripe fruit, and 
the juice is thickened before the sun, and then 
placed in bladders, in whidi it gradually dries, 
weighing about 5 or 6 ounces each. It is sold in 
the bazaars of Bengal in thin, very black cakes 
about the size of a rupee. It was much lauded 
by Hippocrates and Dioscorides. Wellsted found 
the Sumr trees of great size, and the gum exuding 
in considerable quantities ; but very little of it 
was collected by the Bedouins, who complained 
that the price it brings in Maskat did not repay 
them for their trouble. — Weliited, i. pp. 73 and 
106; Baker's Albert Nyanza; O' Sliaughneasy ; 

ACALEPH^, or sea nettles, include a great 
number of radiate animals of which the Medusae 
are the type. They are common in all the seas. 

Acalyi)ha spiciflorus, Lamb. \ A. fruticosa, Forsk. 
Chunni maram, . Tam. | Chinni, Tsinni, . Tel. 

Wood to be obtained about 18 inches in 
diameter, hard and heavy, not of much value to 
carpenters. Leaves attenuant and alterative, and 
an agreeable stomachic in dyspepsia and other 
ailments. — Wight ; Hog. 

Mukto-joori, . . Beno. 

Harita manjari, 
Kuppanti chcttu, 
Puppanti, Mirutkunda, 
Murupindi, . . 


Shwet busunda, . ,, 
Morkantee, . . . ,, 
Kooppie, . D0K.,HiND. 
Kupameni, Maleal., Tam. 

A small annual, common everywhere in the 
Peninsula and Bengal, and easily distinguished by 
the singular cup-shaped involucre which surrounds 
the flowers. In decoction it is cathartic; the 
leaves, with garlic, are anthelmintic. Mixed with 
common salt, the leaves are applied externally in 
psora, and the juice rubbed up with oil exter- 
nally in rheumatism. Wight also figures A. mappa. 
— Hog ; Useful Plants ; Honigb. ; O'Sh. ; Voigt. 

ACANTHACE^. R. Br. The Justicia tribe ; 
its type is the genus Acanthus. The species are 
herbaceous or shrubby. Many are mere weeds; 
others bear handsome flowers with gaudy colours, 
but seldom with any odour. A very small number 
have been occasionally employed medicinally as 
emollients or diuretics. In Ceylon, ' nelloo ' is 




applied to the species of this natural family gene- 
rally. The Burmans say the roots of the blue 
flowering A. ilicifolius, i., are a cure for snake- 
bites.— r^tf?. PI. Zeyl. p. 223 ; Mason. 

ACANTHOPTEEYGII, fishes having bony 
skeletons with prickly spinous processes in the 
dorsal fins. See Fishes. 

ACAEUS FAEIN^, the meal mite ; it is never 
present .in flour unless when damaged, and in a 
state unfit for consumption. The. domestic mite, 
A. doraesticus, which does so much injury to 
stuffed insects and birds, can be somewhat guarded 
against with camphor and a solution of corrosive 
sublimate. The sugar mite, A. saccharinum, so 
common in cane sugar, is unknown in the palm 
sugars of India. A. Telarius, the scarlet mite, or 
red spider, envelopes the leaves of a plant in 
a delicate, closely-woven web, which so checks 
the respiration that the plant becomes dry and 
withered. See Insects. 

ACASANAVI. Sansk. In Hinduism, an 
ethereal voice heard from the sky ; an emanation 
of Brahm. When the sound proceeds from a 
meteor or a flame, it is called Agnipuri, or 
formed of fire. An Avatara is a descent of the 
deity in the shape of a mortal ; and an Avantara, 
a word rarely used, is a similar incarnation of an 
inferior kind, intended to answer some purpose of 
less moment. Acasanavi, therefore, is a manifesta- 
tion of a deity, in which he is heard but not seen. 
Akasa is a name for the sky or firmament. See 

ACATSJA VALLI. Tam. Cassyta filiformis. 

ACAWEEYA. Sing. Ophioxylon serpentinum. 

ACCIPITEIN^, a sub-family of the family 
Falconidse, comprising the sparrow-hawks, gos- 
hawks. The more prominent in S.E. Asia are — 

Astur palumbarius, L., goshawk. 
,, trivirgatus. Tern., crested do. 

Micron esius badius, Gm., the shikra. 

Accipiter nisus, L., sparrow-hawk. 
,, virgatus. Tern., the Besha do. 
A. nisus, the sparrow-hawk of Europe, Asia, 
and N. Africa, is common in the hilly parts of 
India; rare in the plains, where abundantly re- 
placed by Micronesius badius. Migrates partially 
in northern regions. There is a nearly affined 
race in the Malay countries, A. nisoides, distin- 
guished by having a white throat with three 
distinct dark stripes, and no rufous on the under 
parts of the adult male. In other respects quite 
feimilar 'to A. nisus, and by no means to be 
confounded with A. virgatus, which likewise has 
the throat . stripes. Accipiter trinotatus has ele- 
gant rows of large round white spots on the tail. 


Patwari, . 

. . . Hind. 
. . . Mab. 




'. Tam. 

In the village system of India, this is one of the 

ACEE, a genus of the Aceracese, or sycamore 
tribe of plants, comprising the genera Acer, 
Dobinsea, and Negundo. Dr. Eoyle mentiony that 
immediately we commence ascending the n ia- 
laya, either in Nepal, or Sirmoor, we meet\ ith 
species of the Acer. A. oblongum descends ta^he 
lowest level, being found in Nepal and further 
north in the Dehra Doon, between 2000 and 3000 
feet of elevation. A. cultratum is found at 6500 
feet on the Mussooree range, and at similar heights 

in Sirmoor and Garhwal ; while A. caudatum 
(Wall. PI. As. Ear. t. 132) and A. acuminatum? 
(Don) sterculiaceum and villosum, are only seen 
with pines and birches on the loftiest mountains, 
which are for many months covered with snow. 
A. sterculiaceum (Wall. PI. As. Ear. t. 105) is 
closely allied to A. villosum, which differs but 
little from a pseudo-platanus, or sycamore ; and 
as this affords timber which, from being light and 
tough, is much used by turners, and for making 
saddle-trees, so it is probable that both the 
Himalayan species would answer equally well 
for the same purposes. The wood of A. cultratum 
is white, light, and fine-grained, and might be 
turned to the same uses as that of the maple, 
which is esteemed by turners, and also occasionally 
for making gun-stocks. A. caudatum is also 
found in Kunawar, and A. sterculiaceum extends 
to Kashmir. A. Dobinsea, discovered in Nepal 
by Dr. Hamilton, is only a shrub of six feet in 
height. A. fraxinifolium is a native of North 
America, from which sugar is said to be made. 
Many species grow in Japan and the Himalayas. 

csesium, Wall., Deoban, N.W. P., and Hazara. 

Campbellii, Hook. f. et T., Darjiiing hills. 

villosum, Wall., Simla. 

pictum, Thunb., Hazara. 

palmatum, Thunb., a beautiful maple. 

niveum, Blume, India and the Archipelago, rising to 
150 feet in height. 

— Von Mueller; Hodgson^ Nagasaki; Boyle's III. 
Him. Bot. 

ACEE CAUDATUM, the Mandal maple tree 
of Kulu, Kangra, Deoban, and Simla. Wood not 
esteemed. — Dr. Cleghorn. 


Kukandra, . . Jhelom, 
Serau, Til-pattar, Kang. 
Ti-an, .... Sotlej. 

Kitla, Kakrai, . Chenab. 
Kangla, Mandar, ,, 
Til khan ; trikhana, 

Trikadna, , . Jhelum. 

A small tree, not uncommon at places near most 
of the great rivers of the Panjab, from the Eavi 
westward from 3500 up to (3000 feet. Of no 
special use. — Dr. Stewart. 

Kaura, .... Beas. 

Hanzal, Kanzal, Chenab. 
Kahra, Kangru, . ,, 
Trekam, Trekhan, Jhel. 
Tilpattar, Kilpattar, ,, 
Killh, ... „ 

Ti-an, . . . Kanawab. 
A. cultratum and A. 

Kanur, . . 
Manor, Mandar, 
Chirindi, Jarimu, ,, 

Lanr, Kanjar, Sdtlej. 
Kaliiidra, . . ,, 

sterculiaceum much re- 




semble each other, often grow together, and are 
frequently, confused. They are found on all the 
rivers up to near the Indus, at from 4000 to 10,000 
feet. They are handsome trees, and attain a con^* 
siderable size. A. sterculiaceum attains to 12 feet 
girth, but the timber is not particularly valued. 
In Kangra it is used for ploughs, bedsteads, and 
jampdn poles. From Bissahir, etc., there is a 
considerable export to Tibet of drinking cups 
made of the knots of these maple-wood trees. 
They are much used there, and often set in silver. 
Gerard states that they are made of juniper, and 
Moorcroft says horse-chestnut (see Pavia) ; but 
J. D. Cuningham mentions the knots or ex- 
crescences of these two maples as giving the best 
kinds. A. cultratum is prized for shade. The 
juice of the leaves is, in Kanawar, said to be so 
acrid as to hurt the hands, but the leaves and 
twigs are in places much lopped for fodder. — 
Dr. J. L. Stewart. 




ACER LiEVKJATUM, Wall., the Kara<llii, or 
Ciirandlu of Kotgurh, i« found iu the Sutlei valley, 
letwecn Hampur and Suiiynam, at an elevation 
f 9000 feet, also higher up in the Nopal nioun- 
aiiis, and at Darjiling. The knots are hollowed 
ut, and used as drinking cujis. — Voigt ; CUg. 
'aiij. Hep. p. 64. 

ACER OBLONGUM, an evergreen tree, of 
apid growth, native of Nepal and Kumaon, on 
be southern hill ranges, such as the Gagar, and 
» very abundant at Naini Tal. — Voiyt, p. 92. 


an-shin, . 

. . Bhot. 

Til pattor, . 

. Kashhib. 

iln pattur, 

. . Hind. 

Til patra, . 

' JJ 

a'-ur, . . 

. Kanawab. 

Kamiab, . 


A large tree of Nepal and the NAV. Himalaya, 
ith a trunk often three feet in diameter. The 
indi names allude to its incised three-pointed 
•avcs. From the knotty parts of this tree are 
lade the coarser sorts of wooden cups used in 
un-dos and the Cis-Alpine Himalaya, inhabited 
Y Bhotia, and termed Lahauri Doha, and a 
stter kind, termed Talna Doba, is made from 
leAceroblongura. A. Hookeri, isolobum, penta- 
)micum, Sikkimense, and stachyophylum, are 
her species. — Dr. J. L. Stewart. 
ACESINES or Akesines, the Greek name of the 
lienab, a river of the Pan jab ; supposed to have 
m1 its origin in Abu Sin, a name of the Indus, 
e Sanskrit name being Chandra-Bhaga. 
ACETIC ACID. Acetous acid. Vinegar. 

Acidum Aceticum, Lat. 
Chuka, .... Malay. 
Kadi, .... Tam. 
Pul'su Tel. 

ball Arab. 

un-yn, . . . BuRM. 

ing-tsu, . . . Chin. 

ka, also Khali, HiND. 

«to, .... It. 

The ordinary vinegar of the Indian bazaars 
prepared from the Dolichos uuiflorus. Dr. 
Sbaugbuessy discovered that much pyroligne- 
g acid passes over along with other gases, in 
eparing the charcoal for the Eshapore powder 
(rks, and he recommended for India the practice 
lowed in Germany, where a strong acetic acid 
obtained by causing a mixture of one part of 
fit, four of water, and about one-thousandth 
rt of honey or yeast, to filter into a cask 
itaining wood shavings, and provided with holes 
secure a free circulation of air. A very large 
•face being thus exposed, the alcohol is rapidly 
I verted into acetic acid. In India, teak shav- 
;8 well boiled in water and subsequently steeped 
good vinegar, should be employed. — Beng. 
or. p. 233. 

.OH. Hind. Morinda citrifolia, M. tinctoria. 
.CH^MENIDiE. During the time of this 
lasty, the language in use was the Bactro- 
"o-Persian. We know from their inscriptions 
eral of the old Bactrian formations, which be- 
ne historical and geographical designations at a 
r period. — Bunseii's Eqypt^ pp. 462-467. 
VCHALABHRATA, one of the Ganadhara, 
asters of the Jain schools. 
CHA MARAM, also Atti maram. Tam. Any 
ny tree ; Diospyros ebenaster ; Hardwickia 
lata, Bauhinia racemosa. 
V.CHANDRARGAM. Tam. A perpetual ten- 
of village land, as long as the moon and sun 

iCHAR, a native race in Nepalj from whom 
t Mewar select their priests. 
iCHAR. Malay. Antiaris, sp. 

ACHARA. Sansk. The olwcrvances of the 
Hindu religion ; the personal and w)cial customs 
of the Hindus ; also a name applied to Siva or 
Vishnu, and also Brahma as the Supreme Being. 
It means free from further transmigration. 

ACHARNI. Hind. Abler. 

ACHARYA or Achari. A reli- 
gious teacher, a brahman who instructs in tliu 
Vedas the religious students of the Brahman, 
Kshatriya, and Vaisya castes. In modern use, it 
is applied to any religious instructor, or to any 
brahman and religious mendicant professing to 
be qualified to give religious instruction. In the 
south of India, it denotes the head of a religious 
society, the Mahant of Hindustan, or the Panda 
or head priest of a temple. Among the Mahrattas 
it was given to brahmans employed by respect- 
able families as cooks. It is assumed by the 
Madhava Brahmans, and by the five castes of 
artisans — blacksmith, goldsmith, coppersmith, 
stone-cutter and carpenter — in the Tamil and 
Telugu provinces. At present, the brahman 
who reads a portion of the Vedas at the time of 
investiture with the poita, is called by this title, 
as well OS the person who reads the formularies 
at a sacrifice. — Ward's Hindoos; Wilson. See 
Gayatri ; Hindu ; India. 

ACHAVERAM or Atchaveram, a village with 
a celebrated pagoda five miles S.W. of Devi- 
cottah. It was taken in September 1749 by the 
Tanjore army, from the British under Captain Cope. 

ACH-CHATA. See Akshata. 

ACHCHHAN. Maleal. A father ; a respect- 
ful appellation of the men of the Nair royal family 
who have no office or official rank in the State. 

ACHCHU. Karn. Achcha, Maleal., Tam. 
A mould ; a printing press. 

ACHCHU-KAVALI. Tel. Fees in kind to 
poligars for protecting lauds. 

ACHE. Count d'Ache, a French admiral sent 
from France to support Lally as a naval colleague, 
but he was undecided and unfortunate, was de- 
feated off Tranqucbar, and again by Pocock, and 
he ultimately sailed for France, where he became 
an accuser of Lally. — Malleson. 

ACHEEN, Athi of the Malays, is the capital of 
a kingdom of the same name, situated at the 
north-west extreme of Sumatra, near the en- 
trance of the Straits of Malacca. Every vessel 
entering the straits was formerly obliged to call 
at Acheen to obtain a pass, but Europeans set 
at defiance the assumed authority of its kings. 
These still, however (1879), continue independent 
of the Dutch. Pop. 328,000. Tliis monarchy 
arose from the usurpation of sultan Salah-ud- 
Din in a.d. 1521, previous to which time Acheen 
had been a province of Pedir, and governed by 
a viceroy from that kingdom. The Achinese 
differ much- in their persons from the other 
Sumatrans, being in general rather shorter, and 
of a darker complexion. They are supposed 
to be a mixture of Battas and Malays with 
Chuliahs, as they term the natives of the west 
of India. They are an active and industrious 
people, and show much mechanical ingeimity. 
Their Padri, reUgious men, chiefly Malays of the 
Menangkabao states of the interior, for many 
years opposed the encroachments of tlie Dutch iu 
the interior of Sumatra. The Achinese adopted 
Mahomcdanisra, a.d. 1206 ; the Malacca Malays, 
A.D. 1276; the Javanese, a.d. 1478. They are 




strict Mahometlans, and great numbers resort in i 
the Arab vessels to Mecca, with the view of 
becoming Hajis or pilgrims. The Spanish Pillar 
dollar is the standard coin. The natural produc- 
tions of Acheen and its neighbourhood include 
gold dust, Baroos camphor, which is highly prized 
in China; sapan wood, beeswax, dammer, and 
rattans. Cattle are abundant, and also small 
horses of an excellent breed (the best, indeed, in 
the Archipelago, with the exception of those of 
Bimah in Sumbawa), which are exported in con- 
siderable numbers to the settlements in the Straits 
of Malacca. The better kind have line crests and 
good strong shoulders, in which latter particular, 
as well as in height of wither, they differ very 
much from the horses of Java and the islands to 
the eastward, which are generally deficient in 
these points. The Achin and Malay languages are 
written in the Arabic character. See Archipelago. 

ACHENIYA PATA. Beng. Psederia ternata. 

ACHERONTIA SATANAS, the death's-head 
moth of Ceylon, a richly-coloured nocturnal moth, 
which utters a sharp, stridulous cry when seized. 
— Tennent. 

ACHETA, the cricket genus of insects. A. 
campestris and A. domestica, the Jhengur of 
Hindustan, attack the poppy plants from Novem- 
ber to January, until the stem begins to shoot. 
A large species attacks the Casuarina trees. It 
lodges at the foot of the tree, and at nightfall 
ascends the tree, and cuts off the young top shoots. 
The crickets are very destructive to garden and 
field crops. See Insects. 

ACH'HAR. Hind. Fruit of Buchanania lati- 
folia ; also pickles. 

ACH'HAR TILAK. Sansk. The ceremony of 
putting a few grains of rice on the forehead of an 
image when addressed, or on that of a brahman 
when invited to an entertainment. 

ACH'HIK, a tribe in Bengal. 

Bui Madaran, Momadra, and Capendiga, of the 

ACHI MARAM. Tam. Calosanthes Indica. 

ACHIMENES, very ornamental plants of 
various colours, flowering in the rains, of easy 
culture. The scaly tuberous roots, by which they 
are propagated, must be carefully preserved during 
the dry weather, by occasionally moistening the 
earth in which they are kept ; and after the 
commencement of the rains, the imbricated buds, 
which they produce under ground, may be divided 
and planted out. — Riddell. 

ACHOBA. PuSHT. Land irrigated by the 
natural rain. 

ACHOODA. Sansk. Solanum trilobatum. 

ACHOTIA DUMKI, of Nepal. Hystrix longi- 
cauda. — Marsden. 

Sapota elengioides, D. C. 
Holay, . . . Neilgh. | Pala, .... Tam. 

A large tree, very common on all the higher 
ranges on the west of the Madras Presidency, and 
is to be found in Ceylon. The fruit is like a 
small crab apple, and is made into pickles, and 
used in curries. The wood is of a dull red colour, 
short but straight in the grain, and very dense. 
It makes good beams for houses, but splits too 
much to be used for planks. If well seasoned it 
turns well, and it makes excellent carpenters' 
planes. — Beddome, Fl Sylv. p. 235. 

ACHRAS SAPOTA. Willde. Sapodilla. 
Koweet ? . of Bombay. Katami, .... Singh, 
Thwoot-ta-bat, . BURM. Simi Elupei maram, Tam 
Bully tree, Sapota, Eng. Sima Ippa chettu, Tkl 

A native of China, cultivated in the E. anc 
W. Indies and S. America ; in India grown as i 
fruit tree ; wood hard and close-grained. Th< 
seeds are aperient and diuretic ; in overdosei 
they are dangerous. The bark is said to be ? 
good substitute for cinchona. The Tamil name o 
this tree is liable to be confounded with Mimusopi 
and Bassia. — Jajfrey ; Riddell; Roxh.; Voigt. 

ACHULIYAJA. Beng. Itea macrophylla. 


A. spicatus, Burm. 

Kadelari? . . 
Nai uruvi, . . 
Utareni, . . 
Antisa, . . . 
Pratyuk pushpi, 


. Singh 

. Tam 


A. Indica, Both., Rheede. 
„ obtusifolia, Lamb. 
Upanga, . . . Beng. 
Hurhuria, ... ,, 

Cheecheera, Chirchira, ,, 
Apang, .... Bdrm. 
Neagam, . . . Egypt. 
Sutjira, Agareh, . HiND. 
Lal-chirchiri, . . ,, 

Kat'h Alati, . Maleal. 

A herb growing all over India, in many place 
as a troublesome weed ; its seeds, flowering spike( 
leaves and ashes, are used in native medicine 
and as greens. An infusion of the root is givei 
as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. Th- 
flowering spike made into pills with a little sugar i 
a popular preventive medicine in Behar for person 
bitten by rabid dogs. The root is used by th 
natives as a tooth-brush ; the whole plant whei 
macerated yields a considerable quantity of potash 
— O^Sh.; Roxh.; Voigt; Jaffrey; Honigb.; Use fa 
Plants. See Vegetables. 

ACID LIME. Citrus bergamia, Risso. 

ACIDS, the tezab of the Persians. The mos 
important are the sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric 
acetic, carbonic, tartaric, citric, oxalic, an( 
arsenious. For making these, natives of Indi 
have peculiar formulae ; their lemons and lime 
give them citric, and the gram-plant, Cicer arie 
tinum, the oxalic acid. 

Acidum arseniosum, white oxide of arsenic. 

Acidum benzoicum, benzoic acid, though namei 
from benzoin, is found in other substances, a 
storax, and the balsams of Peru and Tolu. I 
is also produced by the action of re-agents oi 
several vegetable substances. 

Acid, Citric. Ning-mung-sha, CiilN., in Indii 
an article of commerce. 

Acid, Muriatic. Hydrochloric acid. 
Sen-kiang-sha, , Chin. I Namak-ka tezab, Hind 
Spirit of salt, . . Eng. | Acidum muriaticum, Lat 

In India, an article of commerce. 

Acid, Nitric. Aquafortis, nitric acid 

Ayer Menganchur- 

mas, .... Malay 

kam, . . Tam., Tel 

Tha-lau-ta-gar, . Burm. 
Yen-sian-k'iang-shui, Ch. 
Acide nitrique, , Fr. 
Salpeter saure, . Ger. 
Shore ka tezab, . HiND. 

In India, an article of commerce. 

Acid, Nitro-Muriatic. Aqua-regia. 
Eau regale, . . Fr. I Acidum nitro-hydro- 
Konigs-wasser, . Ger. I chloricum, . . Lat 

In India, an article of commerce. 

Acid, Prussic. Smith. Hang-jin-chih, Chin. 
in India an article of commerce. 

Acid, Sulphuric. Vitriol. 

Ruch, Arab. 

Kan-ia-bian, . . BuRM. 
Gandakka-tezab, . Hind. 
Gandak-ka-atr, . Hind. 

Arq-i-gao-gard, . 

Gandhaka drava- 

kam, . . . 





Ill Iiulin, an articlo of commerce, but largely 
uimifttcturotl in thosovural mints. — Royle, Artn of 

ACONITUM. Limi. This genua of the Ka- 
uiiculacea) is almost entirely confined to Europe 
nd Nortliern Asia, a few only being American, 
'hroughout the temperate part of the Himalaya 
lie species occur, but most frequently to the east- 
rard in the moist parts of Nepal and Sikkim. 
loots of A. ferox, luridum, napellus, and palma- 
am, are extensively used as the Bikh poison, and 
liroughout the Himalaya are indiscriminately so 
ftUwl, nor can the dried roots be distinguished 
rom each other. Aconitina or Bikya is prepared 
rom Aconitum ferox. It is a formidable poison ; 
ne-tenth of a grain killed a goat in one of Dr. 
t'Shaughneasy's experiments in twelve minutes, 
he animal died in convulsions. It is used in 
n ointment, one grain being mixed with a drachm 
f lard, and is an invaluable local application in 
lany forms of neuralgia, especially in tic-dolour- 
ux. It almost immediately occasions a tingling 
msation in the part, then numbness, and relief of 
lie pain. Several species of Aconite occur in China, 
's'au-wu-t'u is the name for the tubers. Maximo 
licz met with nine in the Amur region, — four 
ear Peking, and three in Mongolia. Ts'au means 
'ild. An arrow poison called Tuh-peh-ts'au is 
lid to be prepared in some country on the west 
r China from a species. A. palmatum Don., is a 
lant of the Himalaya, up to 10,000 feet. — 
fooker and Tliomson ; Smith. 

Aconitum virosum, Bon. 

vtsnab Bish, Blah, Beng. 
itha titia, . . „ 
ti-fiingia-bish, . ,, 
ish, Bish, Bikh, HiND. 
itha Zahr, Mahoor, ,, 
ishnak, Bachnag, ,, 

Wuchnak, . . . Mahb. 

Moura-bikh, . . Panj. 

Ati-visha, . . . Sansk. 

Viaha-navi, . . T^VM. 

Yasa-nabbi, . . «, 

Ati-vassa, . . . Tel. 

This is a native of the Himalayan mountains, 

owing at 10,000 to 14,000 feet, and is one of the 

est celebrated articles in Indian medicine and 

xicology. The root is equally fatal taken in- 

rnally or applied to wounds; but the effects are 

"tnessed in a concentrated state when the extract 

introduced into a wound. A preparation of 

root is much used in all the hilly districts in 

arthern India to poison arrows for the destruction 

wild beasts ; and tigers are destroyed by the 

isoned arrows being shot from bows fixed near 

e tracks leading to their watering places. It has 

en used on several occasions to poison wells and 

iks, and doubtless might be made a formidable 

Bans of defence against the invasion of the 

rritories in which it abounds. ' The Gurkhas 

Y that they could so infect all the waters with 

dreadful root that no enemy could advance 

» their mountain fastnesses. — O'Sh. ; Bl. Disp. 

6; Phar. 265-286 ; Useful Plants ; Honigberger ; 

yokerf. et Th. ; Cleghom, Pnnjah Report. 


vika, Yajjai turki, DUK. | Atis, Batis, Patis, HiND. 

TTliis plant occurs in abundance on the lofty 

fcuntains of Choor, Shalma, and Kedamath in 

J Sutlej valley, between Rampur and Sungnam, 

an elevation of 8000 to 13,000 feet, but varies 

jatly in the size and form of its leaves, from 

ich circumstance it derives its specific name. 

was first described and identified by Dr. 

dlich in Plant. Asiat. Rariores, and has received 

litional notice from Professor Royle. The root 

is composed of two oblong tubera, of a light luh 
colour externally, white internally, and of pure 
bitter taste. These are met with in the market 
in small irregularly conical a8h-coloure<l pieces, 
white intenially, taste bitter, but not numbing. 
It acts as a bitter tonic and febrifuge, is used by 
Europeans and natives in the treatment of ferer, 
debility, and diarrhoea, and it has been long 
employed in Indian medicine as atonic and aphro- 
disiac. The roots are said to be ejiten by the 
Kunawar hillmeu as a pleasant tonic under the 
same name. Two Atees are, however, met with 
in the bazaars, and one of them is quite inert, — 
up to two drams (120 grs.) having been given by 
Surgeon-Major Walter without any effect. — Cleg- 
horn, Panjab Report, p. 66 ; Powell, Handbook, L 
p. 824 ; Useful Plants ; Honigberger ; O^Sh. p. 
166-8; Ind. Ann. Med. Sci. Ap. 1856, p. 395; 
Hooker f. et Th. ; Benq. As. Soc. Proceed. 

ACONITUM LURIDUM, H.f et Th., grows at 
Tankra and Chola in Sikkim, at an elevation of 
14,000 feet ; the native names are supposed to be 
identical with those of A. ferox. — H. f. et Th. 

Lang-tuh, . . . Chin. | Wolfsbane, . . Eno. 

A plant of the Himalaya, at 7000 to 10,000 
feet ; also of China. Its root very poisonous. — 
Smith ; H. f. et Th. 


A. dissectum, Don, 

A. ferox, Wall. 
Wolfsbane, . . Eno. 
Bish, Batsnab-bish, Hind. 
Mahoor, .... „ 

A. delphinifolium, Reich. 
A. multifidum, Royle. 
Tilia kachang, . . Panj. 
Vasha-navi, . . Tam. 
Vasa-nabhi, . . Teu 

It is found in the Sutlej valley, between liampur 
and Sungnam, at an elevation of 10,000 to 15,000 
feet. The roots are used for destroying wild ani- 
mals. It is a plant of Europe and America. It 
has variable forms. — H. f. et T. ; Cleg., Panj. Rep. 

Chiienwu-tu,W'u-t'u, Ch. I Kwang-wu, • . . Chin. 

Its conical tuberous roots, from 1 to 1^ inches 
long, are highly poisonous and acrid. — Smith. 


The plant — Heh-fu-tsze ; Tien-hiung, . Chin. 

The tubers— Fu-p'ien ; Tseh-tsze, . . . ' Chin. 

This is largely cultivated in China, in Chang- 
ming-hien, Lung-ngan-fu, and Sech-u'en. Its 
tubers are used medicinally. — Smith, p. 3. 



Balut, Arab. Ghiande It. 

Siang-shih, Siang-tau, Ch. Glandes L.vT. 

Lih-kiu, .... „ Schedudii, . . . Rus. 

Glands, .... Fb. Bellotas Sp. 

Eicheln, Eckern, . Ger. 

Acorns are common in the bazaars of India, 
being used in native medicine. Their taste is 
astringent and bitter. Several species of oak are 
indigenous in the Tenasserim Provinces, and on the 
hills of N. India. — Mason; Smith, Chin. Mat. 

ACORUS CALAMUS. Linn. Sweet-flag. 
AooruB odoratus. Lam. 
Ig'hir, Waj, Ikaroon, Ar. 
Shwet-bach, . . Beno. 
Bach ; Gora-bach, „ 
linliay ; Len-hae, Bdrm. 
Shui-chang-pu, . Chin. 
Acorus odorant, Fk. 

Akoron, . Gil. of Dios. 
Safod Bach, . . Hind. 
Yembu, . . . Maleal. 

Vashambu, . . 


Wasaumbu, . . 


Ya^, Yui, . . 
Ugir-turki, . . 



Yacha, Golouii, 



. Singh. 

Yassambu, . 


Yadaja,. . . 


Yassa, Yasa, Yudya, 




This genus of the Acoraceag is a native of Europe, 
also of North America, but is cultivated in the 
moist, cool parts of the East Indies. The whole 
plant is aromatic, but the root alone preserves the 
flavour in drying. It is a favourite medicine 
among the Hindus as a stimulant in flatulency. It 
occurs in the shops in longitudinal pieces, wrinkled 
and marked with projecting points, and might be 
easily substituted for more expensive spices or 
aromatics. The root is useful in ague. In Con- 
stantinople, a sweetmeat is made out of its root. 
The leaves are also fragrant; a hair powder is 
made of the roots, the scent being supplied by 
the leaves. The Calamus aromaticus of the 
ancients is referred by Royle to the Andropogon 
Calamus aromaticus. — 0''Shaugh. p. 626; Stewart; 
J^owell ; Royle ; Pereira ; Roxburgh ; Mason ; Use- 
ful Plants. 

chang-pu of the Chinese, grows wild in Sech-u'en, 
Shen-si, and Kwei-chan. Its rootlets are used in- 
ternally, in powder, juice, and tincture ; and the 
plant is largely cultivated for its sword-shaped 
leaves, which are hung up at the dragon boat 
festival ' on the fifth day of the fifth month of 
each year. It kills or drives away insects. It is 
largely eaten at Constantinople to prevent the 
pestilence. — Smith. 

ACRE, the subdivisions of the acre have 
hitherto, in the Madras Presidency, been in 40ths 
(or Goontas) and 16ths of 40ths, or else in 16th8 
(annas) and 4ths of 16ths. 

ACRE or Akka, a town in Palestine, originally 
called Accho, but, being in after times improved 
and enlarged by Ptolemy the First, it was called 
after him Ptolemais. Subsequently, falling into 
the possession of the Arabs, it recovered its 
Hebrew name. It was first taken by the Arabs 
in A.D. 636. The Christians became masters of it 
in 1104. Salah-ud-Din got possession of it in 
1184, and held it tUl 11th July 1191, when it was 
retaken by the Crusaders. The latter held it for 
exactly one century, when the Arabs finally 
wrested it from them, and retained it until they, 
in their turn, were obliged to cede it to the Turks 
in 1517. From this time Acre remained neglected 
till about the middle of the 18th century, when 
the Arab shaikh, Daher, took it by surprise. 
Under his wise administration it recovered a part 
of its trade. He was succeeded by the tyrant 
Jazzar Pasha, who fortified and embellished the 
town. In 1799 (5th March) it rose into importance 
and consideration by its gallant and successful 
resistance to the arms of Bonaparte, directed by 
Sir Sydney Smith, a British officer, and in the 
middle of the 19th century the British again took 
it. — Robinson's Travels, i. pp. 198, 199. 

Shingle tree, . . Eng. I Mallai kone, . . . Tam. 
Pink cedar, red cedar, ,, | Kilingi, . . , Neilgh. 
This is one of the largest and loftiest trees in 
the Madras Presidency, and is also of the Darjiling 
Terai. It is of rapid growth, is generally of very 
straight growth, with large buttresses at the base. 
It is very general about the western forests, on 
the Tinnevelly and Travancore hills, on the Ana- 
mallays, Neilgherries, Wynad, and in Coorg and S. 
Canara. It ascdnds from the plains up to nearly 
4000 feet. Colonel Beddome measured a tree 27 
feet in girth above the buttresses. The flowers 
appear in December or January with the young 

leaves, or when the tree is quite destitute ( 
foliage. The timber is flesh-coloured, and shrinl 
in seasoning; it is light, and much resembli 
that of the Cedrela toona, and has a cedrelaceoi 
smell ; it is much used by the planters at Coono( 
and in the Wynad for building purposes, furnitur 
etc., and in Coorg it is largely used for shiugles.- 
Usefnl Plants ; Beddome, Fl. Sylv. p. 44. 

ACROCHORDID^, wart snakes. See Reptile 

Palm, widely diffused in Brazil and the We 
Indies. The hard-shelled nuts are worked up t 
the Negroes into sundry ornamental articles, ar 
the kernel yields a thick golden oil. It might 1 
introduced into India. 

AOROGENS, in botany, one of the primal 
classes of the vegetable kingdom according i 
the natural system. The stems of Acrogei 
differ much in appearance from those of Exogei 
and Endogens. The wood is not secreted fro 
layers of tissue, which have the power of repri 
ducing regular zones of wood, as in Exogens, or 
regular arrangement of vascular and celluL 
tissue, as in Endogens. There is generally but 
single ring of vascular bundles even in the ferns. 

ACROSTICHUM, a genus of ferns of the Wo 
and East Indies and Australia. The A. scanden 
a climbing fern with pendulous fronds, clothes tl 
betel palms on the Megna with the most elegai 
drapery. Dr. Hooker found parasitic orchi( 
growing on the trees which were covered wil 
this climbing fern. — Hooker, Jonrn. ii. p. 338, 35 

ACSHA. Sansk. An astronomical term of tl 
Hindus. Acsha Ansa and Acsha Bhagas ai 
degrees of terrestrial latitude ; Acsha Carn; 
hypotenuse ; but in its astronomical sense meai 
what Europeans call the argument of the lat 
tude, as well as Patana Chendra. — Warren. 

ACT^A, a genus of the Ranunculacese. 1 
spicata Linn., the baneberry, is a native of tl 
Caucasus and Siberia. Roots astringent; tl: 
whole plant acrid and poisonous. A. acuminati 
Wall., is found on the Choor and Acharand 
mountains. A. astera is sometimes collected i 
China, as the scouring rush is, for cleanin 
pewter vessels, for which its hispid leaves well ii 
it,— Williams'' Middle King. p. 286 ; WSh. p. 170 

A. Javanica, Miq. I Anomos]jermum excelsuir 

Savia actephila, Hassle. \ Dal. 

A small tree of the central and southern parts c 
Ceylon, up to an elevation of 2000 feet. — Thwaite, 

ACTIAS. See Insects. 

ACTINIA. Some of these zoophytes in th 
Eastern Archipelago are fully two feet in diametei 
Little fishes dwell in their interior. Species c 
enormous size occur in the China seas, and on th 
coast of Borneo. — Collingivood. See Zoautharia. 

ACTINODAPHNE. Several species of thi 
genus of trees — A. elegans, glauca, Molochina 
Moonii, speciosa, and stenophylla — grow in Ceylon 
A. Hoskeri, D. C, is a small or middling-sizet 
tree, very common on the hills in the districts o 
North Arcot and Cuddapah, found in Bombai 
and the Konkan, and also in Sikkim. A. salicina 
D. C.,a, small or middling-sized tree, is rare on th( 
Western Ghats, in South Tinnevelly, on the Neil- 
gherries, and Ceylon ; it is closely allied to th( 
Ceylon A. elegans, A. Thwaitesii, and A. steno- 
phylla, and they are all probably only varieties oi 
one species. Timber may be of good quality.— 




3e<lil(me, Fl, Sylo. p. 295; TJiw. Cat. Paris 


ACriTIS, the Sandpiper genus of the TotaninrB 
{. ^'liireola is tlie WckkI Sandpiper of Europe, 
Uia, Africa ; from Lapland to the Cape of Good 
lope, Java, etc. ; exceedingly common in India. 
L hypoleucos, the Common Sandpiper of Europe, 
Lsia ; t'xceedhigly common in India. A. ochropus, 
he Green Sandpiper of Europe, Asia, North 
Ifrica^ very comtnou in India. 

ACWAL. Maiik. Ursus labiatus. 

AI), in Mahrati, the Sanskrit privative a. 

A I), an Arab tribe of the Iladramaut. 

ADA. liKNG. Zingiber officinale, Roscoe ; in 
'elugu, Bauhinia racemosa ; in Malealam, Ter- 
linnlia cntappa. 

ADAB. AuAB. Respect. Ilm-i-Adab, the 
^ioiice of ceremonial ; etiquette. Adab-ul-Harm, 
tic customs which Mahomedans follow, 
differ in various countries, but generally 
iviMve separation during pregnancy and after 
■s.s:ition of menstruation. The Chinese largely 
;)llow those customs. Adab-ul-Kabr, the cus- 
oms of the tomb, where, according to Mahome- 
anism, shortly after interment, Nakir and Mankir, 
he examiners of the dead, question the deceased 
u to his life in this world. 

ADA BIKA. Tel. Anisomeles ovata, R. Br. 

ADA-BlItNA. Beno. Herpestris monniera. 

ADA BUKKUDU. Tel. Ehretia lajvis, R. 

ADADA. Akar. Daphne mezereura. 

ADADODE. Tam. Adhatoda vasica, Nees. 

ADAI YOTTI. Tam. A sand-binding plant. 

ADAKA or Cavughu. Maleal. Areca catechu. 

ADAKA MAJYEN. Maleal. Sphseranthus 
irtus, Burm. 

ADAKI. Sansk. Cajanus Indicus. 

ADAKODIEN. Maleal. Holostemma Rhee- 

auum, Spr. 

~ Pers. Justice. Nizamat Adalat, 
Court of Criminal Justice ; the 
Diwani Adalat, the Civil Court of 

e Diwan. Foujdari Adalat, the Magistrates' or 

)lice Criminal Court. Adalat-ul-Kazi, the town 


AD ALA VITALA. Tel. Lepidium sativum, 
Cress seed. 

ADALI. Tam. Jatropha glandulifera, Roxh. 

AD ALLI, a Semitic race on the west of the 

."d Sea. See Semitic Races. 

ADAL SHAHI, a Mahomedan dynasty of 

japur. The founder was 

A. D. 

i8uf Adal Shah, a Turkish slave, . 
nail Adal Shah, .... 
Uu „„.... 
him ,,,,.... 

der's court. 



ahim „ ,, II., . 
Yusuf claimed to be a son of sultan Amurath, 
brother to Muhammad IL, the conqueror of 
nstantinople. He escaped the massacre of his 
)thers by the contrivance of his mother, who 
ried him to Persia, from which he fled at the 
J of 16, and was sold as a slave to the Bahmani 
vti. Their capital was Bijapur, where, and at 
gi, their tombs are to be seen. — Elphin. p. 670. 
\DAM. The Gnostics, in framing their theo- 
;ical system, ranked Adam as Jeu, ' the primal 
n,' next to the Noos and Logos, and therefore 

1 third emanation from a deity. Mahomed 
les Adam, Awal-ul-Ambia, the First of the 

Prophets, also Khalifa - ul - Akbar, the first of 
God H vicegerenta ; and in the tenth century hi» 
grave in Ceylon became the established resort of 
Mahomedan pilgrims. Adam's stature, according 
to Mahomedan legends, was about .86 feet His 
burial-place is shown by the Arabs at the hill 
Abu Kubays, and according to their legends 
Adam and Eve dwelt at Mount Arafat, where 
Adam's place of prayer is shown. A usual Maho- 
medan tradition runs, that on the violent expul- 
sion of our first parents and their tempter from 
Paradise, Adam fell on the mountain of Serendib, 
Eve at Jidda near Mecca, Eblis near Basrah, and 
the serpent at Ispahan. Adam, after long solitude 
and penitence, was led by Gabriel to Mecca, and 
thence to the mountain of Arafat (recognition), 
where he was reunited to Eve after a separation 
of 200 years. With the Hindus, Adam is sup- 
posed to be the same with Swayam-bhuva, who 
was made with seven handfuls of mould taken 
from the seven stages of the earth. — Yule, Cathay, 
854 ; Ch. Bunsen, iv. pp. 373, 385, 998 ; BurtoiCn 
Mecca, iii. p. 393 ; Sir ./. E. Tennent, Ceylon. 

ADAM. Tam. An oil measure of 20 padi. 

ADAMANI, a section of the Kasrani Beluch 
settled at Jok-Budhu in the Dera Ghazi Khan 
district —M'Gr. N. W. F. part i. p. 4. 

ADAMANT or Admantine Spar, the modern 
Corundum. Professor Tennant says the adamant 
described by Pliny was a sapphire. Adamant is 
the Shamir of the Hebrews, spoken of in Ezek. 
iii. 9. — Curiosities of Science, p. 103. 

ADA MAYA. See Kama ; Lakshmi ; Maya. 

ADAMBO. Maleal. Lagerstrseraia reginse. 

ADAMITE, a religious sect in Persia, whose 
followers^ men and women, are said to meet in a 
cave by night with the lights extinguished, and 
to conduct their rites like those of Mylitta of 
the Assyrians, those of the Arab Alitta, and of 
the Persian Mitra. But this is the usual mode 
which Eastern sects adopt to vilify their oppo- 
nents.-^CAe.mey, quoted by McGregor, p. 9. 

ADAM MARRl, a Beluch tribe. See Kelat. 

ADA MORINIKA. Tel. Cadaba Indica, L. 

ADAMS, an Englishman who visited Japan 
about the year 1699, and resided at the court of 
Jeddo for many years. By his influence, Captain 
Saris delivered a letter from James i. to the 
emperor, and a treaty was signed in September 
1613, granting privileges to the E. I. Company. 

ADAM'S BRIDGE, a narrow ridge of sand and 
rocks, mostly dry, forming the head of the Gulf 
of Manaar, and, with the island of Ramiseram 
near the mainland, and that of Manaar near 
Cpylon, almost connecting this island with the 
continent. It is about 30 miles in extent, and Ijf 
broad. In Mahomedan tradition, it was by this 
bridge that Adam, on his expulsion from Paradise, 
crossed to Ceylon. It connected Ceylon to India 
until the end of the 15th century (1480), when, 
during a storm, the sea made a breach through the 
rocks, which a subsequent storm enlarged, after 
which foot traffic ceased. The rocks of Adam's 
Bridge, in Huidu legends, are said to have 
been traversed by Rama in his invasion of Ceylon, 
and he afterwards erected a Saiva temple on 
Mount Kantamantha in Ramiseram, with two 
lingams. These have since continued to be 
largely visited by pilgrims from the most remote 
parts of India, who visit the sacred sites, and 
bathe at the junction of the two seas. The 




guardian of the temple is a sudra Hindu, who 
remains unmarried. Inside its gate is a colonnade 
of magnificent proportions, which runs along the 
four sides of the quadrangle. It is the most 
remarkable structure of its kind in India. The 
colonnade was built by the raja of Eamnad at a 
great expense, the pillars, each 12 feet in height, 
having been brought from a distance of 40 miles. 
A channel, called the Paumben pass, was deepened 
to 13 feet by the Government of Madras. — Sii- J. 
E, Tevvent's Ceylon. 

ADAM'S NEEDLE, Yucca gloriosa. 

ADAM'S PEAK, the summit of a lofty mountain 
in Ceylon, 7360 feet above the sea. It is called 
by the Arabs, Er-Rahoon. A hollow in the lofty 
rock that crowns the summit was said by the 
Brahmans to be the footstep of Siva ; by the 
Buddhists, of Buddha ; by the Chinese, of Fo ; 
by the Gnostics, of Jeu ; by the Mahomedans, of 
Adam ; and the Portuguese were divided between 
the conflicting claims of St. Thomas and the 
eunuch of Candace, queen of Ethiopia. Mr. 
Duncan, in a paper in the Asiatic Researches, 
containing ' Historical Remarks on the Coast of 
Malabar,' mentions a native chronicle, in which it 
is stated that a Pandyan, who was contemporary 
with Mahomed, was converted to mahomedanism 
by a party of dervishes on their pilgrimage to 
Adam's Peak. The peak is visible 60 leagues to 
seaward. The footmark is still an object of pil- 
grimage ; it is on a flat stone near a pool of 
water. There are other models of feet in different 
parts of the island. The Kadam Rasul, or foot- 
print of the Prophet, is another alleged footprint 
on a hill at Secunderabad. — Yule., Cathay ., p. 
359-368 ; Tcnneni's Ceylon. See Mahawelli- 

Khatiyan, . , . DuK. j Papara pulia maiam, Tam. 
Monkey bread tree, Eng. i Anal pulia maram, „ 
Ethiopian sour gourd, ,, | Gorak amli, . . Hind. 

This tree has been naturalized in India. Its 
trunk is very short, but in girth it attains the 
largest size of any known tree. Roxburgh men- 
tions one 60 feet in circumference, at Mantotte in 
Ceylon. As a timber tree it is useless, the wood 
being spongy and soft, but fishermen use its fruit 
as floats for their nets. Its bark and leaves have 
been recommended as a febrifuge. The natives 
of Senegambia dry and carefully powder the leaves 
which appear with the fruit. This powder they 
call Lalo, and they believe it is useful in dysen- 
tery. — Useful Plants; Drs. Riddell, Voigt, Roxh. 
iii. 164; Ainsl. Ind. Ann. p. 372. 

ADAPU KARRI. Tam. Charcoal. 

ADAS. Malay. Fennel ; Nigella sativa. 
Adas-minak, the oil. Adas manis. Star anise. 
Adas-pedas, Henbane seed. Hyosciamus niger, 

ADAS. Arab. Ervum lens, Linn. ; in Hindi, 
Cicer arietinum. 

ADA SYAMALI. Tel. Helicteres isora, L. 

ADATODEY. Tam. Adhatoda vasica. 

ADA VI. Tel. Wild, not cultivated ; hence— 

Adavi amuda. Jatropha curcas. 

Adavi avisa. Bauhinia racemosa, L. ? 

Adavi bira. Luffa aniara, B. 

Adavi chama. Typhonium sylvaticum, Schott ; also 
Canavalia virosa, W. and A. 

Adavi clieruku. Saccharura procerum, R. 

Adavi chikkadu kaya. LaHlab vulgare, Savi. 

Adavi godhumulu. Coix barbata ? B. 

Adavi goranta. Erythroxylon monogynuin, B., Co 

Adavi kodi. Gallus sonneratii, Temm. 

Adavi jilakarra. Vemonia anthelmintica, Willde. 

Adavi kakara. Momordica mixta ? B. 

Adavi kanda. Arum gyratum, B. Dracontiu 
polyphyllum, Linn. 

Adavi kikkasa gaddi. Amphidonax bifaria, Lind. 

Adavi malle. Jasminum latifolium, B., W,, 1 
J. auriculatum, Vahl. 

Adavi mamidi. Spondias mangifera, Pcrs. 

Adavi mamena. Boerhaavia erecta, L. 

Adavi munaga. Moringa pterygosperma, Gdrtn. 

Adavi nabhi. Gloriosa superba, L. 

Adavi nalla gadda. Neopus Malaienais, Beinwardt 

Adavi nelli kura. Premna sp. ? 

Adavi nimma. Sclerostylis atalantoides, W. aiid ^ 

Adavi nitya malle. Hibiscus hirtus, L. 

Adavi pala tige. Cryptolepis reticulata, Willde. 

Adavi pippali. Chavica sylvatica, Miq. 

Adavi ponna. Khizophora mucronata, Lam. 

Adavi poUa. Trichosanthes cucumerina, L. 

Adavi pratti. Hibiscus lampas, Cav. H. tetraloc 
laris, B. 

Adavi tella gaddalu. Scilla Indica, Boxb. 

Adavi zilakara. Vemonia anthelmintica. 

ADDA. Tel. Bauhinia Vahlii, W. and A 
B. racemosa, Fl. Andh. Adda chettoo, a creep 
of Ganjam ; it is soaked and pounded, and i 
fibres taken out. 

ADDA or AL-ADDA. Arab. Scincus ofiic 
nalis. A small lizard celebrated by Arabij 
physicians as a restorative and as a remedy 
elephantiasis, leprosy, and other cutaneous di 
eases. — Enf/. Cyc. 

ADDALEY. Tam. Jatropha glauca. 

ADDAR JASAN, the ninth day of the nini 
month of the Parsi year. On this day money 
distributed to the priests, and offerings of sanda 
wood are made to the sacred flame in their fi 
temples, which are then much crowded. — T. 

ADDASARAM. Tel. Adhatoda vasica. Net 

ADDATINNA PALAY. Tam. Aristolocli 

ADDHA, Adhi, or Adh'. Hind. Half. 

ADDIKA or ADDIGA. Karn. An oversee 

ADDINIGAUS, a Bactrian sovereign in Arian 
B.C. 26. See Greeks of Asia. 

ADDUGHERRI, mountains in the sontl 
western parts of the Nellore district ; contai 
copper ore. 

ADEGA. See Jewellery. 

ADEI. Hind. Abelia triflora. Lonicera quii 

kokra of Bengal, a large timber tree of Silhi 
and Chittagong, wood very hard. A. nereifoli 
Roxh., is of the Coromandel coast, and A. co: 
difolia, Roxh., of Moluccas. 

Chiranndra, drendu, Beas. [ Choppra, . . Chenai 
Thakola, Kathogli, ,, | Chiundi, . . ,, 

A small tree common in the Siwalik trac 
rising to 4000 feet at times, up to the Chena 
Its wood is used for fuel and charcoal. — /. i 
Stewart, M.D. 

ADEN, a British settlement on a part ( 
Yemen, almost the most southerly point on tl 
Arabian coast. It is situated in lat. 12° 47' I 
and long. 46° 10' E., and is a peninsula of aboi 
16 miles in circumference, connected with tl 
continent by a low, narrow neck of land 13f 
yards in breadth, nearly covered by the sea ; 
high spring tides. The population in 1872 nun 
bered 19,829, and, besides the garrison, consistf 



Krabs, Africans, Somali, Parsi, HinduB, and 
. The lioinans name<l it Portus Romanicus ; 
and it has risen into or fallen from importance 
uccor(linj» as the line of commerce has changed. 
It is mentioned by Marco Polo, and by Marino 
Sanudo, his contemporary, as the great entrepot 
of that part of the Indian commerce which came 
tward by Kgyj)t. It has been identified as the 
1 of Ezok. xxvii. 23. It is the Arabia En- 
.i.iiiiion of the Periplus, It was fortified by the 
Turkish sultan, Solynmn the Magnificent, but in 
after years was held by the Arab shaikhs of the 
surrounding districts, from one of whom, the of Lahej, it was captured by the forces 
ho East India Company, lUth January 1839, 
^ )r T. Baillie commanding. Albuquerque failed 
in an attack on it in a.d. 1513, and the English 
and the Dutch temporarily had intercourse with 
its chiefs. It is merely a small volcanic promon- 
tory jutting out into the sea, and connected with 
the Arabian peninsula by a narrow neck of laud, 
across which a low wall has been drawn from shore 
to shore of the two bays which nearly surround 
the promontory. The principal harbour, or Back 
Bay, is about three miles wide at the entrance, 
anil affords an admirable shelter in all weathers 
for vessels which do not draw more than twenty 
feet of water. It is unsurpassed by any on the 
Arabian or juljacent African coasts, being capa- 
cious, easily made, and free from rocks and shoals. 
^^'ater of a good quality, but iu limited quanti- 
ties, is found at the head of the valleys within the 
crater, and to the west of the town. As the wells 
approach the sea, they become more and more 
brackish. The Banian well, the best in Aden, is 
186 feet deep, the bottom is 70 feet below the 
level of the sea, and before being drawn it con- 
tains about 4000 gallons. The wells within the 
town have an unlimited supply at from 30 to 40 
feet, but the water is unfit for drinking. An in- 
exhaustible supply of water is procurable on the 
northern coast of the harbour, but the difficulty of 
bringing it into Aden, and its liability to be cut 
off by hostile Arabs, render it almost unavailable. 
Many of the best wells have been excavated since 
the British conquest, and the oldest does not date 
further back than a.h. 906 (a.d. 1500). There 
lire now many reservoirs. The crater is nearly 
circular in form ; its diameter is about a mile and 
half, and it is surrounded on the northern, 
western, and southern sides with precipices chiefly 
composed of lava, and rising from 1000 to 1776 
'eet in height, the latter elevation being that of 
the Jabal Shumsam, a lofty range of volcanic 
leaks, which form the crater's western side. 
The greater part of the volcanic rocks are more 
)r less vesicular. Volcanic ashes were found 
ibout 500 feet above the sea, on the summit 
3£ the hill near Steamer Point. Aden pumice 
s mentioned by Dr. Carter as occurring in a 
small series of strata, consisting of pisoUtic 
Daperino, cemented together with glassy, crys- 
allized gypsum, and he identifies it with the 
volcanic matter covering Pompeii. The mode of 
working the pumice beds in Aden is by running 
^Ueries horizontally, or nearly so, into the various 
itrata. The interior of many of these mines 
iresents a fantastic appearance, the galleries radi- 
iting from a common centre, and being connected 
>ue with another, and small pillars of pumice 
Hjing left to support the roof of the mine. The 


pumice beds are extensive, but not exceeding fonr 
feet in thickness. 4000 lbs. were exported to 
India in 1876. 

Prosopis aouleata, Kiiniy. I P. spicato, . . Bum. 

„ spicigera, WilUie. \ Chani, Tkl. 

Grows to the size of a tree on the Coromandel 
side of India, on low lands far from the sea, also 
in some parts of Hindustan. Its pod is an inch 
in girth, and 6 to 12 inches long, and contains, 
besides the seeds, a large quantity of a sweetish 
agreeable mealy substance, which the people eat. 
— Voujt, 259 ; Roxb. ii. 371. 


Rakto chandan, . Beno. 
Y-wai-gyi, . . , BuiiM. 
Kanjana, Kanguna, Hind. 
Ku-chandana, . ,, 
Thorla-goonj, . . Mahr. 
Karabhoji, . . . Sansk. 

Mansiadi, . . , 
Madetiye, . . , 
Alanjadi, . . . 
Ani gandamani, , 
Band! gurivenda, . 
Manseni kotta, 



This is a large and handsome tree, growing at 
times 100 feet high, and found in most of the 
forests of India; well suited for planting in 
avenues. It is met with in the Rangoon, Pegu, 
and Tounghoo districts. It grows al«) in Silhet, 
Bengal, Assam, and the Moluccas. The inner 
wood of large old trees is deep red, hard, solid, 
and durable, suitable for cabinetmakers' purposes, 
from which, in Upper India, it gets its name of 
liakto chandan, or red sandal wood ; but the true 
red sandal or red sandars wood of commerce is 
the Pterocarpus santalinus. A cubic foot weighs 
56 lbs. when seasoned ; sp. gr. -896. The wood 
is said to yield a red dye ; ground to a paste with 
water, it is used by Hindus to make sectarian 
marks on their foreheads. The seeds are of a 
highly polished, scarlet colour, with a circular 
streak in their middle on each side, and are used 
as weights by jewellers, and as beads in bracelets, 
necklaces, etc. Books represent these as usually 
weighing four grains, and selected seeds are in 
use by the Burmese for that weight. Many, how- 
ever, do not weigh more than two or three grains 
each. A cement is made by beating them up 
with borax and water. The powdered seeds are 
said to be used as a farina ; the pulp of the seeds, 
mixed with honey, is applied externally to hasten 
suppuration in boils and abscesses. — Hooker's 
Him. Journ. ii. p. 327; McClelland ; Mason; 
Useful PlaJit.<i; Jur. Rep. Mad. Ex.; Mendis; 
Cat. Bengal Ex., 1862; Dance; Voigt, 259; Hog; 
Roxb. ii. 370. 

Cicendia hyssopifolia. Ad. | Chota chirayita, Hind. 

Common in various parta of South India; is 
very bitter, and much used by the natives as a 
stomachic, being also somewhat laxative. — Ind. 
Ann. Mtdl. Scien. p. 270 ; Dr. Cleqhom. 

panula lilifolia. The root of one species, called 
bha-san, resembles ginseng, for which in China 
it is sometimes substituted, as also is the Cam- 
paimla glauca of Japan. — Smith. 

Ruellia uliginosa, Linn. 

One of the Acanthacese. The juice of its leaves, 
mixed with salt, is used on the Malabar coast as 
a purifier. A. balsamea has a strong odour of 
turpentine. — Roxb. iii. 52 ; Hog ; Voigt, 482. 

ADEPS MYRISTICiE, a concrete oU obtained 




from nutmegs by expression, sometimes errone- 
ously called oil of mace. — Slmmonds. See Oils. 

ADEVA RAJAS of Tuluva, Andhra, or Telin- 
gana, had a capital at Woragalli or "Warangal. One 
of these, in authentic history, was Pratapa Rudra 
in A.D. 11'62, prior to whom nineteen Adeva Rajas 
reigned 370 years (? 211), and are supposed to be 
the eighteen princes of Andhra descent ; and Sri 
Ranga seems to have reigned in A.D, 800. — 
Thomas^ Prinsep's Antiquities, p. 278. 

ADHA BIRNI. Hind. Herpestris monniera. 

ADHAK. Hind. A dry measure 18 in. deep, 
equal to 750 cubic in. In the Dekhan, 7 lbs. 
11 oz. ; in Mysore, 7 lbs. — W. 

ADHAN. Hind. The richest land lying under 
the protection of the town walls. Mai or malaiti, 
is land not irrigated from wells. 

ADHAR or AHARA. Sansk. Food. 


ADHARMA. Sansk. Injustice, unrighteous- 
ness. An epithet of Siva, meaning wickedness; 
also the bride of Mritya. Adharmeswara, the same 
with Adra Malik. 


Justicia adhatoda, Linn., Roxh. 

Bhokkar; Pekkar, Panj. 
Urus or Utarosha, Sansk. 
Tora-bujja, . . . Sutlkj. 
Adadode, . . . Tam. 
Addasaram, . . „ 

Bashi, .... Beas. 
Bakus, Basoka, . Bbng. 
Basuti, . . . .Chenab. 
Malabar Nut, . . Eng. 
Aris, Arus, Asganda,HiND. 

This shrub grows in Ceylon, in both the Indian 
Peninsulas, in Bengal. Nepal, Silhet, N.W. Hima- 
laya, Panjab, up to 4000 feet, and in Java. The 
wood is soft, and considered well suited for making 
charcoal for gunpowder. Its leaves are used in 
native medicine, and have a strong smell when 
bruised. — Drs. lioxb., Ainslie, O'Sh. p. 483, Voigt, 
488, J. L. Stewart. 

ADHELA. Hind., Sansk. Halfapaisa. Adheli, 
half a rupee or ashraffi ; half of any piece of 
money. Ad'hi, half; Adhela, a half anna; and 
other combinations. Adh-pao, literally half a 
q uarter = one-eighth. 

man girl's right to select her own husband. See 

ADHIKANAN, a poet of the Dekhan. 

ADHIKMASA. Sansk. In Hindu division of 
time, an embolismal month, intercalated to bring 
the lunar months in correspondence with the 
seasons of the vyear. 

ADHUMIJ4N or Ajumian, a section of the Safi 
of Persia ; they take the name from sultan Adhum, 
who resigned his throne to become a mendicant. 
They are celibates, are continually moving their 
lips in devotion ; they are wanderers. — Malcolm ; 
M'Gregor, p. 159. 

ADI or ADDI. Tam. A foot measure; a mea- 
sure of length, 10-46 in. 57,600 sq. Adi = l Kani. 
— W. 

ADI, the elder daughter of Kasyapa, the mother 
of the Hindu gods. 

ADI, the fourth month of the Tamil year, July — 

ADI. Sansk. Original, chief; as Adi-pati, 
Gram-adi-pati, the headman of a village ; in Java 
a title of nobility ; Adi raja, a paramount prince. 

ADI or Ai island, the Pulo Adi of the Malays, 
in lat. 4° 19' S., long. 143° 47' E. (East Point), 
Medera, is about 25 miles in length, lying to the 
N.N.E. of the great Keh, distant about 60 miles, 

and being the south-westernmost of a group o 
high islands. The inhabitants are Papuans. TIk 
sea is unfathomable at a short distance from thi 
island, but there are several indifferent anchorage 
on the north side. The chief traffic was in slaves 
which were distributed among the neighbouring 
islands of the Archipelago, and are sometime 
carried as far as Bally and Celebes. — /. Lid. Arch 

Shair ul jin, . . Abab. 
Maiden Hair, . . Eng. 
Yenus or Fairy's Hair, ,, 
Hans-Raj, gal-marium, 


Mubarkha, . . . HiNi 
Dum Tali, . . . Kash 
Parshra; Warshra, Salt I 
Bisfaij, . . Tr. Indus 
' Kuwatrei, . , , 

It is indigenous in the Himalaya, and, like th 
European plant, it is given as an expectorant. I 
Europe it is the basis of the celebrated syrup c 
capilairc^O'SA. p. 677 ; Dr. Stewart. 

Pari-sosan, . . . Panj. | Hansraj, . . . Pan. 

This, with A. venustum and other species of tli 
Panjab, has been introduced into India. — Voigt. 

Hansraj, Mobarkha, Hind, j Shiiir-ul-jin, . . Ara] 

Occurs in many places in India and Burmi 
It is probably this regarding which Dr. Maso 
says that a small handsome fern is seen in tl 
crevices of old ruins and walls everywhere, of tli 
same genus and nearly resembling the Englis 
maidenhair, the prettiest of all the ferns. — Masoi 

ADI-BUDDHA. According to the Sanskr 
authorities on buddhism, when, in the beginninj 
all was perfect void, Adi-Budh was revealed i 
his form of a flame of light. He is the self-existei 
great Budh. The Adi-Nath or Maheshwar, whos 
name is Apay, who became manifest in the Mah£ 
Sangato (perfect void) as the letter A, who is tl 
creator of Prajna and of the world. In Chir 
and Mongolia, according to MM. Hue and Gabe 
theistic buddhists acknowledge an Adi-Buddh; 
or eternal Buddha, whom they consider to be Gc 
over all. In Ceylon and Indo-Chinese countrie 
there is no such belief. — Yule, i. 242. 

ADI-DWAITA. Sansk. The Supreme Beinj 
including two qualities, viz. Adi-atma, the spirituj 
essence, and Adi-buta, the material essence. 

ADIGAR. Singh. A chief, a village headmai 

ADI-GRANT'HA. Sansk. From adi, firs 
and grant'ha, a book ; a sacred book of the Sikh 
compiled in 1581 by Arjun Mul. See Sikhs. 

ADIMA. Tam. — A predial slave attached 1 
the land. A Nair feudal dependant. 

ADIMODURAM. Tam. Root of Glycyrrhi: 
glabra, also of Abrus precatorius. 

of the Rubiacese, a timber tree of Berar, Mandl 
Garhwal, and Gorakhpur. 

ADI-NATH, the celestial Buddha, also father ( 
Matsyendranath, and grandfather of Gorakhnat' 

ADINATHA or Reshabdeva, the first ar 
greatest of the Jaina saints. 

ADINATHA, the linga of Mahadeva, placed c 
the banks of the river Rajyu by king Naraca. 

ADI-PURUSHA. Sansk. The presiding spii 
of the universe. 

ADI-RAJA. Sansk. Supreme of kings, 
paramount sovereign, an emperor. 

ADI-SAKTI, or the primeval energy, a name > 
Kali, represented as a four-handed woman of 
dark colour, of terrific features, with a protrui 




ing tongue, bcBmcnrcd with Iminan gore, with a 
necklace of skulU, aitd holding a bkuU and a 
BCiiniUir in hi>r hands. 

ADI SKSIIA. Sansk. Literally, old serpent. 
A term used in Hindu mythology. — Taylor^a Hind. 
Myth. Sec SerjKMit. 

ADITES, founded a Semitic kingdom in Yemen, 
the first iu Southern Arabia. See Saba ; Joktau. 

AUITl, daughter of Daksha, and one of the 
two wives of Kasyapa. She was mother of the 
Devas (see Aditya, Agni, Kasyam, Deva, Surya, 
Surya vansa, Vamana), hence called Deva-matri. 
She bore eight sons (according to others, twelve), 
seven of whom were the seven Aditya, the eighth 
was Marttanda, the sun. The word in Sanskrit 
means free, unbounded, infinity, the boundle&s 
heaven. The Yajur Veda describes her as the 
wife of Vishnu ; but other Hindu books call her 
the mother of Vishnu. Her history is regarded 
by Professor Wilson as an allegorical personifica- 
tion of astronomical phenomena. 

ADITYA, a name of Vikrama, supposed to be 
tl»e same with the Vikramaditya, who was con- 
tcmj)orary with Sapor, king of Persia. 

ADITYA. Sansk. The sun. Adityavar, Adit- 
war, or Aitwar, Sunday, from Adit, the first, 
and war, day. — W. The twelve Aditya, in Hindu 
mythology, are said to be the offspring of Aditi 
and Casyapa, who is called the mother of the 
gods. They are emblems of the sun for each 
month of the year, and are themselves called suns ; 
their names are Varuna, Surya, Vedanga, Bhanu, 
Indra, liavi, Gabhasti, Yama, S warnareta, Di vakara, 
Mitra, and Vishnu (Gita, p. 144). Another list is 
Ansa, Aryaman, Bhaga, Daksha, Mitra, and Varuna, 
to which Dhatri, Indra, and Savitra are often added. 
Of these, Vishnu seems to be considered as the 
first, for Krishna, describing his own pre-emi- 
nence, says, ' Among the Aditya I am Vishnu.' The 
names of the twelve vary according to the several 
authorities. Later mythology counts twelve, all 
sun-gods, and representing that luminary in 
phases of the twelve months. Their name, Aditya, 
comes from the noun Aditi, which signifies literally 
' unharmableness, indestructibility ; ' and it denotes 
them as ' of an eternal unapproachable nature.' 
To the Adityas Hindus ascribe unapproach- 
ability by anything that can harm or disturb ; in 
them can be distinguished neither right hand nor 
left, form nor limit ; they are elevated above all 
imperfections ; they do not sleep nor wink ; their 
character is all truth ; they hate and punish guilt ; 
to preserve mortals from sin is their highest office; 
they have a peculiar title to the epithet Asura, 
'immaterial, spiritual,' for this is the proper and 
original meaning of this term ; it is a derivative 
adjective from the noun Asu, 'life, existence.' — 
Oriental Linguistic Studies, p. 88 ; Williavis' Nala, 
p. 122. 

ADITYA BHAKTL Tel. Helianthus annuus. 
See Ansaria. 

ADIYAN or Adyar. Maleal. — A slave. The 
Adiyan slave, serf, or vassal, of Malabar lives 
under the protection of a raja or religious estab- 
lishment. This tribe visit Coorg from Malabar to 
i k as labourers. They speak Malealam. 

ADJAI or Ajye, a mountain stream in 
I Birbhum. It is the Amystis of Mcgasthenes, 
' and the Ajamati of Wilford. In its literal ac- 

Ntation, the Ajye means the unconquerable; 
1 many a Hindu mother, like Thetis, formerly 

dipped their children in its waters to make them 
invulnerable. Hence may be accounted the name 
of Birbhum, or the land of heroes. It waa 
anciently called Malla Bhumi, or the land of 
the Mall (wrestlers and athletes). — Tr. of Hind. 

AD J AT. Mahk. People of the mixwl castea. 

ADJUTANT BIUD, Leptoptilus argUa. 

ADNAN, one of the ancestors of the present 
Arabs. He was a direct descendant from Ish- 
inael. His posterity is adled Al Arab al Mustaar- 
ibah, I.e. the naturalized, or insititioiu, Arabs. 
— Sale's Koran. See Kahtan ; Joktan. 

ADNARA. Hind. Panther. 

ADOLIA. The larvae of this genua of insects are 
hairy, and sting with virulence. — Tennent, Ceylon. 

ADO-MODIEN. Tam. Holostemma Rheedia- 

ADONDA. Tel. Capparis horrida, L. 

who seems to have been tbe subducr of the 
Kurumbar or Shepherd tribes. 

ADONI, in lat. 15° 38' 9" N., and long. 77" 
20' E. A town and revenue district in the centre 
of the Peninsula of India. These have forme<l 
parts of the dominions of the Vijianagar, the Adal 
Shahi, the Dehli Empire, Hyderabad, and Mysore, 
and now of the British. Adoni is 309 miles from 
Madras, and 43;J miles from Bellary, It is south 
of the Tumbudra, and 1395 feet above the sea. 
The hill station near is 2103 feet. Its silk and 
cotton fabrics are famed and largely exjX)rted. 

ADOPTION, a custom amongst Hindus of 
adopting male children, giving the child all the 
rights of legitimate offspring ; and when the child 
binds round his head the turban of his adopted 
father, he is finally severed from the stock whence 
he had his birth. This right is restricted to choos- 
ing amongst the kindred. Hindu law recognised 
twelve kinds of adoption. — Tod's Raja.sth. i. p. 31. 

ADRAIST^ of Arrian, the modern Takka. 
See Arashtra. 

ADRAK, also Ada. Hind. Zingiber officinale, 
green ginger. Sont, dry ginger. 

ADRA MALIK, the male power of the sun. 
Among the Samarians, children were burned as 
to Molech, supposed analogue, or to be identical 
with the Adharmeswara of the Hindus. 

ADRASA, a town to which Alexander crossed 
the Hindu Kush from Alexandria apud Caucasum. 
He reached it in 15 days. 

ADU. Tam. A sheep, a goat Attu-Karan, a 
shepherd or goatherd. 

ADULARIA, or Moonstone, is very abundant 
in the neighbourhood of Kandy, where it is occa- 
sionally the predominating ingredient of the rock. 

ADWAITA. Sansk. A school of Hindu philo- 
sophy and theology, established by Vyasa, and 
carried out by Sankaracharya. The latter was 
the founder of the monastery of Sringeri, near 
the Tumbudra river. The system regards the 
Supreme Spirit and the human spirit as one, and 
the world as an illusion. The term is from a, 
privative, and dwaita, two, — non-duality. This 
system of philosophy is pantheistic, and is 
usually termed Vedanta. This view is held by the 
Smarta brahman and all Hindus following that 
sect, holding, viz., that the creature is not sepa- 
rate frond the Creator, but partakes of his essence. 
The Dwaita or dual philosophy is that of the 
Madhava brahmans and their followers, viz. that 
the Creator and his creatures are separate. The 




Vasishta adwaita is a third philosophy ; it means 
non-duality with a difference, viz. that the crea- 
ture, separate from the Creator during life, be- 
comes absorbed into his essence after death. This 
is the doctrine of the Sri Vaishnava sect. These 
philosophies are known to all Hindus. 

ADWAITANAND. See Chaitanya. 

ADYAR, a small river which commences prin- 
cipally from the leakage of tanks about 30 miles 
west of Madras, and enters the Bay of Bengal 
in the south environs of Madras, bemg spanned 
by several bridges in its course. 

ADYASTHANA, or First Shrine, is a name 
applied in the Bhavishya Purana to the original 
temple of the sun in Kashmir, which is said to have 
been built by Samba, the son of Krishna ; but adya 
is perhaps only a corruption of Aditya, or the sun, 
which is usually shortened to adit, and even ait, 
as in aditwar and aitwar or itewar for Aditya- 
wara, or Sunday. Biladuri calls the idol a re- 
presentation of the prophet Job, or Ayub, which 
is an easy misreading for Adit. — Cunningham'' s 
Ancient Geog. of India, p. 235. 

ADZ. Arab. Ervum lens, Linn. 

ADZARA, the Tibetan name of Assam. 

Var. iS. Gossypina. 
Patrang, .Toundela, of Ravi. | Ban-Marua, . of Ravi. 

Bees are particularly fond of its flowers ; a kind 
of cloth is made from the tomentum of the leaf. — 
J. L. Stewart, M.D. 

iECIDIUM THOMSONIA infests the fir tree, 
Abies Smithiana. See Fungi ; Insects. 

AEEN. Mahr. Termiualia glabra, >^., 
and T. coriacea, Roxb. 

-(EGAGRUS, a wild species of Ibex, of Middle 
and North Asia, called Paseng by the Persians. — 
Cat. As. Soc. Beng. See Caprese. 

M. majus, Gcert., Roxb. I M. floridum, Rom. 
JE,. obovatum, Bl. \ Rhizophora comiculata, L. 

Hulsi, .... Beng. | Bu-ta-yat, . . . Burm. 

A large shrub in the Sunderbuns, the Tenas- 
serim Provinces, both Peninsulas, Australia, 
Moluccas, and Java ; when in bloom it is 
covered with small white flowers, which seem to 
have great attractions for the fire-flies. In 
moving up the streams near the seaboard on a 
dark night, these trees are often seen illumined 
with myriads of waving brightening wings, and 
making them look in the deep gloom like superb 
candelabra hung with living lamps. Bees give it 
the preference to all other shrubs in attaching 
their combs to it. It is a useful coast plant. — 
Mason ; Voigt, 835 ; Roxb. iii. 130 ; von Mueller. 

^GINETIA INDICA, Willde, the Tsjem 
cumulu of the Maleali, is a small, annual, singular- 
looking, rush-like plant, with a flower like the 
bowl of a tobacco pipe. It grows in the Circars, 
at Khandala, Salsette, and Konkans. JE. pedun- 
culata, Wall., is a parasite growing on the roots 
of Andropogon muricatus. — Roxb. 130; Voigt, 496. 

^GLE MARMELOS. Corr. Bel fruit "tree. 

Cratseva marmelos, lAnn. 
Sri phal, Bel, . . Beng. 
Oo-sheet, . . . BuHM. 
Tanghai ? Tangala, Malay. 
Kuvelam, . . Maleal. 
Bala ghund, . . Pdsht. 

Feronia pellucida, Roth. 
Mahura, .... Sansk. 
Vilva-maram, . . Tam. 
Maradu cliettu, . Tel. 
Bilvamu chettu, . ,, 

Malu-ramu chettu, ,, 

The Bel, Bengal quince, or larger wood apple, 
is a large thorny tree which flowers during the 

hot season, and its large spheroidal fruit ripens 
after the rains. The tree grows all over India and 
into the Himalaya, at Simla, Kamaon, Garhwal, 
and up to the Indus, and in all the sub-Alpine 
tracts, and it is found about towns and villages 
throughout the Prome district, and also about 
Tounghoo, more especially on the Shan side of the 
river. It attains an extreme height of 30 feet, 
and in girth 8 feet. The wood is light-coloured, 
variegated with veins, compact, very strong and 
hard, but is little used, partly perhaps from a 
religious feeling on the part of the Hindus, with 
whom the tree is sacred to Siva, and partly from 
the value of the tree from thegreatmedicinal virtues 
of the fruit. But in the Godavery districts the 
native dhol or drum is often made of it ; and it ia 
used for naves of wheels and crushers for sugar 
in Garhwal. The wood is ground with water 
into a sort of oily paste, which is poured on the 
lingam in the temples dedicated to Siva. The 
leaves are offered to Siva and to the female divini- 
ties in the same way that the leaves of the tulsi 
are offered to Vishnu. The fruit is delicious to 
the taste, and very fragrant. It is smooth, resem- 
bling an orange, with a yellow, hard rind, which 
is astringent, and used in dyeing yellow. The 
pulp of the fruit has been long in use in diarrhoea ; 
and its aperient and detersive qualities, and its 
efficacy in remedying habitual costiveness, have 
been proved by constant experience. It has lately 
been brought into repute when fresh and in con- 
serve as a remedy in some forms of dysentery. 
AVhen dried before it is ripe (Belgar, Belgiri), the 
fruit is used in decoction in diarrhoea and dysen- 
tery ; and when ripe and mixed with juice of 
tamarinds, forms an agreeable drink. The beauti- 
fully clear mucus which surrounds the seeds is, 
for some purposes, a very good cement, which as 
a gum may some day be turned to use in the arts. 
The roots, bark, and leaves are reckoned refrigerant 
in Malabar. The bark of the root, especially, is 
given in decoction in intermittent fever, and the 
leaves are applied as a poultice in ophthalmia. 
They abound in a volatile fragrant perfume, which 
is distilled from the flowers, known as marmala 
water, and is much used by the natives as a 
perfume for sprinkling on visitors. The pulp is 
also mixed in lime cement. In Peshawar, large 
numbers of snuff-boxes for domestic use, and 
for export to Afghanistan, are made from the 
shell of the fruit, which is prettily carved over 
and fitted with a small bone plug for the opening 
in the end. Lest the resemblance of the wood 
apple to the fruit of the Nux vomica might give 
rise to accidents, it should be remembered that 
their strong aromatic smell, like that of all other 
fruits belonging to the orange family, will distin- 
guish them easily from the Nux vomica, which is 
devoid of aroma. — Drs. Roxb., M''Clelland, Wight, 
Gibson, Brandis, Stewart, O^Shaughnessy, Riddell, 
Waring, Cleghorn; Major Drury's Useful Plants; 
Mr. Elliot ; Cal. Cat. Ex. 1862 ; Ind. An. Med. 
Sc. 1854 ; Beddome. 

^GLE SEPIARA is used in Japan for hedges, 
its thorny branches being useful. The fruit is 
never eaten raw, but is roasted on hot ashes. Itii 
has a glutinous pulp, which is laxative. — Hog^ 
Veg. King. 

iELIUS GALLUS, a Roman of the Equestrian 
order, sent, between B.C. 24 and a.d. 1, with a forc0 
to explore Ethiopia and Arabia. The force wai 




organized at Oloopatris, in tho neighbourhood of 
the mcMlern Suez, and consisted of 10,000 Romans, 
with 15,000 mercenaries, together with a fleet of 
80 vessels of war and 130 transports. After two 
years' aihsence in Nejran, JEli\is Gallua brought 
back with hiui but a snuill part of his army, 
hunger, fatigue, and sickness having destroyed the 
remainder, for only seven fell by tho sword. — 
PUiyfairs Aden. 

AENEZI,orAnczah,an Arab tribe in the vicinity 
of Syria, and if we add to them their brethren in 
Nejd, they may bo reckoned one of the most 
considerable bodies of Bedouins in the Arabian 
deserts. They are noniades, migrating over 30,000 
square miles. In spring they approach the foun- 
tains of Syria, and form a line of encampment 
extending from near Aleppo to eight days' journey 
to the south of Damascus. Their principal resi- 
dence, however; during that time is the Hauran 
and its neighbourhood, when they encamp near 
and among the villages, while in the more northern 
country, towards Horns and Hamah, they mostly 
keep at a certain distance from the inhabited 
grounds. In these parts they spend the whole 
Bunmier seeking pasture and water, purchase in 
autumn their winter provision of wheat and barley, 
and return after tho first rains into the interior of 
the desert. They are the only true Bedouin 
nation of Syria, the other tribes in the neighbour- 
hood of this country having more or less degene- 
rated in manners, and several being reduced to 
Bubjection. — Skinner ; Burckhardl ; Upton. 

^OLUS, the Vayu of the Hindu mythology. 
See Mythology ; Saraswati. 

AERATED WATER, Ho-lau-shm of the 
Chinese ; Soda water, 

AERIDES, or air plants, are numerous in all 
the humid parts of S.E. Asia. The Tenasserim 
Provinces abound in orchids, most of which grow 
on trees, and are epiphytes, not parasites. The 
flowers of some of the species are great favourites 
with the Burmese, and are sought after to adorn 
tho hair. The Bumiau books say that the trees 
around king Wathaudria's hermitage were covered 
with orchids, and that after being plucked they 
would retain their fragrance seven days. In the 
Andaman Islands, in the course of a few hours, a 
vast number can be collected. Ae. affine. Wall., 
■with large rose-coloured flowers, is of Assam, 
Nepal, and the Khassya hills. Ae. ampuUaceum, 
Roxb., grows on trees, and blossoms in May. Ae. 
oornutum, Roxh., grows at Dacca and Eastern 
Bengal. Ae. guttatum — Perida Mara, Tel. ; Sacco- 
labium retusum — is a lofty parasitic species, growing 
on trees near Dacca. Ae. multiflorum, Roxb., is a 
large and beautiful species of Silhet, with large 
purple and white flower. Ae. odoratum, Lour., a 
sweetly fragrant plant, with large white flowers 
•with a tinge of rose. It is met with at Dacca, the 
Khassya hills, Chittagong ; in the Bombay Ghats, 
on the Mahabaleshwar hills, Tenasserim, Moul- 
mein, China, and Cochin-China, The flowers 
hang in long racemes of a light flesh colour and 
spotted, from six inches to a foot long. They 
grow from the axils of the leaves, appearing in 
April and May. Ae. pallidum, Roxb., grows 
on trees in Chittagong and Eastern Bengal. Ae. 
radiatum, Roxb., on trees in the Gangetic delta. 
Ae. roetratum, Roxb., blossoms in April and May 
in Silhet. Ae. suaveolens, Roxb., found on trees 
in Chittagong, has very fragrant flowers all the 

year long. Ae. teaselatum, Wight, with hirge 
flowers of a greenish yellow, grows in the Circars, 
— Roxb.; Wiahl ; Voitjt ; Mason. 

AEROLITES, the deo-gola or devigola of the 
H i nd us. These are not uncom m on i n the possession 
of the Hindus, who worship them. The guardian of 
a temple showed Buron de Bode a flat black stone, 
which appeared to be an aerolite, weighing several 
pounds, and let him into the secret of its wonder- 
ful properties, namely, that of being propitious to 
mothers who wish to be blessed with a numerous 
family, and who, on pressing it to the heart, must 
recite some prayers. This peculiarity bears some 
resemblance to what is told of the temple of 
Halgah-Baal, at Emessa, on the Orontes, in 
Phoenicia. Aerolites are possibly the baetylia of 
the Jews. The earliest of which we have any 
reliable account, is one that fell about the year in 
which Socrates was born, in Aegos Potamos, 2300 
years ago. One of the khalifas is said to have 
had swords forged from the iron of fresh fallen 
meteoric stones ; men have sometimes been killed 
by them in their fall. Every now and then, in 
some place or other of the earth, stones varying 
from the size of a musket ball to seven or eight 
feet in length, and many hundred seers in weight, 
fall down to the ground out of the sky. In many 
cases they have been seen to fall from, or result 
from, the explosion of luminous meteors or Are balls, 
not unfrequently with a force causing them to 
sink to a depth of from ten to fifteen feet into the 
earth, as in the case of those that fell at Barbotan 
in France, 24th July 1790, at Vienna, 16th June 
1794, at Western in North America, 14thDecember 
1807, etc. etc. In many cases a small and very 
dark cloud appears suddenly in a perfectly clear 
sky, and the stones are hurled from it with a noise 
resembling musketry or cannon ; such a cloud 
moving over a whole province, has sometimes 
covered it with thousands of fragments. Some- 
times, as in Germany (Kleinwenden, 16th Septem- 
ber 1843), a large aerolite fell with a thundering 
noise from a perfectly clear sky. The largest 
with which we are as yet acquainted, are those 
of Bahia in Brazil, 7^ feet in length, and that of 
Otumpa, which also fell in South America, and 
which is now in the British Museum, London, and 
weighs 21 1^ maunds. Some have, by accurate 
observations, been proved to move no less than 
30 miles in a second. The falling of the following 
meteors in Southern Asia has been established : — 

B.C. 1451, Showers of stonea destroyed the enemies of 
Joshua at Beth-horon, Josh. x. 11, 
„ 211. Stones fell in China. — De Ouignea. 
,, ly2. ,, ,, ,, 

,, 89, Two large stones feU at Yong in China ; tho 
sound was heard over forty leagues. — De 
,, 38. Six stones fell at Leang in China. 
„ 38. Four stones fell at Po in China. 
„ 22. Eight stones fell in China, — De Guignes. 
„ 12, A stone fell in Ton-Kuang in China. — De 

,, 9, Two stones fell in China. — De Guignes. 
,, 6. Sixteen stones fell in Ning Tcheon in China, 
and other two in the same year. — De Ouig. 
Date unknown. The black stone, or Hajar us Sinh, at 

A.D. 500, In the sixth century, stones fell on Mount 
Lebanon, and near Emisa in Syria, 
„ 570, Fall of stones near Bender in Arabia, — 

Koran, vi, 16 ; cv. 3 and 4, 
„ 852. July — August, A stone fell at Tabaristan. 
— De Sacy ; Quatremcre. 




A.D. 897? A stone fell at Ahmadabad. In 892 accord- 
ing to the Syrian chronicle. 
,, 1009. A mass of iron fell at Jorjan. — Avicenna. 
,, 1056. Red snow fell in Armenia. — Matth. Eretz. 
,, 1110. A burning body fell in Lake Van in Armenia. 

—Matth. Eretz. 
„ 1280. A stone fell at Alexandria in Egypt.— De 

„ 1718. Gelatinous matter fell with a globe of fire 

in the isle of Lathy in India. — Barchewitz ; 

JaniesorCs Ed. Journal, 1819, i. p. 222-235. 
,, 1794, June 16. Twelve stones fell at Sienna, one 

weighed 7J oz.— Phil. Trans. 1794. 
,, 1795, Apr. 13. Stones fell at Ceylon. — Beck. 
,, 1798, Dec. 19. Stones fell in Bengal. — Howard, 

Lm'd Valcnlia. 
„ 1798, Dec. 13. Krakhut, Benares, 3362 grains. 
,, 1808. Moradabad, Bengal. 
,, 1810, July. A great stone fell at Shahabad ; it 

burned five villages, and killed several 

men and women. — Phil. Mag. No. xxxvii. 

p. 236. 
,, 1814, Nov. 5. Stones fell in the Doab; nineteen 

were found. — PhiL Mag. Each stone was 

surrounded with a mass of dust. 
„ 1815, Feb. 18. Duralla, territory of the Patyala 

Raja, 29 lbs. 
„ 1822, Nov. 30. a. Futtehpur, Allahabad, 53,880 


b. Bittur and Shahpur, 75 miles N.W. of 

Allahabad, 2112 grains. 
■ „ 1827, Feb. 16. Mhow, Ghazipur, 2359 grains. 
„ 1833-4. Ambala. 

„ 1834, June 12. Charwallas, near Hissar. 
„ 1838, Jan. 29. Kaee, Saudee taluq of Oud'h. 
„ ,, April 18. Akbarpur, Saharunpur, 36,011 

,, ,, June 6. Chandakapur, Berar, 11,040 grains. 
,, 1843, July 26. Manegaon, Kandesh. 
„ 1846. Assam, India, 1 lb. 901 grains (found). 
„ 1850, Nov. 30. Shalka, West Bardwan, 63,529 

„ 1852, Jan. 23. Nellore, Madras, 30 lbs. 
,, 1853, March 6. Seggroowlee. 
„ 1857, Feb. 28. Parnalee, Madras, 130 lbs. 
,, ,, Dec. 27. Pegu (Quenggouk), 34,280 grains. 
„ 1860, March 28. Khergur, Agra, S.E. of Bhurtpur. 
,, ,, July 14. Darmsala, 28 lbs. 5250 grains. 
„ 1861, May 12. a. Peprassee, 5 lbs. 

b. BuUooah, 2400 grains. 

c. Nimbhooah (40 miles from Gorakhpur). 
,, 1865, Sept. 21. Muddoor, Mysore country. 

„ 1866. Yedabetta, S. Canara. 
• „ 1869, Sept. 19. Tja-be in Java. 
„ 1873, Sept. 23. Khairpur, 35 miles E. of Bhawulpur. 

— Capt. J. Abbott, in Bl. As. Trans., 1844, vol, 
xiii. p. 880 ; Mad. Lit. Trans., vol. xiii. p. 161 ; 
Dr. Buist's list. Bom. Geo. Trans., 1850, vol. ix. ; 
Prof. Powell's Rep. Brit. Ass., 1847 and 1852 ; 
Dr. Buisfs Cat. ; Balfour in Madras Mus. Recs. ; 
Mysore Mus. Recs. ; Vienna Mus. List. 

MmiA LANATA. Juss. 
Achyranthes lanata, L. lUecebrum lanatum, L. 

„ villosa, Forsk. 

Chaya, . . . Beng. Sirru pulai, . . . Tam. 

Khul, DDK. Pindi konda, . . . Tel. 

Sherubala, . , Maleal. Pindi donda, ... ,, 
Kampule kiray, Tam. | 

This is a common weed growing everywhere in 
the plains of India ; it has woolly, silvery-looking 
leaves, and oval heads of white flowers. Its 
leaves, mixed with others, are used as greens, and 
its roots as a demulcent in native medicine. — 
Wight also figures M. brachiata, floribunda, Ja- 
vanica, Monsonise, and scahdens. — Ainslie ; Jaf- 
frey; Useful Plants ; Foi^i. v See Vegetables. 

Incarvillea parasitica, B. I Trichosporura grandi- 
M. parasiticus. Wall. \ florum, Don. 

' A parasitic epiphytical plant with crimson 

yellow flowers, in shape and size like those of 
Digitalis purpurea. Stem succulent, smooth, with 
swelled joints, from which fibrous roots issue. 
Found on trees in S. Konkan, Khassya hills. 

jEschynomene paludosa,i2. | Hedysarum lagenarium,iZ. 

Phool-sola, . . 

. Beng. 

Shola, also Sola, 

. Hind. 


• )> 


. Mal. 

Pouk ; Nya, . 

. BURM. 


. Tam. 

The pith of this plant, known as shola, is used 
for light hats, bottle covers, and ornaments ; 
many present the appearance at a little distance 
of ivory carvings. It is one of the Leguminosse, 
and, under the Tamil name of Sudday-kecray, the 
leaflets are used as greens. It springs up spon- 
taneously in the Burma rice-fields, especially in 
the Tharawaddy district, and affords an excellent 
hemp. — Madras Exh. Jur. Reports oflS5b ; O'Sh.; 
Roxb.; MCI. 

^SCULACE^. iwrfZ.— The horse-chestnut 
tribe of plants, of the genera Pavia and jEscuIus. 
Three species — iEsculus Chinensis, Buvrje, M. tur- 
binata, Blume, and M. dissimilis, A. Gray — occur 
in Japan. 

.^SCULAPIUS, a learned physician of Greece, 
deified by the Greeks and Romans. He is not 
known, under that name, to the Hindus or Arabs. 

Tien-sz-lih, . . . Chin. | So-lo-tsze, . . . Chin. 

This soapwort grows in Hu-peh and Sech-u'en. 
The fruits resemble the horse-chestnut, and in 
Hankow sell at threepence each. They are used 
medicinally (Smith, p. 5). M. Indica, Colebrooke, 
is a tree of the Himalaya up to 9000 feet, height 
150 feet. M. hippo castanum, Linn., grows in 
Central Asia ; JEj. Kbassyana, in the Khassya 
hills. — Mueller. 

MSOF'S FABLES. Their original source was 
the Jataka of the Buddhists. See Jataka. 

AET. Ar. a verse of the Koran. 

UTILES, stones worshipped as sacred objects. 
See Aerolites ; Bsetyle ; Salagrama ; Stone. 

^TNA, in Hindu mythology, a nymph ; the 
same with Aitnidevi. 

Therrundi . of Malabar. I Eel tenki, . . . Tel. 
Pari lung, . . Malay. | 

An edible fish of India and Malay estuaries. 

AETOS, a name of the ancients for the Nile, 
from At or Ait, a rise of the river. 

AFAR. Arab. Galls. 

AFGHANISTAN is known to the Afghans as 
Valayat, and they regard it as comprising (1) 
Kabal or Kabalistan, which includes all that 
mountainous region north of Ghazni and the 
Safed-Koh, as far as the Hindu Kush, limited 
towards the west by the Hazara country, and 
towards the east by the river Indus ; and (2) 
Khorasan or Zabalistan, which includes all that 
extensive tract of country, alpine in its eastern 
limits, and table-land or desert in its western 
extent, that stretches south and west from about 
the latitude of Ghazni, and borders on the confines 
of Persia, from which, towards the south, it is 
separated by the desert of Seistan. Khorasan 
towards the north presents a very irregular out- 
line, and is bounded in that direction by the 
mountains of Hazara and Ghor ; towards the 
south it is separated from Beluchistan by the 
Washati range of mountains arid the Beluch 
provinces of Sarawan and Kach Gandava ; and its 




limit towards the east are the SuHman range, 
with its sul)ortlinate ningo and the Daman of the 
Dorajat. The greatest length of Afgiianistnn 
withni these limits is 750 miles, and breadth 5.00 
miles ; but the average length is 600, and its 
brcatlth 450 miles, lying between lat. 80° and 
S?" N., and long. 61° and 70° E. More than half 
of this, however, is independent, and much of it 
is hostile. The whole of the country of the 
Yusufzai clans, of Kaiiristau, of Chitral, of the 
Afridi and Waziri, and much of the Hazarajat, 
pretend as little to owe allegiance as the Amir 
cares to claim it ; and Badakshan, Kunduz, the 
Char Valayat, the countries of the Aimak, the 
Hazara, the Ghilzai, and Kakar, also Kuram, 
Khost, and Dawar, only yield obedience when 
the demand is backed by force. 

The districts of Afghanistan included in the 
above are, Kabal, Jalalabad, Ghazni, Kandahar, 
Herat, and Balkh, or, as the last has been called, 
Afghan-Turkestan. The administration of the 
country of the Ghilzai and Hazara has sometimes 
formed separate commands. Afghanistan in its 
physical form consists of a star of valleys radiat- 
ing round the stupendous peaks of the Koh-i- 
Baba, and everywhere bounded by mountains of 
a very rugged and difficult nature. Its natural 
divisions may be said to be six in number, viz. 

(1) the basin of the Kabal river, including its 
tributaries, the Logar, Panjsher, and Kunar rivers ; 

(2) the table-land and valleys of the Ghilzai 
country from Ghazni to Kandahar, including the 
Arghandab, the Tarnak, and the Arghesan ; (3) 
the tributary valleys of the Indus, viz. Kuram, 
Khost, Gomal, Ghobe, and Bori ; (4) the basin of 
the Seistan lake ; (5) the valleys of the Hel- 
mand, the Hari-Rud, and Murghab ; and (6) the 
tributary valleys of the Oxus, viz. Maemana, 
Balkh, Khulm, Kunduz, and Kokcha rivers. 

These regions are occupied by different races, 
thus : — (a) north of the Hindu Kush generally is 
the country of the Uzbak, which includes Maemana, 
Andkui, Akcheh, Saripul, Balkh, and Kunduz ; 
{b) the country of the Aimak and Hazara, 
known as the Hazarajat, includes generally the 
upper portions of the valleys of the Murghab, 
Hari-Rud, Helmand, and Arghandab ; (c) the 
country of the Daurani tribe, extending 30 miles 
north and south of a line drawn from Herat 
through Kandahar to Quetta (Kot-Shal or Shal- 
kot) ; (d) south of this is the Seistani country, 
consisting of the lower portion of all the ti-ibutary 
rivers of the Seistan lake ; (e) north and east 
of the Daurani are the homes of the great 
Ghilzai clan, who were for a brief space in the 
18th century dominant, and are still feared ; 
their country consisting of the upper portion of 
the Tamak and Logar rivers, including all the 
open plain region between their east and west 
watersheds ; (/) in a triangle bounded roughly 
bjr the Panjsher river, the south range of the 
Kttnar and the Hindu Kush, is the country of 
tlie Siah Posh and the kindred race of Chitral ; 
(g) then, in all the valleys that carry off the 
drainage of the Laspisar range and its ramifica- 
tions, are the Yusufzai ; (A) to the south, fringing 
the eastern spurs of the Safed Koh, are the 
Momand, the Afridi, the Orakzai, the Shinwari, 
the Khattak, the Turi, and the Bangash ; and 
(i) still further south are the Waziri, stretching 
across the debouchure of all the valleys from the 

Kuram to the Gomal, shutting off from the plains 
the smaller tribes of Jaji, Permuli, Khostwal, and 
Dawari ; (j) the great Povindah clan occupy tho 
triangle bounded by tho Ghilzai, Waziri, and 
Kakar ; {k) tho Kakar extending N.E. from tho 
Shal valley to the Takht-i-Suliman. 

Afghanistan, throughout its whole extent, is 
mountainous, and its general aspect is that of a 
series of elevated, flat-bottomed valleyth with 
some cultivation in the vicinity of the streams, 
but bounded by spurs which are mostly exceed- 
ingly bare and bleak. Some of the defiles to tho 
north of the Hindu Kush are of surpassing 
grandeur, while the soft, still loveliness of some of 
the sheltered glens on the southern slopes of that 
range is spoken of with rapture by every traveller. 
The general elevation is considerable. From the 
Koh-i-Baba the country slopes outwards, and 
contains in the table-land of Ghazni, and in the 
upper valleys of the Hari-Rud, the Helmand, and 
Kabal river, some of the highest country of a 
similar nature in the world. The country lowers 
towards its boundaries ; its rivers become exhaustefl 
by absorption into the soil and by irrigation, and, 
except in its N.E. comer, the country is bounded 
everywhere by very barren, desert-like land. If 
we go round it from Badakbshan east to Haji 
Shah on the Oxus, by Andkhui and Maemana to 
Herat, thence to the west of Herat to the Seistan 
lake, and lastly round the southern border of the 
Garmsel (Garm seir) to Shal, the want of water 
everywhere arrests cultivation and habitation. 

The only plain regions in Afghanistan are three, 
viz. the district between the foot of the northern 
slopes of the Hindu Kush and the Oxus, also that 
at the foot of their south-western slopes along 
the lower part of the courses of the Herat, the 
Farrah, and the Helmand rivers, and the desert 
region to the south of Kandahar. Some valleys 
have very considerable spaces of level within 
them, but they are so hemmed in by the moun- 
tains as to preclude their being named plains. 
Nevertheless there are numerous elevated flat- 
bottomed valleys, of an open, undulating surface, 
affording ample space for cultivation, the stretches 
of land, of considerable extant and evenness of 
surface, furnishing open spaces admirably adapted 
for the movements of an army. This physical 
feature of the country explains the fact of a 
nation of mountaineers carrying on most of their 
warfare on horseback, and priding themselves on 
the efiBciency and elan of their cavalry branch. 

There are many rivers in Afghanistan, but none 
of any magnitude, and, generally speaking, they 
are everywhere fordable throughout the greater 
part of the year. Even the largest partake of 
the character of torrents ; and, though they often 
come down with great force after rain, they soon 
run off. Their volume is also greatly diminished 
by the irrigation panals and drains cut from them, 
by which a stream, which at its commencement 
promises to become of some magnitude, is almost 
entirely exhausted before it reaches any river. 
The nameft of the Irivei's, c6mmcncing from the 
north, are — Oxus, Kokcha, Farkhtm, Kunduz, 
Khulra, Balkh, Andkhui, Murghab, Hari-Rud, 
Harut-Rud, Farrah-Rud, Khash-Rud, Helmand, 
Arghandab, Tarnak, Lora, Bori, Zhobe, Gomal, 
Tochi, Kuram, Kalml, Panjsher, Kunar, Panj- 
kora, and Swat. The irrigation canals are very 
numerous, but are small for agricultural purposes, 




and only extend a few miles from either bank 
of the river. There are several lakes; amongst 
them that of Seistan ia the most extensive ; in 
the Ghilzai country is the Ab-istada ; the Daria 
Darrah is in the Hazara country ; there is also a 
lake, or rather a marsh, north of Kabal, and the 
Chattibar lake at the head of the Chitral river. 

The S.W. portion of the country is occupied by 
a great sandy desert, over which, during the 
summer season, a deadly hot wind blows. The 
climate is of the most varied character, the 
diversities being due entirely to the difference of 
elevation rather than of latitude. Ghazni, for 
instance, is 7730 feet above the sea, and for the 
greater part of the winter the inhabitants seldom 
quit their houses, and the thermometer sinks to 
10° to 15° below zero. It is a prevalent belief 
that the entire population of Ghazni has several 
times been destroyed by snow -storms. The winter 
cold is intense wherever the elevation is above 
5000 feet. The heat of the summer is almost 
everywhere great, except in the very elevated 
parts of the Hindu Kush and other lofty 

The principal towns are — Kabal, Herat, Kan- 
dahar, Ghazni, Jalalabad, Girishk, Farah, Sabz- 
war, Maemana, Andkhui, Shibbargham, Siripul, 
Balkh, Khulm, and Kunduz; all of these have 
fortifications. The others are only villages, or 
at best collections of huts and tents. 

Babar enumerates tlie tribes which inhabited 
Kabal in his day. In the plains were Turks, 
Aimak, and Arabs ; in the towns and in some 
villages were Tajak, Pashani, and Parancheh ; and 
in the hills were Hazara, Togderri, Afghans, and 
Kafirs. The languages spoken amongst them 
were Arabic, Persian, Turki, Moghulai, Hindi, 
Afghani, Pashani, Ghabri, Barraki, and Dehgani. 
Ferrier tells lis (History, p. 307) the wars that 
have reddened the soil of Afghanistan since the 
middle of the 18th century have been so con- 
tinuous, that many of the old families have 
become extinct, and several tribes have remained 
without a head. Estimates of the population of 
parts of Afghanistan have been made by Dr. 
Lord, Lieut. Wood, Vambery, Elphinstone, Lums- 
den, Leech, Burnes, Bellew, Temple, Chamberlain, 
James Broadfoot, Aga Abbas, M'Gregor, and 
Edwardes, from which Lieut.-Col. M'Gregor's 
estimates of 4,901,500, as under, are framed — 
Badakshan and Darwaz, etc., . . . 55,000 

Kunduz, Khulm, Balkh, .... 350,000 
Char Vilayat, viz. : — 

Maemana, .... 90,000 

Andkhui, 50,000 

Shibbargham, .... 25,500 

Siripul 72,000 —237,500 

Aimak, viz. : — 

Zaidnat, 120,000 

FirozKohi, .... 40,000 

Jamshidi, 40,000 

Taemuni, 50,000 —250,000 

Hazara .-.•.• 150,000 

Daurani, — viz. the clans Popalzai, Alikuzai, 
Barakzai, Atchakzai, Nurzai, Ishakzai, 

Khugiani, 600,000 

Seistani, 127,500 

Tarin : a. clans of the Spin Tarin — Adwani, 
Lasran, Marpani, Shadizai ; 6. clans of the 
Tor Tarin — Abdur Rahmanzai, Alizai, 
Batezai, Habilzai, Haikalzai, Hamranzai, 
Kadazai, Kalazai, Karbela, Khamzai, 
Khanazai, Malizai, Musizai, Naezai, Nurzai, 

Sezai, . 38,000 

KaJiarr, — viz, Jalazai, Musa Khel, Kadizai, 

Usman Khel, Abdullazai, Kabizai, Ham- 

zazai, Shabozai, and Khidarzai, . . 72,000 

Ghilzai 276,000 

Povindah, — viz. Lohani, Nasir, Nazal, Kha- 

roti, 30,000 

Hindki and Jat, 600,000 

Tajak, 500,000 

Kazzilbash, 150,000 

Mixed population of towns, .... 65,000 

"Waziri, — viz. Mahsud, Utmanzai, and Ah- 

madzai 127,500 

Sheorani, 30,000 

Turi, 21,000 

Bangash, . . . , . . . 21,000 
Zaemukht, — viz. Mamuzai and Khwahdiid 

Khel, 21,000 

Orakzai, 106,000 

Dawari, 34,000 

Khostwal, 12,000 

Afridi, — viz. Kuki Khel, Malik Din, Kambar, 

Kamr, Zakha Khel, Aka Khel, and Sipah, 85,000 

Jaji _. . 7,000 

Mangal, — viz. Miral Khel, Elhajuri, Zab, 

Margae, and Kamal Khel, . . . 3,000 

Jadran 3,000 

Shinwari 50,000 

Khugiani, . . . . ... 50,000 

Momand, — viz. Tarakzai, Alamzai, Baizai, 

Khwaizai, Utmanzai, and Dawezai, . 80,000 

Yusufzai, — viz. Baezai, Khwazozai, Malizai, 

Turkilani, Utmanzai, Hasnzai, Akazai, 

Mada Khel, Iliazai, Daolatzai, Chagarzai, 

Nurizai, and Utmak Khel, . . . 400,000 
Chitrali, Nimcha, Lughmani, etc., . . 150,000 

Kafar, 100,000 

Kohistani, 100,000 

It must, however, be remembered that the tribes 
with democratic governments enumerated from 
the Waziri to the end of the above list, lying 
between British India and the Kabal dominions, 
do not acknowledge any fealty to Kabal, and their 
number is 1,220,000. They fight amongst them- 
selves ; and the Sikhs formerly, and now British 
India, have ma,de peace and war with them without 
any reference to Kabal. Also the Kazzilbash and 
Parsivan and others are not called Afghans. 
The former are descendants of Persians who 
entered the country with Nadir Shah ; they follow 
military pursuits, and serve in the cavalry and 
artillery of the Kabal army. The Parsivan dwell 
for the most part in towns and cities, occupied as 
merchants, shopkeepers, and in the various trades ; 
while those who reside in village communities are 
husbandmen and shepherds. 

Afghan Turkestan is the name given to all 
the Afghan dominions north of the Hindu Kush 
and Koh-i-Baba. It comprises the districts 
of Maemana, Andkhui, Sar-i-Pul, Shibbargham, 
Balkh, Khulm, Kunduz, and Badakhshan. 

Andkhui town is in lat. 36° 54' N., long. 35° 23' 
E. It is 100 mUes W. of Balkh, 18 miles N.W. 
of Shibbargham, and 60 miles N.N.E. of Mae- 
mana. The town contains 2000 houses, and 
about 3000 tents in its environs, or scattered 
over the oasis in the desert. According to Vam- 
bery, they are principally Turkomans of the Alieli 
tribe, intermixed with Uzbaks and a few Tajaks. 
Burnes, however, agrees with Ferrier's statement 
that three-fourths of the population are of the 
Persian tribe of Afshar, whom Shah Abbaa 
established there, the remaining fourth being 
Uzbaks. Andkhui is on the banks of a stream, 
which, flowing north from the mountains, passesi 
Maemana, and is lost in the desert before reach- 
ing the Oxus. It was here Moorcroft died. The 
Andkhui army consists of 1800 horse and 600 
foot, which could be trebled in a day. 




Hadiiklibhan is an extremely mountainouB 
country, jvbout 180 miles in greatest breadth, 
luul 1(X) miles in length, bounded on tiie north 
by the crest of the spur of the Hindu Kush, 
which divides the drainage of the Oxus from that 
of the Kokcha from its end at Jan Kala to the 
Oxus opposite to the ruby mines, and on the 
south by the crest of the Hindu Kush. The 
Hudukhishr seem to be of the same race as the 
iuliabitiints of Kafiristan, Chitral, Vakhan, 
Sliagnan, and lioshan, and the differences be- 
tween them and tlie surrounding states and 
tribes of Tartar origin are the more marked 
according as they have intermarried less with 
their Uzbak conquerors, or in direct proportion 
of the inacceseibility of their villages. The 
Uzbak forcibly converted the Badakhshi of the 
plains to the Sunni persuasion ; those who took 
refuge in the mountains are Shiahs, and always 
go armed. The climate is very severe in winter. 
The country yields salt, sulphur, lapis lazuli ; and 
its ruby mines are on the right bank of the Oxus. 
Morad Bey of Kunduz overran Badakhshan, and 
on leaving the country drove before him 20,000 
families, who were never permitted to return. It 
is governed by a Mir, who acknowledges the Amir 
of Kabal. 

Balkh is 357 miles N.W. of Kabal, 120 miles 
W. of Kunduz, 370 miles N.E. of Herat, 500 miles 
E. of Mashad, 600 miles S.E. of Khiva, 50 miles W. 
of Khulm, 260 miles S.E. of Bokhara, 200 miles 
S.S.E. of Samarcand, and 67 miles from the left 
bank of the Oxus. It is situated on a plain sur- 
rounded by canals from the Balkh or Delias river. 
Its circumference may be about 4 or 5 miles, but 
its ruins have a circuit of about 20 miles. The 
population consists of 10,000 Afghans, 5000 
Uzbaks of the Kapchak and Sabu tribes, and 
1000 families of Jews in the old town. The 
people of Central Asia have a great veneration 
for Balkh, and call it Am-ul-Balad, mother of 
cities. Moorcroft and Guthrie are buried side by 
side outside the city. It was captured in 1850 
by Muhammad Akram Khan, Barakzai, and has 
since then been under Afghan rule. 

Khulm, or Tashkurgan town, is 307 miles- 
N.N.W. of Kabal, 310 miles S.E. of Bokhara, 50 
miles from Balkh, 70 miles from Kunduz, 420 miles 
N.E. of Herat, and 497 miles N.W. of Peshawar 
by Kabal. It is situated on a plain immediately 
north of the gorge by which the Khulm river 
eacapes from the hills. It consists of four or five 
villages, with a population, in 1845, of 15,000 
aouls. Since the 9th May 1855 it has been in the 
I hands of the Afghans. 

Kunduz district, about 1838, contained 60,000 

uses with 270,000 souls ; the Talikhan district, 

,i»00 houses and 112,500 souls; and- Hazrat 

luiam, 20,000 houses and 90,000 souls, — in all, 

172,000 souls. 

Maemana is situated on a plain in the midst of 

I'ills. It is 172 miles N.E. of Herat, 105 miles 

^V. of Balkh, 380 miles E. of Mashad, 280 miles 

of Bokhara, 350 mUes W.N.W. of Kabal, 665 

; miles N.N.W. of Kandahar by Kabal, 572 miles 

I from Kandahar by Herat, and 230 miles S.E. of 

i Merv. The inhabitants are Uzbaks, with some 

\t Tajaks, Herati, about 50 families of Jews, a few 

^lindus and Afghans, in all about 15,000 or 

.<»00 souls. The district is 20 miles long by 18 

oad. In 1857, the Mir of Maemana tendered 

Bubraission to Persia. ^^^^7 ^^ 1858, being 
threatened by Persia, ho applied to Muhamniatl 
Afzal for assistance ; in 1859, ho headed a 
rebellion against the Afghans, but was defeated. 
In 1861, he tendered his submission to Herat, and 
in the end of the year transferred it to Kabal. 
In the beginning of 1868, Maemana stood a siege 
by Abdur Rahman, and the inhabitants gallantly 
repelled three assaults, but at last submitted to 

Sar-i-Pul is 100 miles S.AV. of Balkh and 300 
miles N.E. of Herat, a confused collection of 
houses and tents, with 18,000 souls, two-thirds of 
them Uzbaks, the rest Hazara. The chief is an 

Shibbargham town is 250 miles N.E. of Herat 
and 60 miles W. of Balkh. It contains 12,000 
souls, Uzbak and Parsivan. The people are brave. 

Kafiristan is beyond the limits of, but borders 
on, Afghanistan. It is bounded on the west by 
the Belut Tagh, on the east it touches Chinese 
Turkistan and Little Tibet, to the south lies 
Afghanistan, and to the north Kokun or Fergh- 
ana, where the population is Chaghtai Turk. 
The Kafir have idols of stone and wood, male and 
female, also a stone, Imrtan, representing deity. 
They are independent, have defied all attempts at 
reduction, and their enmity to Mahomedajis is 

Pukhtun is the national appellation of the 
Afghans proper ; but Afghans and Pathans also 
designate themselves Ban-i-Israel, and some claim 
direct descent from Saul, king of Israel. Pukh- 
tun is the individual, and Pukhtana the collective 
name of the Afghans. This word is described aa 
of Hebrew (Ibrani) origin, though some of them 
say it has a Syrian (Suriani) source, and signifies 
delivered, set free. The term Afghan is also 
said to have the same signification. One tra- 
dition is that the mother of Afghan or Afghana, 
on his being born exclaimed, ' Afghana,' ' I am 
free,' and gave him this name ; another tradition 
is that in the pangs of labour she exclaimed. 
'Afghan, Afghan,' or ' Fighan, Fighan,' words 
which in the Persian mean woe ! grief ! alas ! 
Afghan is claimed as the designation only of the 
descendants of Kais. 

The term Pathan is said to be from Pihtan, a 
titular appellation alleged to have been bestowed 
by Mahomed on an Afghan called Kais. 

Their origin is involved in obscurity. But 
several writers consider them to be descendants 
of one of the ten tribes of Israel ; and this is an 
opinion of some Afghans themselves. A few 
authors consider that this nation is not of Jewish 
origin, but that those who introduced the Maho- 
medan religion amongst them were converted 
Jews. They are in tribes, several of which 
have recently occupied their present lands. 

The Abdali, besides having the name of Daurani, 
which they received from Ahmad Shah, are still 
called Sulimani, from the mountains whence they 
came ; the district they then inhabited bears the 
appellation of Tobeh-Mahruf. 

Afghans call the Tajak Dehgan ; the Uzbak call 
them Sart ; and those of them in Turkestan are 
called by travellers Owkhar. The Tajak, tliough 
of a different race, resemble the Parsivan in 
occupations as well as language, but they chiefly 
lead an agricultural hfe, settle in villages, and 
cultivate the soil. The Karani, Ashtarani, Mash- 




ani, and Wardak call themselves Patbans, but 
tliey are of a different origin from the Afghans. 
The Karani division contains the Orakzai, Afridi, 
Mangal, Khattak, and Khugiani tribes, and the 
Waziri are sometimes included in these. 

The Hindki are much more numerous than the 
Tajak; they are all of Indian descent, and retain 
the well-known appearance, ways, and mannere of 
their original country, together with a mixture 
of those which have been attributed to the eastern 
Afghans. They are worse treated than the Tajak, 
and by no means bear so respectable a character. 

Hindus are to be found over the whole of 
Afghanistan. In towns they are in considerable 
numbers, as brokers, merchants, bankers, gold- 
smiths, sellers of grain, etc. There is scarce a 
village in the country without a family or two, 
who exercise the above trades, and act as ac- 
countants, money-changers, etc. They spread 
into the north of Persia. They are encouraged 
in Bokhara, and other towns in Tartary. 

The character of the Afghans is unfavourably 
noticed by all writers. They are very supersti- 
tious. To carry a Koran in procession, or to place 
it under their heads when they go to sleep, or to 
repeat one thousand times the name of God or of 
Mahomed, are deemed to be infallible as means 
of curing ailments. They have a great dread of 
the evil eye, and cover themselves and their 
domestic animals with amulets. To obtain a 
knowledge of future events, like the Sortes 
Virgilianse, they open a book at random, and 
apply the first verse that meets the eye to the 
subject of the inquiry. The best book for the 
purpose is the Koran, and the trial ought to be 
preceded by fasting and prayer, which indeed are 
necessary in all attempts at divination. 

A love of gain is their ruling passion. Mr. 
Elphinstone, who has written the most favour- 
ably of them, says (p. 250) most of the Daurani 
chiefs prefer hoarding up their great but useless 
treasures, to the power, reputation, and esteem 
which the circumstances of the times would enable 
them to command by a moderate liberality. 

The people of Europe may experience difficulty 
in giving credence to the unfavourable opinions 
which eye-witness writers express regarding 
the Afghan race ; but in a public document 
laid before the British Parliament in 1881, 
Abdul Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, on the 
occasion of his replying to the demand of the 
Indian Viceroy for an Afghan envoy, says, ' A 
thoroughly confidential man does not (as your 
Excellency is well aware of the nature of the 
people of Afghanistan) exist in this country.' 
The democratic character of their tribal rela- 
tions is nol favourable to combination. Ever 
since the year 1836, the British have been 
endeavouring to have all Afghanistan under the 
sway of one ruler, the object in view being to 
form a barrier to the progress of Russia from the 
N.W. But, except for the very brief periods since 
the beginning of the 18th century, that the 
Ghilzai, the Abdali or Daurani, and their clan the 
Barakzai, have been dominant, there has not, so 
far as is known of these tribes, been anything 
like a settled monarchy. In India, a remark of 
an Afghan chief has gained currency; when 
speaking to a British officer, he remarked, ' Why, 
sir, if we hail not you to fight with, we would 
fight amongst ourselves.' 

General Ferrier describes the Afghans generally 
as physically tall, robust, well-formed and active; 
their step is full of resolution, and their bearing 
proud, but rough. They are brave even to rash- 
ness, excited by the smallest trifle, enterprising 
without the least regard to prudence, energetic, 
and born for war. But their courage is impulsive, 
and displays itself most readily in the attack ; if 
that fail, they are easily disheartened, and show 
no perseverance, for as they are soon elated, so 
are they as easily depressed. They are sober, 
abstemious, and of an apparently open disposition; 
great gossips, and curious to excess. Their anger 
is not betrayed by any sudden burst of passion ; 
on the contrary, all that is brutal and savage in 
their nature is manifested with the most perfect 
calmness, but it is the volcano slumbering beneath 
the ashes. Courage is with them the first of 
virtues, and usurps the place of all others. They 
are cruel, perfidious, coarse, without pity, badly 
brought up, exceedingly inclined to theft and 
pillage. In the latter character they differ from 
their neighbours the Persians, who are, however, 
as great scoundrels as themselves, for they endea- 
vour by every means in their power to conceal 
their knavery under the appearance of law or 
rhetoric, while the Afghans do the very reverse ; 
they at once place the knife on your throat, and 
say, ' Give, or I take.' Force is their only argu- 
ment, and it justifies everything. An injury is 
never forgotten, and vengeance is a passion which 
they love ; even at the cost of their lives they will 
satisfy it should an opportunity present itself, 
and this in the most cruel manner. There is no 
nation in the world more turbulent or less under 
submission. The people are as gross and coarse 
as savages ; the chiefs and upper classes are more 
civilised, but their politeness is always tinctured 
by a rudeness of manner very offensive to Euro- 
peans. Country and honour are to them as empty 
sounds, and they sell them to the highest bidder 
without scruple. The Afghans, he says, are as in- 
capable of a continued course of action as of ideas ; 
they do everything on the spur of the moment, for 
a love of disorder or for no reason at all. It matters 
little to them who gives them laws ; they obey the 
first comer directly they find it to their advantage 
to do so, and allow him to play the tyrant and 
govern them if he pays them well and does not 
interfere with their passion for rapine and devas- 
tation. Pillage, fighting, and disturbance are at 
times necessary to their very existence, and are ' 
followed by long days of repose and idleness, during 
which they live on the fruits of their depredations. 
Their cupidity and avarice are extreme ; there is 
no tie they would not break, no duty they would 
not desert, to gratify their avidity for wealth. 
This surpasses all that can be imagined ; it is in- 
satiable, and to satisfy it they are capable of 
committing the greatest crimes. For it they will 
sacrifice all their innate and native pride, even pro- 
stitute the honour of their wives and daughters, 
whom they frequently put to death after they 
have received the price of their dishonour. He 
says (p. 309) that during the 1839-41 British 
occupation the husband sold the honour of his 
wife, the father that of his daughter, and the 
brother that of his sister. Gold in Afghanistan 
is, he adds, more than anywhere else the god of 
the human race ; it stifles the still small cry of 
every man's conscience, if, indeed, it can be 




dmitteil that an Afghan has a conscience at all. 

b is iiiipussible to rely on their promises, tlieir 

riendahii), or iheir fidelity. They enter into 

i'ini-nt8, and bind themselves by the most 

I oaths to respect them, and in order to 

liem a sacred cnaracter, transcribe them on 

'iin, to which they affix their seal, never- 

^ perjure themselves with an impudence 

tly inconceivable. Excitement, the clash 

1, and the tumult of the combat, are to 

lim life ; repose is for an Afghan only a transi- 

"v >;tate of being; the sweets of domestic life 

ill.) charms for him. He is only really a man 

he is fighting and plundering. Then his eye 

H full of lire, his hand grasps convulsively the 
lilt of his sabre, and he presses his sinewy legs 
-t his horse's side until the animal can 
ly draw his breath. Man and horse are one ; 
iich understands the ardour of the other, and it 
i difhcult to distinguish which of the two is the 
Qost vicious. 

Colonel M'Gregor says (Khorasan, i. 213), * I 

Lnew them to be liars, treacherous beyond all 

he races of the earth, vain -boasters, and utterly 

mtrustworthy in every way.' He also says he has 

i(!ard many men talk of the courage, generosity, 

Jid frankness of the Afghans in terms of the 

Jghest praise, but all who know them agree very 

it'arly with Ferrier, and it is impossible to form a 

3ore favourable estimate than his. 

ilajor Edwardes, an intelligent observer and 

xperienced authority on Afghan character, ex- 

ressed his regret to be obliged to take exception 

3 Mr. Elphinstone's very high estimate of the 

Lfghan character, and in this he thought he 

'ould be supported by every political officer on 

he N.W. frontier, and almost every military 

' who served in Afghanistan. He says, 

ling that I have met is finer than their 

hysique, or worse than their morale.' 

Major Eeynell Taylor says (ii. p. 131) the Af- 

hans are a race in the first place very hostile to 

B, and further, have less of that good and honour- 

I 'rinciple of allegiance and good faith towards 

whose salt they have eaten, and whose 

vice they have adopted, than any other natives 

I it we have hitherto come in contact with. And 

II Afghan, be he Amir or villager, can fight as 
Hig as he likes, and run away when the aspect 

if affairs does not satisfy him, without the slightest 
les of credit among his fellows ; he can sigh like 
martyr over the irresistible pressure of circum- 
i anccs, which has on some occasions obliged him 
) break through the most solemn oaths and 
igagements ; he can wade through murder to an 
'iheritance, and be admired in his own country 
ji a stirring, decided character, fit to cope with 
lie world's difficulties ; or serve a master for a 
line, rob him, and return to his village with no 
jtrther shadow on his respectability than might 
nig over the position of a successful adventurer 
i3m the diggings. 

Dr. Bellew says (ii. p. 132) the pride of the 

fphans is a marked feature of their national 

i L'tcr. They eternally boast of their descent, 

prowess in arms, and their independence, 

i[) all by, 'Am I not aPukhtun?' They 

L' all other races; towards strangers of 

'"V they are manly and plain-spoken, but 

I j wards the weak and low they are abusive 

fjd tyrannical. They enjoy a character for 

lavish or atl east liberal hospitality. In out- 
of-the-way and unfrequented localities there is 
a show of greater hoHpitality and welcome, but 
it is not genuine ; and as often as not, if the guest 
be worth it, he is robbed or murdered by his late 
host as soon as beyond the protecting limits of 
the village boundary, if not conveyed by a convoy 
(badraqa) of superior strength. They glory in 
being robbers, admit that they are avaricious, 
and cannot deny the character they have acquired 
for faithlessness. According to their neighbours, 
the Afghans are said to be naturally very avari- 
cious and grasping, selfish and merciless, strangers 
to affection, and without gratitude. They have, he 
says, all these faults, but the condemnation is too 
sweeping and severe. Though not always sincere, 
in their manners the Afghans observe many out- 
ward forms of courtesy towards each other and 
strangers, that one would not expect in a 
people living the disturbed and violent life 
they do. 

A Persian quartet runs, ' If ever a scarcity of 
men occur, take a few of the following races, viz. : 
first, the Afghan ; second, the Kamboh ; and third, 
the low Kashmiri. From the Afghan you will 
meet with treachery, from the Kamboh fraud, 
and from the Ka.shmiri grief and sorrow.' 

Lieut-Colonel M'Gregor says (iii. pp. 59, 60), 
' It cannot be stated that there is, as we under- 
stand it in Europe, any national spirit amongst 
the Afghans ; they fight much more for their 
own interests than for their independence.' The 
chiefs are ready to pass from the ranks of the 
Amir of Kabal into the service of the Wazir 
of Herat, the chief of Kandahar, the British, the 
Persians, Sikhs, Tartars, or Beluch, and vice versa, 
without the slightest scruple. It is indifferent to 
them whether their friend of to-day be their 
enemy to-morrow, or whether they have even 
to take arms against their relations or not ; the 
love of money enables them to overlook all these 
considerations. As a general rule, he says, (p. 64), 
if an Afghan is obliged to work one month in 
twelve, he considers himself most unfortunate. 
The repression of crime and levying a tax he 
considers as zulm, tyranny. To live in perfect 
licence, and never to be asked for anything, is 
what he would call the proofs of a paternal 

General Ferrier says the Afghan army might, 
in case of necessity, consist of the whole male 
population, for every man is born a soldier, and 
attaches himself to some chief as soon as he can 
hold a musket. ... At the first news of war the 
chiefs hasten to bring their several contingents. 
In the field, the Afghans never think of what is 
going on in then: front. On the line of march 
they form neither advanced nor rear guards, but 
move straight on without the least uneasiness 
until they meet the enemy. The love of war is 
felt much more amongst Afghans than all other 
eastern nations. . . . War to them is a trade, for 
it would be impossible to give the name of science 
to the thousand absurd proceedings which they 
employ, and which prove that their chiefs are 
completely ignorant of the first elements of the 
art. The reason of their success against the other 
Asiatic hordes up to this day has been their elan 
in the attack, tlieir courage, but not any clever 
dispositions, or a knowledge of military operations. 
... It cannot be denied that they are excellent 




skirmishers and experienced foragers, for they 
possess the necessary qualifications in a much 
greater degree than Europeans. Against cannon 
the Afghans feel that they cannot trust to the 
prowess which they value so highly. Their valour 
is incontestable, but their presumption is greater. 
Though they are entirely ignorant of the art of 
attack and defence of towns and fortresses, the 
Afghans are remarkable for the obstinacy of their 
resistance and the correctness of their aim when 
they are behind walls. The inaptitude of this 
nation for discipline and military organization 
arises from their spirit of impatience under the 
slightest degree of restraint. 

The enrolled, or daftari, forces vary; they are 
in three divisions, — Kabal, 31,000 ; Kandahar, 
18,000 ; and Herat, 22,000. Of these, 35,000 were 
Afghan cavalry, 6000 Parsivan or Kazzilbash horse, 
4000 Hazara horse, and 26,000 infantry of moun- 
taineers, Afghan, Parsivan, Hazara, Uzbak, and 
Beluch. — Lieut.-Col. McGregor, ii. pp. 67, 68. 

Elphinstone describes (245-6) the Afghan men 
as all of a robust make, and as generally lean, 
though long and muscular. They have high 
noses, high cheek-bones, and long faces. Their 
hair and beards are generally black, some- 
times brown, and rarely red. Their hair is always 
coarse and strong ; they shave the hair off 
the middle part of the head. The tribes near 
towns wear the hair short, but the rest have long 
and large locks hanging down on each side of the 
head. They wear long and thick beards. Their 
countenance has an expression of manliness and 
deliberation, united to an air of simplicity, not 
unallied to weakness. The eastern Afghans have 
the national features most strongly marked, 
though they have least of the expression above 
alluded to. The lineaments of the western tribes 
are less distinct, and exhibit a much greater 
variety of countenance, some of them having 
blunt features, entirely different from those above 
described ; their high cheek-bones, however, 
never leave them. The western Afghans are 
larger and stouter than those of the east ; and 
some Daurani and Ghiizai are of surprising 
strength and stature ; but, generally speaking, the 
Afghans are not so tall as the British. The 
eastern Afghans have generally dark complexions, 
approaching to that of the Hindustani race, 
while those of the west are olive, with a 
healthy colour and appearance ; but among them, 
as among the eastern Afghans, men as swarthy 
as Indians and others as fair as Europeans are 
to be met with in the same neighbourhood ; the 
fair are by much the most common in the west, 
and the dark in the east. He tells us (pp. 182- 
185) that many of the Afghan songs and tales 
relate to love, and most of them sp«ak of that 
passion in the most glowing and romantic lan- 
guage. Besides the numerous elopements, the 
dangers of which are encountered for love, it was 
common for a man to plight his faith to a par- 
ticular girl, and then set off to a remote town, 
or even to India, to acquire the wealth that is 
necessary to obtain her from her friends. Among 
the Yusufzai, no man sees his wife tiU the' mar- 
riage ceremonies are completed ; and with all the 
Bardurani there is great reserve betvfeea the time 
when the parties are betrothed and the marriage. 
Some of them live with their futu|re father-in-law, 
and earn their bread by their selrvices, as Jacob 

did Rachel, without ever seeing the object of thei 
wishes. But the Aimak, the Hazara, the inhabit 
ants of Persian Khorasan, Tajak, and many of th 
Hindus in those countries, permit a secret inter 
course between the bride and bridegroom, whie 
is called narazad-bazi, or the sports of the be 
trothed. With them, as soon as the parties ar 
affianced, the lover steals by night to the hous 
of his mistress, the mother, or some other o 
the female relations, favouring his design. Th( 
freest intercourse, the most unreserved conver 
sation, and even kisses and all other innocen 
freedoms, are allowed, but further than these th 
strongest cautions and prohibitions are used b; 
the mother to both parties separately. Th 
custom prevails even among men of rank, ani 
the Amir himself sometimes exposes his persoi 
alone in the midnight adventures of namzad-bazi 
Among the Afghans, as among the Jews, it i 
thought incumbent on the brother of the deceasei 
to marry his widow, and it is a mortal affront t 
the brother for any other person to marry he 
without his consent. The widow, however, is no 
compelled to take a husband against her will, an 
if she have children, it is thought most becomini 
to remain single (p. 179). 

The bulk of the Mahomedan population are o 
the sunni sect, the shiah sectarians being th 
Badakhshi, Vakhi, Seistani, Tajak, Kazzilbash 
Hazara, Turi, Bangash, some of the Orakzai, th 
Dawari, Khostwal, Jaji, Chitrali, and some of th 

There are five classes of cultivators, viz. pro 
prietors cultivating their own lands ; tenants wh 
rent it for a payment in money or produce ; Buz 
gur, who are the same as the metayer of France 
hired labourers and slaves. In towns the com 
mon daily pay of a labourer is 100 dinar (aboi 
4^d.) ; in Kandahar it amounts to three shahi an 
12 dinar (about 6|d. or 7d.) ; and at Kabal 
shahi will buy 5 lbs. of wheat flour. There ai 
two harvests ; the most important has its seec 
time in autumn, and its crops are reaped i 
summer. It consists of wheat, barley, lentil 
Ervum lens, Cicer arietinum, peas and bean 
The other is sown in the end of spring, an 
reaped in autumn, and consists of rice, the millet 
Panicum Italicum, and P. miliaceum, Sorghu: 
vulgare, Penicillaria spicata, Zea mays ar 
Phaseolus mungo. A third harvest, called Pale 
comprises all the melons and cucumbers, pum] 
kins and gourds. Wheat and barley are grow 
even up to 10,000 feet elevation. Rice is cult 
vated in great quantity at Jalalabad 2000 feet, 
Kabal 6400 feet, and to a considerable extent 
Ghazni, 7730 feet. Poplars, willows, and dat 
palm trees are extensively planted, as well 
mulberry, walnut, apricot, apple, pear, and peaij 
trees, and the Elseagnus orientalis, which beal 
an eatable fruit. Wheat is the general food j 
the people. It is made into unleavened breal 
as also are the millets. Indian corn heads a 
roasted and eaten as a luxury ; and Cicer arie 
num (Ghana) is occasionally used. Penicillajj 
spicata is grown in great quantities in Damaj 
and in the countries of the Bangash and Khatta 
Sorghum vulgare is the chief grain of Bokhai 
Barley is grown for horses. Artificial iriig 
tion (abi) is carried on by channels, canals, a 
the karez or subterranean aqueducts. Lall; 
means cultivation by the natural rains. A gn 





choga, the khosai felt cloaks of Kandahar, and 
wioe, are the chief articles manufactured. 

Malachite and peacock copper ore occur in 
the Koh-i-Asmai, a few miles west of Kabol, 
also in the iieiphbourhood of Bajawar, north 
of Peshawar. This, with iron and leaf], are met 
with in several parts; also sulphur and alkaline 
earths. Coal, called kira, is found in Zurmat 
and Surkbab, and near Ghazni on the surface 
of the ground, but is not utilized. Iron occurs 
in large quantities in the Permuli district ; quick- 
silver is said to be found, also asbestos, which 
is called sang-i-pamba. Native sulphate of copper 
ia said to occur in the Gul Koh, about 40 miles 
W. by N. of Gliazni. Lead ore is said to be 
abundant in the Hazara country ; and veins of it 
occur at Kala Mula, Hazrut, Koh-i-Patao, and 
Argandab, about 32 miles N.W. of Kalat-i-Ghilzai. 
Chrysolite and soap-stone occur at Shah-maksud, 
a hill about 30 miles N. of Kandahar. Sulphur is 
found in small quantity in Herat; also in the 
Hazara country and at Pir-kisri, on the eastern 
confines of Seistan. At Pir-kisri there is said to 
be an active volcano, called Chah-i-Dudi, or 
smoking-well, from which smoke and ashes are 
said to escape. Antimony is said to occur in 
several places, but it is often mistaken for galena. 
Gold and lapis lazuli are found at Huladat, near 
Bamian, and at Istalif, north of Kabal, also in the 
Kabal river, and auriferous rocks occur near Kan- 
dahar. Zinc, in the form of its silicate, termed 
zak, is met with in the district of Zoba, in the 
country of the Kakarr clan. It is dug out from 
the soil in earthy nodular fragments of a reddish- 
yellow colour, and easily cut by a knife. It is 
chiefly used by sword-makers for polishing new 
blades. Nitre is abundant all over the country. 

On the mountains, from 10,000 to 6000 feet, 
are the Cedrus deodara, Abies excelsa, Pinus 
longifolia, larch, the hazel, the yew. Thuja orien- 
talis, juniper, walnut, lemon, wild vine, wild 
peach, almond, the rose, honeysuckle, currant, 
gooseberry, hawthorn, rhododendron, etc. Below 
these, at 6000 to 3000 feet above the sea, are 
acacias, bayberry, Chamserops humilis, bignonia, 
Salvadora Persica, verbena, and others. The 
lemon and wild vine are also met with here. 

The walnut and several oaks descend to the 
secondary heights, where they become mixed with 
the ash, the alder, the Pistacia, Arbor vitae, 
juniper, and species of astragalus. 

The lowest or terminal ridges present a bare 
aspect ; trees are rarely or never met with, and 
shrubs only occasionally ; and the plants met with 
comprise most of those that form the undergrowth 
or herbal vegetation in the higher ranges. 

Afghanistan and British India are not conter- 
minous. They are separated from each other by 
a number of tribes, who are wholly, or in parts of 
their clans, independent. They are the Akazai 
and Hassanzai, adjoining Hazara ; the Bunerwal, 
Jadun, Momund, bwati, and Utmankhel, beyond 
Peshawar ; the Afridi, beyond Peshawar and 
Kobat ; the Orakzai, Turi, Waziri, and Zaimukht, 

rtrlety of mushrooms grow in most parts of the 
lountry, and constitute a considerable portion of 
fM(xi of some classes of the peasantry, and 

illy of the Hindu population of towns. 

ing the autumn months, large quantities 

cp, oxen, and camels are killed, and cut into 

iiient sizes, which are salted and dried in the 

iiid stored for winter use. The meat thus 

I od is called lande. Old horses are similarly 

■ I. The cow, and in some places the buffalo, 

pt for the milk they yield. Milk, especially 

the peasantry and nomades, is largely used 

•<\. After making butter or ghi, the butter- 
is used fresh, or made into curds by stand- 

r hastened by the addition of a few drops of 

lice of the tig-tree, or into cheese by the 

iruit of a solanaceous plant. The curds are 

need from water by pressure in a cloth ; to 
.1 little salt is added, and the handfuls are 
adu into small cakes, which are dried hard as a 
tone in the sun, and keep for any length of time. 
Iiey are called Krut ; and when soft are reduced 
a paste in a wooden bowl (krut mal), and 
aten with bread, meat, or vegetables, a quantity 
f boiling ghi being first poured over the mess. 
t) is the national dish of the Afghans, and is 
aten with great relish, though very sour, astrin- 
ent, and greasy. Krut is pure casein. The more 
jflned Persians dislike this food, and ridicule the 
fghans, parodying the Arabic anathema into 
le words. La houla wa la illah Kruta Khuri. 
The sheep are two kinds of the fat-tailed breed, 
De with a white fleece, which is manufactured 
ito various home-made stuffs, and is also ex- 
erted ; the other with a russet brown or black 
(K)l. These are called Postin sheep, their skins 
eing made into postins, and their wool of the 
learing season made into felts, or woven, and 
jported to Bombay and Karachi and Persia. 
Keep constitute the main wealth of the nomade 
opuiation, who use their milk, as also that of the 
oat and camel, in a similar manner to that of the 
)ir and buffalo. 

Of wild animals, the squirrel, the otter (sagulah), 
)e jerboa rat (mush-i-dopa), the ferret, and the 
adger, are trapped for their furs and skins. Tiie 
opard is found all over the country; occasionally 
w tiger and the lynx, antelopes, bears, and the 
lid ass occur ; also the ibex, wild goat, bara- 
Dgha ; porcupines and hedgehogs are common, 
i also, in the Kohistan-i-Kabal, the doragra, a 
ybrid between a male wolf and the female of the 
ild dog. 

Horses form a staple export from the country, 
he Yaboo is the horse of the country, — stout, 
stite, and hardy, about fourteen hands high, used 
lainly as a beast of burden, though also for 
ding ; and a considerable portion of the irregular 
ivalry and artillery are supplied with them. 
he horses known in India as the Kabali are 
liefly from Maemana and Mashad, but there is 
mixed breed by Persian horses out of country 
ares. Dost Muhammad Khan made efforts to im- 
fove the breed, and had several extensive breeding 
itablishments. The Turkoman horse is said to J near Kohat, Bunnu and Dera Ismail Khan ; the 

we a large share of Arab blood, introduced by 
le Arabs when they first overran the country in 
le 8th century. Traffic is carried on by the 
iboo, camels, and mules, carts being unknown. 
Silk, felts, rosary beads from chrysolite, postins 
daed from one to upwards of fifty rupees, the 

Kusrani, Sheorani, and Ustrana, near Dera Ismail 
Khan ; the Bozdar, Khetran, Khosa, and Laghari, 
beyond Dera Ghazi Khan ; and further south the 
Bugti, Gurchani, Marri, and Mazari. These will 
be found noticed separately and under the heading 
North-West Frontier Tribes. 




The two great passes from India into Afghani- 
stan are the Bolan, from Shikarpur to Kandahar, 
and the Khaibar, from Peshawar to Kabal ; the 
Afridi hold the Khaibar and Kohat passes. The 
numerous sections of the Afridi, each headed 
by its chief, have been usually split up into 
factions, and united only to oppose the rulers 
of the Panjab and of Kabal, and to levy ' black 
mail' from travellers and merchants. All the 
great invaders and the supreme potentates of 
Northern India have successively had these Afridi 
in their pay, — Chengiz, Timur, Babar, Nadir Shah, 
Ahmed Shah, the Barakzai, the Sikhs, and lastly 
the British. To all, these unmanageable moun- 
taineers have been treacherous. They are brave 
and hardy, good soldiers and better marksmen. 
The best shots in the Guide Corps are Afridi, 
and perhaps 200 of them may be found scat- 
tered among the Panjab regiments. — Rec. Govt, 
of India, No. 11 ; Belleic ; East India Papers, 
Cabool and Afghanistan ; Ferrier''s History of the 
Afghans; Masson'' s Jourywys ; McGregor'' s Central 
Asia and Afghanistan ; Malcolni's Central India ; 
Elphinstone''s Kingdom of Cauhul ; Griffiths ; Cleg- 
Jiorn^s Panjab Report ; Tod^s Rajasthan. 

AFIM. Hind. Opium. 

AFLATUN. Ar. B'dellium ; Commiphora 

AFRASIAB, a king of Turan, who invaded and 
took Persia. 

AFRICA is 4600 miles long from the Mediter- 
ranean to the Cape of Good Hope, and has 4100 
miles at greatest breadth, from Cape Verde to 
Cape Gardafui. Its greater part lies within the 
tropic zone ; in the less elevated parts the heat is 
great, and it has a great desert on its north, 
called the Sahara. Its principal rivers are the 
Nile in the north, the Niger, the Zaire, Senegal, 
Gambia, Congo in the west, and Zambesi in the 
east. The Atlas mountain, in N.W. Africa, rises 
10,000 and 13,000 feet in height above the sea; 
Lamalmon, in Abyssinia, is 11,200, and Compass 
mountain. Cape of Good Hope, 10,000. Africa 
is joined to Asia by the Isthmus of Suez, 
which is 125 miles across, and through which, 
in the 19th century, a canal was drawn, con- 
necting the Red Sea with the Mediterranean. 
Africa was known to the ancient Hindus as 
Sancha-Dwipa. Until the middle of the 19th cen- 
tury, however, little authentic was known to the 
people of Europe as to the races of Central Africa, or 
the countries they occupy ; but great efforts have 
since been made by Europeans to obtain a know- 
ledge of the country, Mungo Park, Denman, 
Bruce, Livingstone, Baker, Gordon, Burton, 
Speke, Cameron, of Great Britain ; Stanley 
and Dr. Nassau of the United States ; a German 
party under Dr. Linz, Mr. Mohr, and Dr. 
Pogge, with a French party under Count de 
Brazza, have all added to our knowledge of 
it. From unknown times, African races, chiefly 
the Negro family, have been seized and sold as 
slaves by each other and by the Arab and other 
more civilised races, amongst whom all the Chris- 
tian races of Europe, of the West Indies, and N. 
and S. America, long took a part. The first to 
endeavour to stop this traffic was Great Britain, 
and their import into British India has been prohi- 
bited. In the south of Asia they were styled Sidi, 
also Habash or Habshi by Mahomedans, — Habash 
being their term for Abyssinia. These Habash 

were the principal household slaves and the eunuchs 
of the palaces. Their numbers along the maritime 
states of Arabia, Persia, Beluchistan, and Sind 
have been great, and have left a marked impres- 
sion on the physical features of those of the prior 
races who profess Mahomedanism. Many of the 
Mahomedans of the Peninsula of India, even oi 
good family, have exaggerated Negro features. 
The Hindus of the N.AV. parts of the Peninsula 
of India have been the principal slave-dealers on 
the east coast of Africa. 

The latest estimate of the population is 186 
millions, which for an area olll^ million square 
miles gives an average of 16 inhabitants pei 
square mile. One of the latest authorities divides 
the population of Africa as follows among th( 
great families into which ethnologists have classec 
the peoples: — Negroes, 130,000,000; Hamites, 
20,000,000 ; Bantus, 13,000,000 ; Fulahs 
8,000,000 ; Nubians, 1,500,000 ; Hottentots 
60,000. This would give a total population ol 
172,550,000. These figures are, of course, onlj 
approximate, and the Bantus, according to F. M 
Muller, form even one quarter of the populatior 
of Africa. In the regions of the great lakes 
there are countries quite as thickly peoplec 
as many of the states of Europe. Mr. Stanley 
tells us of countries of relatively small extent 
and which yet possess millions of inhabit- 
ants. According to Behna. the Negro region 
are by far the most populous parts of th( 
continent. If the populations are sparse ii 
the desert parts, they are very dense in othe 
regions. Thus in the Soudan the population i 
estimated at 80 millions, or about 63 per squar^ 
mile ; the town of Bida, on the Niger, has ; 
population of 80,000 inhabitants. The populatioi] 
of East Africa is estimated at about 30 milliong 
and that of Equatorial Africa at 40 millions 
Ethnologists, however, are not unanimous as t 
the races occupying Africa. An ordinary divi 
sion of African races is into — (1) the Norther 
and blackest tribes ; (2) the Pul and Nub 
tribes, scattered among the former ; (3) tb 
Kafir or Bantu tribes, south of the equator 
(4) the Hottentots and Bushmen (these tw 
being treated as totally distinct by certai 
ethnologists). Professor Lepsius admits of thn 
varieties only in one and the same original Negi 
type, viz., (1) the Northern Negroes; (2) tl 
Southerner Bantu Negroes ; (3) the Cape Negroe 
He then groups all African languages also in 
three zones, — (1) the Southern, south of tl 
equator, the Bantu dialects, explored chiefly 
the west and east coasts, but probably stretchii 
across the whole continent, comprising the Herer 
Pongue, Fernando Po, Kafir ('Osa and Zulu 
Tshuana (Soto and Rolon), Suahili, etc. ; (2) t 
Northern zone, between the equator and Sahaij 
and east as far as the Nile, comprising Efik, Id 
Yoruba, Ewe, Akra or Ga, Otyi, Kru, vf 
(Mande), Temne, Bullom, Wolof, Fula, Sonrh. 
Kanuri, Teda (Tibu), Logone, Wandala, Bagirr 
Maba, Konjara, Umale, Dinka, Shilluk, Bouj. 
Bari,Oigob, Nuba, and Barea; (3)theHamiticzoi 
includingthe extinct Egyptian and Coptic, the I.i 
yan dialects, such as Tuareg (Kabyli and Amashe , 
Hausa, the Kushitic or Ethiopian languages, ■ 
eluding the Beja dialects, the Soho, Falasha, Ag; , 
Galla, Daukali, and Somali. The Hottentot a I 
Bushman languages are referred to the same zo . 




The Ilftiiiitic langimges compriBcd in the thin] 
:ione — the Kfryptian, Libyan, and Kushitic — are 
iUien to Africa. Tliey are all intruders from the 
'Mttt, thou^'h reaching Africa at different times 
.\Tid by different roads. The true aboriginal 
'ou8 of African speech is contained in the first 
' , and represented by that class of languages 
-wiich, on account of their strongly marked 
riinmatical character, has been called the Bantu 
ily. The Bantu and Hamitic families of 
Ai differ from each other in many of the 
! ^t essential points of grammatical articulation. 
It mention only a few, — the Bantu languages are 
] ' 'fixing, the Hamitic suffixing. Bantu grammar 
a'liiiits of no gender, to denote sex ; Hamitic 
i ! uumar does. In and about Kordofan, where 
till dialects lie about piecemeal, the inhabitants 
♦if one mountain peak do not understand those 
of another, but learn to understand with great 
facility estranged or really strange tribes that 
have settled among them for a short time only. 
This receptivity of language, and more particu- 
larly of the language of savage and nomadic 
tribes, for foreign influences is illustrated again 
and again in the course of Professor Lepsius's 
irguments. The power of mimicry is far greater 
among lower than among higher tribes, and it 
extends in the case of language even to purely 
grammatical turns. Of all the races whom the 
Elditor has seen, the Mincopi Negroes of the 
Andamans possessed this power of mimicry to 
the greatest degree, and they are in the 
owest known scale of humanity. There are 
limits, however, even to this, and in one case 
— • that of the Hausa language — Professor 
[icpsius admits that it cannot be classed as a 
Bantu or prefixing dialect modified by Hamitic 
neighbours, but that it is really a Hamitic, 
oiore especially a Libyan language, surrounded 
and modified by Bantu speech. By a similar 
process of reasoning he excludes the Hottentot 
liingwage also from the African family pro- 
perly 80 called, and brings these people in the 
wath in connection with the Kushites in the 
north, from whom they were separated by the 
pressure of Bantu tribes, recovering the eastern 
territory that had for a time been wrested from 
them by Kushite invaders. On maps Nubia 
generally extends south from the first cataract 
arer the whole breadth between the Nile and the 
Red Sea as far as Habesh, south-east beyond 
itum, south and south-west along the White 
to the Bahr-el-Gazal. But Lepsius, though 
.ninittiHg.the presence of scattered Nubian tribes 
|ii the south, more particularly about Kordofan 
■ ■' the neighbouring hills, fixes on the Nile as 
natural frontier between the true Nubian, 
times, though wrongly, called Berber, in the 
and Kushitic tribes coming from the east, these 
l: represented by the modern Bejas as their 
advanced post. What gives an additional 
' st to these Nubian tribes, is that they alone 
g African races have something like a his- 
to be read on the monuments of their neigh- 
s the Egyptians. The Egyptians distinguish 
' the earliest times between the red or brown 
.;uuthern race and the Negroes, who are called 
W^ahasi. Among these the Uaua occupy a pro- 
fit place so far back as the third millennium 
our era, and they are identified by Lepsius 
'II the Nubians. Whether the so-called Nubian 



inscriptions which are found scattered over the 
country occupied by Nubian tribes, and beyond 
so far as the confluence of the White and tiie 
Blue Nile, are of Nubian or Kuithite origin, has 
never been determined. These inscriptions have 
their own alphabet, running from right to left ; 
and considering that the words are divided, as 
they are in the cuneiform inscriptions of Persia, 
there is no reason why wc should despair of seeing 
them deciphered before long. Professor Lepsius 
thinks that they are not Nubian, — that is to say, 
not Negro, but Kushitic, — and that the key to be 
applied to their interpretation should be looked 
for in the Beja, and not in the Nubian language. 

The ocean has afforded great facilities for the 
interchange of commodities with the Asiatic con- 
tinent; for the Arabian Sea, that part of the 
Indo-African Ocean on the south of Arabia, in- 
cluding the Red Sea, has 6000 miles of seaboard, 
and the races occupying it have, from pre- 
historic times, traded eastwards ; and there 
are Negro and Negrito races to the extreme east 
of the Archipelago. In the Andamans are the 
diminutive Mincopi, in the Malay Peninsula are the 
Semang, in the Philippines and New Guinea and 
its neighbouring islands are the Papuan. — 
M. A. liabaud, in the Bulhtin of the Marseilles 
Geographical Society ; Times, 28th October 1879. 

AFRIDI, the most important, if not the most 
powerful, of all the tribes to the west and south- 
west of Peshawar. The Afridi country extends 
from the right bank of the Kabal river for about 
50 miles nearly due south, marching with the 
British border all this distance. A tongue of 
their land projects into British territory between 
the two principal frontier stations of Peshawar and 
Kohat. The Kohat pass is 15 miles long and three or 
four in breadth. Mr. Elphinstone says the Afridi 
are the greatest robbers amongst the Afghans, have 
no sense of honour, and he had never heard of 
any one hiring an escort of Khaibari to secure his 
passage through their country. Major Matheson 
described them as avaricious, desperately fond 
of money, their fidelity measured by the length 
of purse of the seducer ; they are immoral in their 
care of their women, they marry the widows of 
deceased brothers. Colonel M'Gregoradds that 
ruthless, cowardly robbery, cold-blooded, treacher- 
ous murder, are to an Afridi the salt of life ; as 
he has lived, — a shameless, cruel savage, — so he 
dies. Yet the Afridi is, on the whole, the finest 
of the Pathan races on the British border. If 
there were no chance of robbing or murdering a 
traveller before his reaching the door of an Afridi, 
he would be offered such food as was available. 
The men do nothing ; the women perform all the 
duties of daily life and all field labour. They 
hold the Khaibar and Kohat passes, through which 
in succession the invaders of India in former times 
have come, and the Afridi have received tribute 
from them all. Chengiz, Timur, Babar, Nadir 
Shah, the Barakzai, the Sikh, and lastly the 
British, have all paid money to the Afridi for 
permission to enter their passes, or for their aid, 
or for their passiveness, in time of war, and to 
all, from the first to the last, they have been 
treacherous. They are fierce and cruel, faithless 
and altogether untrustworthy ; they are ready to 
betray one another, and live in perpetual feud. 
Their hills above and about the Khaibar pass are 
difficult for military operations. The high lands 



of Tirab, which stretch far back into the interior, 
and in which the Afridi, together with the 
Orakzai and others, take up their summer abode, 
are accessible from Kohat, and possess a climate 
congenial to Europeans. The Khaibari are 
lean but muscular men, with long, gaunt faces, 
high noses and cheek-bones, and black complexion. 
They wear dark blue turbans, and long dark blue 
tunics, sitting close to the body, but reaching to 
the middle of the leg. The Adam Khel and the 
Aka Khel can bring into the field more than 
five thousand fighting men. The Adam Khel 
Afridi consists of four clans, namely, the Gullee 
Khel, with 980 fighting men ; the Asher Khel, 
with 760 ; the Jowaki, with 1040 ; and the 
Hussun Khel, with 880; making in all 3660, 
The Aka Khel have five clans, — Bussee Khel, 
Sungul Khel, Asher Khel, Sultan Khel, and 
Mudar Khel, — with a force of fighting men 
amoimting to nearly 1500. — MacGregur, N.W.F. 

AFSANTIN. Ar. Artemisia Indica. 

AFSHAN. Pers. Shining, glistening. Afshani 
Kaghaz, paper sprinkled or studded with gold- 
leaf, used in India when writing to persons of 

AFSHAR, a Turki tribe who supported Shah 
Ismail. See Kajar ; Kazzilbash ; Khorasan. 

AFTAB. Pers. The sun. The aftab-gir 
is a round, flat, vertical parasol, carried to 
shade persons of rank, by special permission of 
the sovereign, and usually emblazoned with a 
family device. The sunshade is an emblem of 
rank in eastern countries ; it is held by a servant 
to protect his master from the rays of the sun. 
It is also used as a flag or alam at the ceremonies 
of the Muharram. 

AFTABAH. Pers. A brass ewer, used for 
washing hands by pouring water from it on the 
hands, the water falling into a basin called Silchi. 
These are the Ibreek and Tisht of the Arabs. The 
European mode of washing hands or feet in a basin 
is deemed wholly unclean. 

AFTIMUN. Panj. Cuscuta reflexa. 

AFZAL KHAN, a general of Muhammad Adal 
Shah of Bijapur, whom Sivaji induced to appear 
at a conference, and took the opportunity of 
assassinating, October 1659. 

AFZELIA BIJUGA. A. Gray. A timber 
tree of the Andamans and of the islands in the 
Pacific. Whilst every other kind of vegetable and 
meat is eaten with the fingers, cannibal food is 
touched only with forks, generally made of the 
wood of the Nokonoko (Casuarina equisetifolia, 
Forsk.) or the Vesi (Afzelia bijuga, A. Gray), 
bearing curious, often obscene names, and having 
three or four long prongs. The reason given for 
this deviation from the general mode of eating, is 
a widely spread belief that fingers which have 
touched bokola are apt to generate cutaneous 
diseases when coming in contact with the tender 
skin of children. — GaltorCs Vacation Tourists, 
p. 268. 

AGA, written A'gha and Aka in Turkish — 
means a noble, a commander, but is assumed by 
persons in civil life. It is also applied to all 

AGA-KARA. Tel. Mimordica dioeca, Rox- 

AGA KHAN, a Persian noble long residing in 
Bombay : the hereditary Pir or religious head of 
the Khojah sect. He died in the year 1880 or 

Kalambak, . 

Jav., Mai 

Kayu gahru, 

>» i» 


Agila, , . 

• • >» 

Lignum aloes, 

. . Lat 


. , Per? 


• • J9 

Agarha, Agar, 

. Sansk 

Aglay marain, 

. . Tam 

1881, and was succeeded by his son. The famil; 
are descendants of former rulers of Persia. 

AGALLOCHA WOOD, Eagle-wood. 
Ud, . . . Ar,, Hind. 
Ak-Yau, . . . BURM. 
Aloes, Aloe wood, Eng. 
Eagle-wood, Lign-aloes, ,, 
Aquila of commerce, ,, 
Bois d'Aigle, . . Fr. 
Garo de Malacca, . ,, 

Agallochee, . . Gr. 
Agallochum, . . Heb. 

This is the wood of the Aquilaria agallocha 
Roxb. It is much prized throughout the East a 
a perfume. The best specimens appear to be i 
mass of resin in decayed wood, and melt awa; 
under heat, giving forth a very fragrant odour 
The tree is said to be void of it when in a health; 
state, and only to exude this resinous substanc 
when in decay, or even after it has died. Ther 
appears to be at least three kinds of Agallocha o 
wood-aloes, the trees producing which are no 
fully identified. Dr. Roxburgh, followed by Dr 
Royle, admits doubtfully the existence of two 
viz. the Aquilaria agallocha of Roxburgh, au( 
Aquilaria ovata. Cor., the Garo de Malacca o 
Lamarck ; and an inferior sort is said to be de 
rived from Excoecaria agallocha, which need no 
be taken into account. But Loureiro maintain 
that the best lign-aloes or Calambac, which ap 
pears to be the Ud-i-kamari of the Indian bazaars 
is derived from a tree which he calls Aloexyloi 
agallochum. Drs. Roxburgh and Royle conside 
the Malayan Agila, the Aquila and eagle-wood c 
commerce, and the Ud-i-Hindi of the bazaars, t 
be the produce of Aquilaria agallocha, whici 
grows plentifully to the north-east of Bengal, an] 
that is probably identical with A. ovata c 
Royle. The Aloexylon agallochum of Loureir 
yields a scented wood used by the Chinese i 
medicine and perfumery, and is said to bring £jj 
the cwt. in Sumatra. The lign-aloes brought 1 
Burma is the produce of a tree that grows o 
the Mergui Islands, and imported into Mergui I 
the Selung race. Specimens of Amboyna wooi 
of the odoriferous sandal-wood from Timor, clo\ 
wood, and other choice woods from the Molucc; 
and Prince of Wales Island, were sent to tl 
Great Exhibition of 1851. The Hakims of Ind 
administer Agallocha wood in their electuaries 
combination with spices, ambergris, etc. — Di 
Honigberger ; Mason; O^Shaughnessy ; ElliofsFL 
Andhrica ; Simmonds ; Exhibition of lSb\. 

Sami stone, Anglo- HiND. I Figure stone, . . En 
Hwah-shih, . . Chin. | 

Phillips called it Pagodalite, from its beii 
imported from China in figures, pagodas, eti 
also Swamy stone, i.e. deity stone. It is fou 
in quantities in Mysore, near Chutia Nagpu 
also in China, in N'gan-hwui and Kiang-si, a 
is there cut into ornamental figures. — Smir 
Col, Ouselcy in Bl. As. Trans., 1843 ; Rtpo •• 
quoted by Dr. Buist. See Sami Stone. 

AGAMA SASTRA, a name of one of the Tr ■ 
tras, a sacred saiva book. Agama Vageesha, fni 
Agama, one of the Tantras ; vak, a word, and ees! . 
lord, the god of speech ; a name of Vrihaspati. 

AGAMID^, a family of reptiles. See R<- 

AGANHOTRIorAgnihotri. Hind. AbrahnI 
who maintains a perpetual fire in his house. 




Aoliagaram, . . Tam. 
Agavu, .... Tel. 

AGAO. Hind. 
A<lvnnco money, . Eno 
TeHligi, .... Tkhs, 
Aoliuwarain, . . Tam, 

An atlvanco of money for any undertaking. 
The syBtt'ni of a<1vnncc8, as well aa earnest money, 
is common in all the east. 

AGAR. Hind. A salt pit. Agari, a salt-maker. 

AGARA. Sansk. Aquilaria agallocba, R. 

AGAR-AGAR. Malay. 
Kyouk ])iicn, . . BuRM. I Ediblo sea-weed, , Eng. 
Hai-tsiii, Hai-tsau, Chin. | 

Agar-agar is the Malay name for the tenacious 
jelly or glue made from the sea-weeds, Eucheuma 
spinositm, Ag. ; Gracillaria lichenoides, Grey; G. 
confiTvoidcs, Greij ; Gigartina tenax and Plocaria 
Candida. The Chinese name Hai-tsai means 
sea vegetable, and it is one of the Kyouk 
puen of the Burmese. It is imported into China 
from the Eastern Archipelago, though the 
Chinese likewise manufacture it for them- 
selves, and apply it as size to many useful 
purposes, and use it as food. The bamboo lattice 
work of lanterns is covered with paper saturated 
with this glue, which when dried is semi-trans- 
parent. It is also used in paper and silk manu- 
factures. It is incomparable as a paste, and is not 
liable to be eaten by insects. When boiled with 
sugar, it forms a sweet glutinous jelly, called in 
Canton, Wong-leung-fan, which is used as a sweet- 
meat, and sold on stalls in the streets. When 
cooked with sugar, it resembles calf's-foot jelly. 
It is brought from New Holland and New Guinea 
itod other adjacent islands. Between 400 and 
iiOO pikuls are imported annually by the Chinese, 
at a prime cost of from 1 to 2 dollars per pikul. 
Its cheapness and admirable qualities as a paste 
render it worthy the attention of other countries. 
Three kinds of Agar-agar were sent to the 
Exhibition of 1862 from Malacca. The first 
([nality was from a sort of Tripe de Roche, an 
edible sea-weed which grows on the rocks that 
lure covered by the tide. This is much used for 
making a kind of jelly, which is highly esteemed 
Iwth by Europeans and natives for the delicacy 
f»f its flavour, and is exported to China at 19s. 
per 183^ lbs. The Agar -agar of the second 
(loality, from Macassar and the Celebes, is an 
tidible sea-weed collected on the submerged banks 
in the neighbourhood of Macassar by the Baju 
Laut or sea gipsies, for exportation to China, 
price 128. 6d. per 183^ lbs. The Agar-agar of 
Singapore is collected on the reefs and rocky 
eubmerged ledges in the neighbourhood of Singa- 
l)ore, and constitutes the bulk of the cargoes of 
the Chinese junks on their return voyages. 
The quantity shipped from Singapore is about 
10,000 peculs annually. Though deserving 
of being better known, it does not appear to 
be an article of Indian import, or, if so, it is 
brought in under some other name. The 
whole thallus of the Ceylon moss, Plocaria can- 
i, is sometimes imported from Ceylon, and 
1 in Britain for dressing silk goods. — Hun. A. 
rison; Exh. Jur. Reports and Catalogue; 
nonds; Tomlinson; Williams^ Middle Kingdom. 
. AGARAH. DuK. Achyranthes aspera. 

,| AGAREAH, a small but very thriving tribe of 
Hindu cultivators in the Tributary Mahals, called 

-jAgareah, it is said, from having come from Agra, 
jl'hey are tall, well-made, with high Aryan features 

and tawny complexions. They allow widows to 
re-marry, and they bury the dca<l ; but afterwards, 
when tlie bones are dry, the principal joint* and 
part of the skull are taken up and conveyed by 
the representative of the deceased to the Ganges. 
This service is often neglected. The bones taken 
are called Ashta or Ashtang, aa representing the 
eight parts of man. Some of their women are 
very pretty, bright-looking creatures, of reddish 
light-brown complexion ; fine glossy, long black 
hair ; very bright eyes, remarkable for the clear- 
ness of the white of the eye ; slight, flexible, 
graceful figures; teeth white and regular; faces 
not disfigured by paint, and no godna or marks of 
tattooing except on hands and legs. The hair is 
very neatly and elaborately dressed, secured by a 
large silver ornament. Among them many have 
grey eyes, and long eyelashes are a prevailing 
feature. In Gangpur, where there are some three 
or four thousand Agareahs, all Agareah females 
are regarded as witches. There is among all 
classes in Gangpur a widespread and deep-rooted 
belief in witchcraft. It is equally dreaded by the 
wildest and by the most civilised of the people, 
and Agareah women have often been badly treat«d, 
to drive the spirit out of them, or make them give 
up the black art. In Gangpur there are old w'omen, 
professors of witchcraft, who stealthily instruct; 
the young girls. The latter are all eager to be 
taught, and are not considered proficient till a 
fine forest tree, selected to be experimented on, 
is destroyed by the potency of their mantras or 
spells, so that the wife whom a man takes to his 
bosom has probably done her tree, and is confident 
in the belief that she can, if she please, dispose 
of her husband in the same manner if he make 
himself disagreeable. — Dalton, Eth. of Bengal, 323. 

AGAR'H. Beng. The great rice or dhan crop 
of the year, sown in Asarh, June — July, and cut 
in the latter half of Aghan, December. 

AGARI ? A servile caste in Cuttack, bullock- 
drivers or slaves. 

AGARICACE^ of Lindley, the mushroom 
tribe of plants, comprising the genera Agaricus 
and Lycoperdon. Mushrooms grow in India 
during the rains, but are little used by Europeans, 
from the difiiculty experienced in distinguishing 
the poisonous from the edible kinds. Some are 
found in all the bazaars of India, and are em- 
ployed in native medicine. Agaricus igneus, 
gharikun, HiND., is a mushroom of the Panjab. 
Agaricus subocreatus, Cooke, of China, referred also 
to the sub-genus Pleurotus, is allied to the British 
Agaricus ulmarius. It is a dendrophytal, drying 
readily, and is used in the Straits Settlements for 
food. Agaricus flamraeus is a large excellent 
edible mushroom of Kashmir. A species used 
in the Panjab is there called shirian and batbakri ; 
and A. fossulatus, Cooke, occurs in the Kabal 
hills. — Von Mueller ; Mason ; Faulkner; Ilonig- 
herger; Voigt ; Fries ; Cooke. 



Mans khcl, 




Khumbah, . . „ 

Chattri, .... HiND 

This is the common mushroom ; it is largely eaten 
in most places where it grows. It is also extensively 
dried for future consumption, and is said to pre- 
serve its flavour tolerably well. The same species 
also appears to grow commonly in Kashmir and 
Kullu, sparingly in Lahore, and abundantly in 




Afghanistan, where Bellew states that the poor 
use it largely as food. In Kashmir, the people 
say that the edible mushroom is always white, 
and the poisonous kinds, called herar, always 
dark-coloured, and that they have no other test of 
the quality. Dried mushrooms (generally small) 
are officinal in the Panjab. — Dr. J. L. Steivart, 
Panjah Plants^ 267. 

AGARIYA, descendants of the original Thugs, 
■who, after being expelled from Dehli, settled for 
a time at Agra. 

AGARWAL, an important branch of the Mar- 
wari mercantile race, comprising many of the 
wealthiest traders and bankers in Hindustan. 
According to Sir Henry Elliot, they derive their 
name from Agroha in Hariana, whence they origin- 
ally migrated to other provinces after the capture 
of that place by Shahab-ud-Din Gori in 1194. 
Common tradition refers their name and origin to 
Agra. The Agarwal is one of the 84 Gach'ha 
or families of the Jains, and most of its members 
profess the Jain religion. — W. See Agroha. 

AGASALA of Mysore, a goldsmith. 

AGASA-TAMARE. Tam. Pistia stratiotes. 

AGASI. Tam. Agati grandiflora, Desy. 

AGASTWAR, a small clan of Rajputs in the 
Benares district. 

AGASTYA, a name famed throughout all the 
Tamil parts of the south of the Peninsula of 
India as that of a sage, a native of Tibet, who 
introduced literature and the sciences among the 
Tamil race. The name occurs in the Rig Veda 
and the Puranas, but the tales about him related 
by the Tamil people are derived from the Rama- 
yana and Mahabharata. The writings attributed 
to him are in verse, in the Tamil language, and 
contain in all 19,647 stanzas on ancient history, 
religion, theology, magic, exorcism, purification, 
medicine, diseases, leprosy, botany, materia 
medica, pharmacy, prescriptions, chemistry, sin 
and crime ; but these have evidently been com- 
posed by different authors, who have assumed this 
literary name, and some of them are of so recent 
a date as after the arrival of Europeans in the 
country. The traditions amongst the Tamil people 
connected with this name are so intermixed with 
fable, that it is impossible to separate the truth. 
He is celebrated in northern India as a maha- 
muni, or holy rishi, and is traditionally said to 
be the leader into the south of the first and most 
influential colony of brahmans, B.C. 500. The 
Vindhya mountains are fabled to have, at his 
command, prostrated themselves before him, by 
which is understood that he penetrated through 
their defiles, and he is said to have advanced south- 
wards to Cape Comorin, but also to have settled 
in Kolapur. He is called by way of eminence 
Tamir Muni, the Tamil sage, and is said to have 
acquired great influence at the court of Kulase- 
khara, the first Pandyan king, for •whose in- 
struction he composed numerous elementary 
treatises, amongst which the most celebrated is 
his arrangement of the grammatical principles 
of the Tamil language. He is mythologically 
represented as identical with Canopus, the bright- 
est star in the extreme southern sky in India ; 
and he is said to have been the son of Mithra, 
the sun, and Varuna, conjointly, and to have been 
born in a water jar ; and he is worshipped near 
Cape Comorin as Agasteswara, the lord Agastya. 
Orthodox Tamil Hindus believe he is still 

alive, though invisible to ordinary eyes, and 
that he resides somewhere on the fine conical 
mountain,, commonly called Agastiya Malai, or 
Agastiya's hill, from which the Porunei or Tarara 
parni, the sacred river of Tinneveily, takes its 
rise. — Dr. CaldwelVs Covip. Grammar; Calcutta 
Christian Intelligencer for 1861, p. 6 ; Wilson''» 
Hind. Thcat. i. p. 313 ; Bev. W. Taylor; As. Soc. 
Trans, vol. iii. p. 213. See Hindu. 

AGASTYA. Sansk. The star Canopus. 

AGATE. A quartzose mineral, which occurs 
in great abundance in several parts of the great 
volcanic outburst in the Dekhan, and are 
there very abundantly swept into the beds of 
Godavery and Kistna rivers; also in great 
variety in other parts of India. Some of 
the agates and other silicious minerals in the 
amygdaloid rocks on the banks of the Seena 
river, between Sliolapur and Ahmadnaggur, are 
of great size and in profusion ; but the most 
beautiful are brought from Cambay, hence called 
Cambay stones and Godavery pebbles. The bur- 
nishers of the bookbinder and other mechanics 
are made of agates. Agates are valued for orna- 
ment, and are manufactured into cups, rings, seals, 
handles for knives and forks, sword-hilts, beads, 
smelling-bottles, snuff-boxes, etc. The name is 
derived from Achates, a river in Sicily. 

AGATHARCHIDES, a writer of the 2d cen 
tury B.C., who gave an accoimt of the com 
mercial intercourse between Egypt and Arabia 
and India. His writings are preserved in Diodorus 
and Photius. He mentions cinnamon and cassia 
as among the articles imported, and states that 
ships came from India to the ports of Sabaea, 
the modern Yemen. — Vincent'' s Com.; Elph. 167. 

or New Zealand pine, the Dammara Australis, 
Lambert, one of the Coniferse, in its nativi 
forests attains a considerable height, with ) 
straight, clean stem, which, from its lightness and 
toughness, has been found well calculated for tb 
masts of ships. It is easily worked, and takes a 
high polish. It yields a hard, brittle resin lit 
mastic, which is chewed by the natives. Its sool 
is used in tattooing. — Dr. Riddell; Eng. Cyc. 
Hog, p. 711. 

Dammara loranthifolia, L. \ Pinus dammara, L. I 
Theet men, . . BuRM. | Dammar Pine, . . Eng 

A large tree, found on the very summits of th(| 
mountains of Amboyna, Ternate, and in many o 
the Molucca Islands. Griffith mentions a tre* 
under that name as a member of the Tenasserin 
flora, and which the Burmese call Theett-men o 
tree governor. The leaf is precisely that of thi 
dammar pine, but the Tenasserim tree is not knowi 
to yield any dammar. The timber of the Archi 
pelago tree is represented to be light and oj 
inferior quality, wholly unfit for any situatioij 
exposed to wet, but answering tolerably well fo| 
in-door purposes. The wood of the Tenasserin L 
tree, on the contrary, is white, rather light, ami , 
bears a considerable resemblance to some kinds cj'i 
pine. It is used by Burmese carpenters for variou , 
purposes, and the Burmese have a superstitio; 
that the beams of balances of their scales ough 
to be formed of this wood. — Drs. Griffith, Mason 
and Riddell ; Em/. Cyc. 

AGATHOCLES, one of the Greek successoi 
of Alexander, who reigned in Bactria B.C. 247. 





Swertia cheymta, Buck. 
,, rnocmosa. Wall. 
Cliirataka, . . Sansk. 
Shayrait, . . . Tam. 
Silassattu, . . . Tel. 

0|>hoIia chirayta, Griea. 
<:• "tiiinaolieyrata, lUrx. 
lyit Gentian, Exo. 
: lita, . . . IIlNl). 
Kit'iat, .... ,, 

Kiriyathn, . Maleal. 

This plant has smallish bright yellow flowers. 
It grows in Nepal, the north of India, and the 
Morutig hills. It is one of the most esteemed of 
Indian medicinal plants. It is gathered when the 
flowers begin to decay, and is dried for use. Its 
bitter properties are in high estimation with 
European practitioners in India, who use it 
instead of gentian, for which it is a perfect sub- 
stitute. The root is the bitterest part of the 
plant, and this bitter principle is easily imparted 
to water or alcohol. According to Mr. Battley, ' it 
contains a free acid, a bitter resinous extractive, 
with much gum, and chlorates, with sulphates 
of potass and lime.' It is best in preparation as 
a cold infusion or watery extract, or a tincture, 
but not in decoction ; even an infusion made with 
warm water is apt to produce headache. To form 
a cold infusion, a pint of water should not stand 
more than twenty minutes on half an ounce of the 
bruised plant. It tends to produce a regular 
iu;tion of the alimentary canal. During its use 
the bile becomes moi-e abundant and healthy in 
character. Tlie tendency to excess of acidity in 
the stomach, with disengagement of flatus, is much 
restrained by its use. These qualities fit it in a 
most peculiar degree for the kind of indigestion 
which occurs in gouty persons. It may, when 
necessary, be associated with alkaline preparations 
or with acids ; the latter are generally preferable. 
The same remark applies to its employment in the 
treatment of scrofula. As a remedy against the 
languor and debility which affect many persons 
in summer and autumn, nothing is equal to the 
<X)ld infusion of this plant. It may be taken 
twice or even more, frequently daily, for a con- 
Hiderable time ; then discontinued, and afterwards 
resumed. Children take it more readily than most 
other bitters. It is found to be a very efficacious 
i-emedy in India against intermittents, particularly 
when associated with Guilandina bonduc or Car- 
anga nuts. Its efficacy in worm cases haa pro- 
cored for it the name of worm-seed plant. The 
extract is given with great benefit in some forms 
of diarrhoea and dysentery, particularly if combined 
with ipecacuan, the emetic tendency of which it 
very markedly controls. The parts of the plant 
that are chiefly used in medicine are the dried 
stalks with pieces of root adhering to them ; 
tincture is formed of it with orange-peel and car- 
"lainoms. — Roxh. ; Useful Plants, quoting Don in 
I.on. and Edin. Phil. Mag. ; Wallich, Plantas As. 
Jiiirior., etc. See Chiretta. 

A grandiflorum, Desv. 

var. albiflorum, „ 
,, ,, coccineum, ,, 
cliynomene coccinea, B. 
I'auk-Ban, . . BuRM. 
liaka, Buko, Augasta, 

lUil var. Lai Basna, Hind. 
^\ lute „ Safed „ „ 


JEschy. grandiflora, L. 
Coronilla, „ Willde. 

Sesbania, „ Pera. 

Bakapushpam, Sansk. 
Avitta, .... Tam. 
Agasi, also Avisi, 

also Bakepua, . ,, 
Red var. Erra Agisi Tel. 
White „ Telia „ „ 



Yenuga Kala manda, „ 
plants belongs to tho 

'ti, . . . Maleal. | Avisi, „ 

A small, delicate tree from 20 to 30 feet high, 


of only a few years' duration. It is generally 
found in gardens in tho vicinity of villages, where 
the natives encourage it« growth, for the sake of 
the leaves and tender pods, which they use in their 
curries. It is in flower and fruit most part of the 

Srear. The legumes grow to 12 or 18 inches 
ong, and the tender leaves and young legumes are 
much used in food by all classes of the natives. 
The tree is employed for training the betel plant 
(Piper betle). It admits the sun's beams and the 
wind better than any other of its height, being 
thin of branches and leaves, particularly after it 
is more than one year old, and it is of a very quick 
growth. The wood is only fit for fuel. Cattle 
eat the leaves and tender parts. It has large 
showy flowers. An infusion of its leaves is given, 
on the Malabar coast, in cases of catarrh. Dr. 
Shortt of Madras has strongly recommended its 
extended cultivation, to provide green food for 
cattle and sheep. He says 5000 trees can be 
grown on a cawny of land (6400 square yards), 
which in six weeks would furnish a ton of leaves. 
— Roxburgh; Graham in Thomson's Records of 
General Science, iv. p. 115. 

AGAVE AMERICANA. L. American aloe. 
A. cantula, Roxh. \ Aloe Americana, Rumph. 

Bilate ananas, . . Beno. Kala kantala, . 

Bakkul „ Kalabantha, 

Lu-Sung Ma, . . Chin. Pita kalabantha, 

Rakus, Hali Singar, Hind. Panam katalay, 

Jangli ananas, J. Anai kattaley, . 

Kan war, ... ,, Sagi Matta, 
Wilayati kantali, Panj. 

The agave genus of 
natural order Amaryllacese. The species are 
known by the name of American aloes, and pro- 
duce clusters of long stiff fleshy leaves, collected 
in a circle at the top of a very short stem, and 
bearing flowers in a long terminal woody scape. 
A. Americana is a native of America within the 
tropics, from the plains to elevations of 10,000 feet, 
but is now common in every part of India, and 
is naturalized in the south of Europe. It is much 
valued as a hedge plant ; but its chief importance 
arises from the excellent fibres which it yields, 
familiarly known as Pita thread. The usual mode 
of preparation is to cut the leaves, and throw 
them into ponds for three or more days, when 
they are taken out, macerated, and scraped with 
a blimtish instrument; but the best thread is 
obtained by crushing the leaves, when fresh, 
and scraping them. The leaf fibres are liable to 
rot, owing to a milky viscid juice contained in 
them. This is, however, considerably obviated by 
very hard crushing or pressure between heavy 
cylinders, which, by getting rid of all the moisture, 
renders them more pliable for weaving and other 
purposes. They are much used for lashing bales 
of calico. As log-lines for ships, they are found 
to be very durable, and far superior to ropes of 
coir, country hemp, or jute. A bundle of the 
Agave fibre bore 270 lbs., that of Russian hemp 
only 160 lbs. Dr. Wight found some cord of it 
bore 362 lbs. In Tinnevelly it sells from 20 to 
40 rupees the candy of 500 lbs., and at Madras 
7 rupees a maund. In 1853-54 were exported from 
the Western coast 3650 cwt., valued at 21,506 
rupees. Aloe fibres are admirably suited for cord- 
age, mats, ropes, etc., and might be advantageously 
used in the manufacture of paper. In Mexico, 
they prepare a fermented liquor from the stem ; 




the dried flowering sterns are used as an impene- 
trable thatch. An extract of the leaves is used to 
make a lather, like soap ; and the leaves, split 
longitudinally, are employed to sharpen razors on, 
serving the purpose of a strop, owing to the 
particles of silica they contain. The roots are 
diuretic and antisyphilitic, and are brought to 
Europe mixed with sarsaparilla. The Mexicans 
make a paper of the fibres of Agave leaves laid 
in layers. — Smith ; Drs. Wight, Stewart, Panjab 
Plants; Royle's Fibrous Plants; Roxh. ii. 167; 
Simmowls' Veg. Prod. ; Mad. Ex. Jur. Reports ; 
Useful Plants. 

AGAVE CHINENSIS, the T'u-ch'in-hiang of 
the Chinese, a plant of Formosa, yielding fibre, 
and used medicinally. 

Ghrita kumari, . Beng. I Kadenaku, . . Maleal. 
Ghi-kumar, . . HiND. | Catevala, ... „ 

Common in gardens throughout India. — Roxh. 

Bans Keora, . . Beng. I Kantala, . . Maleal. 
Bastard Aloe, . . Eng. | Pitha, Kathalai, . Tam. 

Its Fibre. 
Silk grass, . . . Eng. | Pitha Kalabantha, Tam. 

This is common throughout India ; planted in 
hedges, it grows luxuriantly without any further 
cultivation, and is capable of being extended 
in any soil. In the Lucknow jail, rope and 
sack-cloth have been made of it. A good fibre, 
long in the staple, is procured from the leaves, 
which are allowed to rot in water for twenty 
days, are then beaten on a plank and again 
thoroughly washed. A strong and useful cordage 
is made from them, as well as mats, ropes, etc. 
In South Arcot, these fibres sell at 30 rupees the 
candy. In the Madras Exhibition of 1855, a good 
specimen of fibre from this plant was contributed 
by Dr. Kirkpatrick. It was long in the staple, 
clean, and strong, and had been prepared without 
rotting, by the simple process of beating, scraping, 
and washing. The name of 'silk-grass' also is 
applied to the A. yuccsefolia. The fibres of the 
A. vivipera are said to equal in strength the 
best hemp. — Useful Plants, Royle, p. 43, Juries^ 

AGAVE YUCC^FOLIA, a plant naturalized 
in India, capable of yielding fibres. — Royle, p. 43. 

AGELLA? A wood of this name was ex- 
hibited at the Madras Exhibition of 1857. It was 
light-coloured, with a fine even grain, and it 
appeared admirably adapted for furniture and 
many domestic purposes. It was said to be 
abundant in Malabar, and had been used for a 
variety of purposes by the railway engineei-s ; 
sp. gr. 0-74.— M E. of 1857. 

AGGANA SUTTAN, a discourse of Buddha. 
See Wijao. 

AGHANI. Ar. The title of several Eastern 
airs, particularly the Kabir-ul-Aghani, compiled 
in the 10th century by Abul Faraj Ali, for which 
he got 2000 dinar from the Sultan of Syria and 
his vizir Ibn Ebad ; copies of it were sold in 
Baghdad for 4000 drachms of silver. 

AGHAT, in Ahmadabad, a stone inscribed 
with the terms of sale, erected in a field. It is a 
stone-deed of sale. They usually bear on the top 
a representation of the sun and moon. Aghatiya, 
land held rent-free. 

AGHOR, a river in Mekran (?). In its bed 
are several mud volcanoes, ia the form of jets of 

liquid mud, known as Ram Chandar ki kup, the 
wells of Ram Chandar. See Orilaj ; Ram Chandar. 

AGHORA, a name of Siva in his terrible 

AGHORA, a depraved sect of Hindu devotees, 
who practise the most disgusting, filthy, and im- 
pure rites, their food being ordure and carrion, 
and, it is said, human fiesh ; where not insane, 
much of this is imposture, the object being to 
excite the wonder of the beholders, and make 
them believe in the utter indifPerence of the 
Aghora to worldly enjoyments. They are ogres ; 
indeed, the similitude of the word to Aghori is 
noticeable. They go about nude, with a fresh 
human skull in their hands, of which they had 
previously eaten the putrid flesh, and afterwards 
scraped out the brain and eyes with their fingers, 
into which is poured whatsoever is given them to 
drink, and to this they pretend to be indifferent 
whether it be ardent spirits or milk or foul water. 
The Aghora is an object of terror and disgust. 
Hindus, however, look on these wretches with 
veneration, and none dare to drive them from 
their doors. They were among the worst of the 
many turbulent and troublesome inhabitants of 
Benares, and there is scarcely a crime or enormity 
which has not, on apparently good grounds, been 
laid to their charge. There are said to have been 
Aghora ascetics in the neighbourhood of Abu from 
the most ancient times, and formerly to have been 
cannibals, hence their other name, Mard-khor. 
One of the ancient Hindu dramatists, BhavaBhutta, 
who flourished in the 8th century, in his drama 
of Malati and Madhava, has made powerful use of 
the Aghora in a scene in the temple of Chamunda, 
where the heroine of the play is decoyed in order 
to be sacrificed to the dread goddess Chamunda or 
Kali. The disciple of Aghora Ghanta, the high 
priest who is to perform the horrible rite, by name 
' Kalapa Kundala,' is interrupted in bis invocation 
to Chamunda by the hero Madhava, who thus de- 
scribes the scene (Act V., scene 1, H. H. Wilson's 
Translation) : — 

' Now wake the terrors of the place, beset 
With crowding and malignant fiends. The flames 
From funeral pyres scarce lend their sullen light, 
Clogged with their fleshly prey, to dissipate 
The fearful gloom that hems them round. 
"Well, be it so. I seek, and must address them. 

* • * * * 

How the noise, .... 

High, shrill, and indistinct, of chattering sprites, 
Communicative, fills the charnel ground. 
Strange forms, like foxes, flit across the sky ; 
From the red hair of their lank bodies darts 
The meteor blaze, or from their mouths that stretch 
From ear to ear, thickset with numerous fangs, 
On eyes, on beards, on brows, the radiance streams. 
And now I see the goblin host : each stalks 
On legs like palm-trees, a gaunt skeleton, 
Whose fleshless bones are bound by starting sinews,. 
And scantly cased in black and shrivelled skin, 
Like tall and withered trees by lightning scathed, 
They move, and as amidst their sapless trunks 
The mighty serpent curls, so in each mouth, 
Wide yawning, lolls the vast blood-dripping tongue. 
They mark my coming, and the half-chewed morsel 
Falls to the howling wolf ; — and now they fly,' 

D'Anville speaks of them as 'une espece de 
monstre,' whose existence he doubted, though he 
quotes from Thevenot, who remarks, ' Les habi- 
tans de ce bourg (Debea) estoient autrefois de 
ceux qu'on nommoit Merdi-coura, ou Andro- 
pofages, maugeurs d'hommes ; et il n'y a pas 




iiid uombro d'anneos qu'on y vendoit encore de 
liair humaine dans le inarche.' ( Vuynyex de M. 
I'fie'venot, •V&ris 1G84.) D'Anvillo adda, that 

T • esp^ce de bOto,' this Menli-cour, had been 

liced Dy Pliuy, Aristotle, and Ctesias, under 
. ;irly the same name, Martichora. 

( )olonel Tod adds that he passed the gopha or 

\o of the most celebrated of these monsters 
the present age, who was long the object 
terror and loathing to Abu and its neigh- 
irhood. One of the Deora chiefs told him 
mat, a very short time previously, when conveying 
the body of his brother to be burned, one of these 
monsters crossed the path of the funeral proces- 
sion, and begged to have the corpse, saying that 
it ' would make excellent chatni,' or condiment. 
The headquarters of the caste were at Burputra 
(Baroda) ; and in Colonel Tod's time there still 
existed on the old site a temple dedicated to the 
patroness of the order, Aghoreswar-Mata, repre- 
sented as 'lean famine,' devouring all. Her 
votaries are brought into the compendious class 
of ascetics, of whom they are the most degraded, 
beyond all controversy. 

Marco Polo (Marsden, Marco Polo, p. 252) speaks 
of a class of magicians who are akin to the Indian 
Aghora. * The astrologers who practise the dia- 
bolical art of magic, are natives of Kashmir and 
Tibet. They exhibit themselves in a filthy and in- 
decent character ; they suffer their faces to remain 
uncleaned by washing, their hair uncombed, being 
in a squalid style. Moreover, they are addicted 
to this horrible and beastly practice : when any 
culprit is condemned to death, they carry off the 
body, dress it with fire, and devour it.' 

The Aghora wand and waterpot were a staff set 
with bones and the upper half of a skull. 

Wilson says the sect had died out by the 
beginning of the 19th century, only a few dis- 
(justing wretches, universally feared and detested, 
being then met with, whose odious habits and 
practices rendered them objects of aversion. 
They are now very rarely heard of. Cases, how- 
ever, do occur from time to time in different parts 
of India, to show that such horrid rites continue 
to be practised ; and the report for 1856 of the 
Madras Faujdary Adawlat gave the details of a 
horrible tragedy at Trichinopoly. — IhcTs Rajas- 
than, i. 575 ; Trav. p. 84 ; The People of India, 
hf J. Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, i. 
and ii. ; Friend of India, 1868; Leyden Asiatic 
Researches, ix. 202 ; Sherring's Tribes, p. 270 ; 
Wilson's Hindus. 

AGHORA-GHANTA, a priest of the goddess 
Chamunda. Aghora panthi, one who follows the 
practice of the Aghora. — W. 

AGHZAI. Panj. Fagonia cretica. Spal-aghzai 
is Astragalus multiceps and also Ballota limbata. 

AGIA. Hind. A small plant with a purple 
flower, which grows in poor exhausted lands in the 
N.W. Provinces, and destroys other grasses; it 
kills the millet Paspalum scrobiculatum, as also 
the Sorghum vulgare and sugar-cane, but not the 
Cajanus Indicus. 

AGIAH or Augiah, a grass described by 
Hamilton (vol. i. p. 2) as growing about the 
thickness of the wrist and to a height of thirty 
feet, in the belt of low land running along the 
■whole northern frontier. 

AGILA-GAHRU. Malay. Eagle-wood. 

AGIN. Hind. A witch ; a Hindu goddess. 


Oanmnium 'A{mnMi,llumpk. \ 8an-yoh-Sftn, . . Cniir. 

This grows in Cochin-China and China. It i« a 
flowering shrub with teniato and pinnate leaves, 
and very small yellow flowers in axillary racemes 
with a very agreeable {>erfun)e. The leaves are 
eaten as a vegetable ; the roots and leaves are 
supposed to be worth trial as tonics. There is a 
fine-leaved variety. Both the Aglaia oflorata and 
Murraya exotica are very sweet-scented, and much 
cultivated by the Chinese ; they are used to scent 
teas. A. Midnaporensis, Carey, grows in the 
forest of Midnapur. — Fortune's Tea Districts, p. 7 : 
Riddell; Hog, 171 ; Smith, p. 6. 

Milnea apiocarpa, Thw. En. PI. Zty. p. 60. 

This large tree is very common throughout the 
Western Ghat forests, up to 4000 feet, also in the 
Tinnevelly hills, and in parts of Mysore, etc., and 
Ceylon, flowering in March and April. It is very 
variable in shape of the leaves and fruit and amount 
of pubescence ; the timber is strong, and useful for 
building. — Beddome, Fl. Sylv. 

Kayan Kayo, . . BCBH. 

A large tree met with in Tenasserim and along 
the banks of rivers in the Pegu and Tounghoo 
districts. It affords a light, serviceable timber, 
somewhat stronger than the American pine, and 
capable of being wrought with little labour. 
Wood, red-coloured, strong, and adapted for 
house-building. — APClelland ; Mason. 

AGLE-MARAM. Tam. Chickrassia tabularis. 

AGNI, the Hindu god of fire, the Ignis of the 
Romans. He is variously represented in Hindu 
legend, and has many epithets. About a fifth of 
all the hymns in the Rig Veda refer to this god 
exclusively ; and most of the ten books open with 
hymns addressed to him. In Vedic mythology, 
Agni is the personification of fire, and the regent 
of the south-east division of the earth. He is very 
variously described, — sometimes with two faces, 
three legs, and seven arms, of a red or flame colour, 
and riding on a ram, his vahan or vehicle. Before 
him is a swallow-tailed banner, on which is also 
painted a ram. He is by others represented as a 
corpulent man of a red complexion, with eyes, 
eyebrows, head, and hair of a tawny colour, riding 
on a goat. From his body issue seven streams of 
glory, and in his right hand he holds a spear. 
Agni is the son of Kasyapa and Aditi, but his 
origin, his attributes, and epithets are very vari- 
ably represented. His consort, or sacti, is Swaha, 
a daughter of Kasyapa. She bore three sons, 
Pavaka, Pavamana, and Suchi. Swaha resembles 
the younger Vesta, or goddess of fire, of the 
Romans, who had no images in their temples to 
represent her. Thus Ovid has said — 

' No image Vesta's semblance can express : 
Fire is too subtle to admit of dress.^ 

Neither do wo meet with an image of Swaha. 
Those of Agni are usually seen in pictures. Agni 
continues to be worshipped by the modern Hindus 
as the personification of fire. He was wor8hippe<i 
as the destroyer of forests, and as useful in the 
sacrifice and in the household. ' AVhen generated 
from the rubbing of sticks, the radiant Agni 
bursts forth from the wood like a fleet courser.' 
' When excited by the wind, he rushes amongst 
the trees like a bull, and consumes the forest as a 



rajah destroys his enemies.' ' Such as thou art, 
Agni, men preserve thee constantly kindled in 
their dwellings, and offer upon thee abundant 
food.' — Rig Veda, i. 73 ; Cole,- Myth. Hind. pp. 
116, 117 ; Dowson. 

AGNI, a fire ordeal. The accused touches fire 
or heated metal, and if burned he is deemed 
guilty. See Divination. 

AGNI or Agni-Mata. Beng. Plumbago 
Zeylanica. Agni-jwala is Grislea tomentosa; 
Agni-vendrapaku is Ammannia vesicatoria ; and 
Agni-sikha is Gloriosa superba; also Carthamus 

AGNIASTEA, in Hindu mythology, the fire- 
shaft invented by Visvakarma in the war between 
the gods and the Daitya or Titans. See Vis- 

AGNI-BRAHMANA, a brahman who ofiiciates 
as priest at the burning of dead bodies. — W. 

AGNICULA, a general term for four Rajput 
tribes, supposed of Parthian descent, — theChohan, 
the Purihar, the Solanki, and Pramara, — who are 
said to have been produced by a convocation of 
the gods on Mount Abu. It is supposed that they 
were recognised by the Aryan brahmans, in order 
to obtain their martial aid. Tod says they were 
regarded as of the Tusta or Takshak race, who 
invaded India about two centuries B.C., which was 
about the time that Parswa, the 23d Jaina 
Tirthankara, appeared in India. Their aid was 
required to overawe the Daitya or Titans in the 
vicinity of Mount Abu. The Agnicoonda, or fire- 
place, is still shown on the summit of Abu, where 
the four Agnicula tribes were created by the 
brahmans to fight the battles of Achil-es and 
polytheism against the Buddhists, represented 
as the serpents or Takshaks. — Tod, ii. p. 451 ; 
Prinsep^s Antiquities, by I'homas, p. 247. See 
Khatri ; Rajput ; Chohan. 

AGNI-DAGDHA, a Hindu who has died 
without issue, and is burned at once, without the 
previous ceremony of having fire put into the 
mouth. — W. 

AGNI HOMA, or simply Homa. Oblations to 
fire; a Hindu rite. — W. 

AGNIHOTRA. Sansk. Performance of a daily 
or an occasional worship, with fire lighted from a 
perpetual fire preserved in the dwellings of Agni- 
hotra brahmans, the remnant of the worshippers 
of Agni, who still preserve the family fire, but in 
other respects conform to some mode of popular 
Hindu devotion. A Brahman who keeps the 
sacrificial fire is obliged by law to know the 
particular gotra of the 491 to which his own 
family belongs. When the fire is to be conse- 
crated, Agni Havyavahana, the god who carries 
the libations to heaven, must be invoked. This 
invocation or invitation of Agni is called pravara. 
Agni himself, or the fire, is called Arsheya, the 
offspring of the Rishi, because the Rishi first 
lighted him (it) at theu* sacrifices. He is the 
hotri as well as the adhvaryu among the gods. 
Like the hotri and ad vary u priests, he is supposed 
to invite the gods to the sacrifice, and himself 
to carry the oblation to the seat of the immortals. 
When, therefore, a brahman has his own fire 
consecrated, he wishes to declare that he is as 
worthy as his ancestors to offer sacrifices, and he 
invites Agni to carry his oblation to the gods as he 
did for his ancestors. According to prescribed rule, 
where a perpetual flame is maintained, it is used 

to light the fire round which the bride and bride- 
groom step at the marriage ceremony, and the 
funeral pile of either ; but the household fire is pre- 
served only by this particular sect, the Agnihotra, 
and the great body of the people have nothing 
of the kind. They distinguish between the sources 
whence they obtain the kindling flame according 
to the purposes of its application, and the fire of 
the marriage rite, for instance, is taken from the 
hearth of a respectable person, or from a fire 
lighted on some auspicious occasion, whilst for 
the funeral pile any unpolluted fire may be used. 
It is only necessary to avoid taking it from 
another pile, or from the abode of an outcast, of 
a man belonging to the tribe of executioners, of a 
woman who has lately borne a child, or of any 
person who is unclean. Notwithstanding these 
exceptions, it is at present the common practice of 
the Hindus of ordinary rank in the Western Pro- 
vinces to procure fire from an outcast to light the 
funeral pile. The Agnihotri, from agni, fire, and 
hotra, a sacrificial priest, is always of the brah- 
manical order. — Wilson^ s Hindu Theatre; The 
Toy Cart; Colehrooke on the Relif/iom Ceremonies 
of the Hindus; Asiatic Res. xxi. 241. 

AGNIMUNDA and Agnipuri, formed of fire; 
an ethereal voice heard from the sky, proceeding 
from a meteor or flame. 

AGNI-PARIKSHA. Sansk. A fire ordeal, 
by the accused walking through a fire, or dipping 
the hand into boiling oil. — W. 

AGNI PURANA, a Hindu sacred book in praise 
of Siva, supposed of comparatively recent origin. 
— Dowson. 

AGNI-SANSKARA. Sansk. The sacrament of 
fire ; the worship of fire as the completion of 
any essential rite ; the burning of the dead body 
of a Hindu. — W. 

AGNI-SAVARNI, in Hindu mythology, one of 
the fourteen patriarchs who preside successively 
over the fourteen Manwantara of the Calpa. 

AGNI-SHIMA, or Agni-Shimaiya-yoga. Sansk. 
Oblations of milk offered at new moon, through 
fire, to Indra. — W. 

AGNI-SUTRA. Sansk. In Mysore, a girdle 
of sacrificial grass placed round the waist of a 
brahman lad when he is invested with the sacred 
string of his caste. — W. 

AGNI-VESA, an early Hindu writer on medi- 
cine, said to be son of Agni. — Dowson. 

AGNIYA, a servant of the Cuvera or Guhya. 

AG OR. Mahr. a watchman or guardian of 
the village lands and crops. Agor-batai, a division 
of a crop between the cultivator and the landlord, 
after customs, threshing, and storing. 

AGOTAG. BicoL. Musa textilis. 

AGRA, inlat. 27° 10' 6" N., long. 78° 5'4"E., is a 
large city on the right bank of the Jumna. It was 
the seat of government from the time of Akbar. 
Its name has been derived from Agur, a salt pit, 
owing to the prevalence of a saline soil ; also from 
Aghari, in advance, from an answer made to sultan 
Secunder Lodi by the steersman of his boat, when 
asked which site should be built over. It gives the 
name to a revenue division of the N.W. Provinces 
of India, comprising the districts of Muttra, Agra, 
Furruckabad, Mynpur, Etawa, and Etah. Agra 
city is 842 miles by rail from Calcutta, and 
650 feet above the sea. Its population in 1872 
was 149,008 souls. Near Agra is the tomb 
known to Europeans as the Taj Mahal, built of 




white marble and red Bandstono by Sbah Jahan, 
over his wifo, Arjamand linim Hegutn. She (liu(l 
in 1G21), and this builduig was completod IGiH. 
It is on the river bank. Five miles out, on the 
Debli road, is the tomb of the emperor Akbar at 
tSikandra ; also the College, the Metcalfe Testi- 
monial. The Ram Bagh garden merits attention ; 
iind the magniticent tomb of Itimad-ud-Dowlah, 
lihe vizir of the emperor Jahaiigir, and father of 
tile famous empress Nur Jahan, who built the tomb. 
The fort of Agra was built by the emperor Akbar, 
and is one of the grandest in India. It is built 
of red sandstone. It is 1^ miles in circuit, and 
its walls 70 feet high. In front of the main 
entrance is the Trijwlia, now used as a market- 
place. Facing the gateway, and outside the 
linclosure of the fort, is the Jama Masjid. It is 
130 feet long and 100 feet broad. It was con- 
structed by Shah Jahan in 1644, after five years' 
labour, juid was built in the name of his daughter, 
Jahan Ara, who afterwards shared her father's 
captivity when he was deposed by Aurangzeb. 
Within the fort are the public halls, the Diwan-i- 
Am, built in 1685 by Aurangzeb, and the Diwan-i- 
Khas ; also the Machi Bhawan, on the river side 
of which are two thrones, one of white marble 
and one of black slate. Besides these, there are 
the Shish-Mahal, the Jahangir Mahal, and the 
exquisite Moti Masjid, built by Shah Jahan a.d. 
1654, with its three domes of white marble, reared 
upon a lofty sandstone platform. The battle of 
Agra was fought on the 17th October 1803, General 
Lord Lake commanding. — Bishop Heber, i. p. 587 ; 
Elliot, Sup. Gloss. ; Mundy's Sketches in India, i. 
p. 53 ; Ihurlow's Company and the Crown ; Dehli 
Gazette ; Robert Schlagentweit ; Imp. Gaz. 

AGRA-BHOJANA. S.vnsk. Literally first 
served with food at a feast, implying a brahman 
who has read the yajur, sama, and atharva vedas. 
— Hindu Theatre, iii. 184. 

AGRADANA or Agriharika, in Bengal, a brah- 
man of an inferior order, who conducts funeral 
obsequies or sraddhas for hire, called ironically 
Mahapatra and Mahabrahmana. — Wilson. 

AGRAHARAM. Karn., Maiik., Tam., Tel. 
A village occupied by brahmans. Agrahara 
or Agram is from two Sanskrit words, Agra, 
first; hara, what receives. It is written vari- 
ously. These villages are held at a favour- 
able quit-rent or free from assessment ; it may 
be free from all tax (sarv agraharam) or at 
a stipulated i-ent (b'ilmukt agraharam) or at a 
rent which fluctuates with the produce (kattubadi 

AGRAHAYANA, a Hindu month falUng in 
November and December. 

AGliAHRI, a section of the Banya of Benares, 
who claim to be of the Vaisya caste. 

AGRAI, a cultivating race in the Konkan. 
AGRICULTURE is the only industrial enter- 
prise which is conducted on a large scale in 
British India. In China it is a great and highly- 
honoured employment, and it affords a livelihood 
to the large majority of their respective populations. 
84,844,000 adult males, or 56*2 per cent, of the 
entire population of British India, are agricultural, 
living exclusively by the soil, or eking out the 
earnings of other employments by the produce of 
the land they till, or as agricultural labourers. 
There are also large numbers of women and 
children similarly employed, and the field labourers 

are 7i millions in number. The owners of the 
lands of British India are mostly all of the Hindu 
religion, or of the various original or modified cultu 
which the non- Aryan races profen. Brahmans and 
Rajputs are krge proprietors, and some Mahome- 
dans are owners, but few of these three races labour 
with their own hands. In the extreme south of 
the Peninsula, the great body of the cultivator 
landlords speaking the Tamil, Canarese, Malealain, 
and Telugu languages, are the Valalar, Idayan, 
Kavadi of Coorg, Okaliga, Nair, Reddi, Balja, 
Kandh, Kapa, Karama, and Gond. In the south 
of India, these are broken up into many sections, 
who have assumed the form of castes, whom the 
Census report of 1872 enumerates as — 

Tamil, viz. Brahman, Vaisya, Valalan, Kavari; 
Pulley, Kukalavun ; Idayan, Kanakan, Chanoyn, 
Vaneyn, Ochhen, Panechavun, Ambutten, Kuva- 
yen, Sanan, Parayan ; Vettyan, Kummalen, 
Chakili, Tulukun, and Reddi. 

Teluyu, viz. Brahman, Kapa or Kamma, Kolla, 
Balja, Sanay, Mangala, Mathuraju, Sakala, Kam- 
mara, Yanathi, Vetti, Mutham, Tuluka, Tuthekala, 
Kondla, Komsala, Odla, Gandra, and Nambe. 

The people speaking Canarese, almost all of the 
lingaet sect, are largely agricultural. 

In the Bombay Presidency, and extending 
into Bei-ar and Malwa, the Kunbi, a Mahratta 
race, is so exclusively agricultural, that their 
tribal name is ordinarily used to indicate a 

Farther north are the Kurmi, a numerous race, 
whom some ethnologists consider identical with 
the Kunbi, also the Lodha. In Bengal are the 
Chasa and Kisan ; farther to the north-west are 
the Gujar, Rajput, and Jat, the last being spread 
throughout the Panjab southwards to the Arabian 
Sea. The finer garden work is carried on every- 
where by the Tota-Kara, the Mali, the Kach'hi, 
Lodha, and others. 

The labourers consist of the broken tribes, whose 
position, even yet, is almost a predial slavery. 
The great body of labourers in the Tamil country 
are not Hinduized, as, for instance, the Pariah 
(parayan) and Chakili ; in the Telugu country, 
the Madhera, Malla, and Madiga; in Coorg and 
the Canarese districts, are the Holiya and their 
branches, Badaga, Balagei, Kembutti, Kulika, 
Madiga, Mara, and Marangi. Amongst the 
countries formerly ruled by the Peshwa are the 
Mhar and Mang, and Dher, and Koli, and Bhil ; 
and farther to the north are the Southal, Dora, 
and Chamar, with many other non-Aryan tril^es. 

The soils of British India are of varied fertility, 
but the poorest soils can be made to produce 
something if only watered naturally or artificially ; 
and the cultivators and their rulers, by construct- 
ing weirs across rivers, excavatujg canals, fonning 
tanks, and digging wells, have never ceased to 
plan and strive how to provide a supply of that 
essential element. In most districts the annual 
rainfall would be ample if it were but distributed 
throughout the agricultural season. It is a 
common experience for a tract of country to suffer 
from drought and flood in the same month. 
There might be drought for twenty-nine days, 
and a flood on the thirtieth. This necessitates 
the employment of storage tanks ; but a large 
part of the country is still without them, and 
many have fallen into disrepair ; and in the Madras 
Presidency, many rivers that formerly flowed for 




five months now flow for only three or four. 
Fully 80 per cent, of the occupied land was still, in 
1880, unprotected by irrigation ; and as an in- 
creasing population has to depend largely on the 
land for their food, its prices increase and the 
people suffer. The quantity that runs to waste 
is something enormous. For instance, one foot 
of rainfall on a square mile gives 1,032,532 cubic 
yards, or 174,239,775 gallons. But, in India, the 
rain falls in heavy downpours, and the proportion 
absorbed by the soil is comparatively small. The 
monsoon of 1862, for instance, was under the ave- 
rage in the Karnatic, yet the quantity of water that 
ran to waste into the seafrom thePennair (a second- 
class river), after a sufficient supply had been 
ilrawn off for all the cultivation as then existing 
under it, amounted to no less than 4,093,812,356 
cubic yards, or 691,831,835,075 gallons, sufficient 
to have irrigated nearly 1000 square miles. This 
discharge was calculated from the register kept at 
the anient at Nellore, and is rather under than 
over the mark. 

In average seasons, the fields of British India 
yield more than the population consume. There 
are 166i millions of acres under food crops, 
and 27^ under non-food crops, and the total 
food out-turn is estimated at 54 millions of 
tons, and the annual surplus of food at about 
5 million tons, part of which is sent to other 
countries. The usual export of grain is between 
1 and 1^ million of tons, rice being about 1 
million, and wheat ranging between 50,000 and 
325,000 tons. Besides the cereal grains, millets, 
pulses, vetches, and vegetables, there is other 
food available for the people, from land and sea, 
and from horned cattle, sheep, and goats, milk, 
poultry, eggs, fish, and straw for fodder for their 
cattle. Former rulers, both Hindu and Mahome- 
dan, have tried to improve the breeds of horses, 
horned cattle, and sheep, and introduced many 
exotic plants. Continuing such efforts, the British 
have established an Agricultural Department of 
the State, agricultural schools, model farms, 
horse and cattle fairs. Railroads and a great com- 
mercial navy are equalizing the supply, and they 
have secured for traders the peace essential for 
their success, and to carry to other marts the sur- 
plus produce of caoutchoucs, cardamoms, cinchona, 
coffee, cotton, dyes, hemps of kinds, indigo, jute, lac, 
millets, oil-seeds, opium, pepper, pulses, rice, tea, 
timber, and wheat. But scientific and practical men 
entertain the belief that the cultivators of British 
India could improve on their present efforts. 
The average out-turn of food grains is estimated 
in the Panjab, Mysore, and Madras, over the 
cultivated area, at 11 bushels per acre, which, 
assuming 57 lbs. to the bushel, may be taken 
at 627 lbs. The average produce per acre on a 
series of observations extending over ten years, 
in several districts of the Bombay Presidency, 
was found to be — Wheat, 9 bushels, or 585 lbs. ; 
Juari, 10 bushels, or 650 lbs. ; Bajra, 6 bushels, 
or 390 lbs. 

In the N. W. Provinces and in Bengal, the average 
out-turn of food grains is estimated to be 13 bushels 
per acre ; in the Central Provinces, 8 bushels ; 
in Bombay, 7^ bushels ; in Berar, 6 bushels. The 
average yield per acre of s^ome of the usual dry 
crops was found to be as under : — 

Black rice, dependent on rain alone, 700 lbs. 

Ghana or Bengal gram, . . 450 ,, 

Cooltie or Madras gram, . . 600 lbs. 
Dhal, . . . . . . 600 „ 

Cotton, unirrigated, . . . 200 „ 
Indigo, unirrigated, of dry indigo, 30 to 50 ,, 
Wheat, partially, . . 20 to 30 bushels. 

Hemp, 460 lbs. 

As the result of a great number of experiments 
in different parts of Southern India, the average 
yield of rice cultivation, first crop, was found to 
be as follows per acre : — 

Best white rice, fully irrigated, . . 2400 lbs. 
Maximum shown by the experiments, 3650 ,, 
Red rice, fully irrigated, averaged . 1800 ,, 
Black rice, partially irrigated, do., . 1200 ,, 
Black rice, depending on rain only, do., 700 ,, 

ButintheDehraDoon, wheat cultivation averages 
1260 lbs. per acre, or say 22 bushels; and Bajra, 
at the Sind experimental farm, 1420 lbs. per acre, 
or say 26 bushels. Also, it has been known that 
Mr. Lawes of Rothamsted, for many years in 
succession, by free manuring, raised an average 
of 34"14 bushels of wheat, or say 1945"98 lbs. ; 
and in Jersey the average is 37 bushels per acre, 
or say 2109 lbs. Ou these data, Mr. Cunningham 
says (pp. 16 and 18) that if the standard of cultiva- 
tion in England could be reached, the additional 
food available would be 2890 millions of bushels, 
or enough, at 7 bushels per head, for the annual 
consumption of an additional population of 410 

The defects in the agricultural work of British 
India, to which all European investigators point 
as the causes of scant yield, are too slight plough- 
ing, want of manure, heavy annual cropping, and 
reckless watering. In British India, only special 
crops are manured ; but the benefit of manuring 
lands has been shown, as under, by Messrs. Lawes 
and Gilbert of Rothamsted : — 

Unmannrcd land, . 

Land receiving yearly 
14 tons of farm-yard 
manure per acre, . 

Bushels per Acre. 
Yearly Average. 

15-3, 13-3 

34-5 36-0 






26-8 39-25 

Weight of Bushels 

per lb. 

Yearly Average. 

So that, whilst wheat on properly cultivated 
but unmanured land in England produced a yield 
on the average of 12*97 bushels or 744*29 lbs. per 
acre, fully manured lands yielded 34*14 bushels or 
about 2030 lbs. per acre. The Indian cultivator is, 
however, well acquainted with the importance of 
manuring his lands. He may be less thrifty with 
it, and may make insufficient exertion to obtain 
due supplies of it, but more than all he can possibly 
gather could be applied to the spade husbandry of 
his gardens, where sugar-cane, betel-leaf, and the 
finer and higher-priced fruits and vegetables are 
grown. Many of them, also, are no doubt wasteful, 
even destructive with their water supply, and on 
these points the Indian cultivator might take 
a lesson from the Chinese, who are of the very 
highest class of gardeners and farmers, though 
their agricultural implements are scarcely any 
better than those of the Hindus. Their secret is 
that they are exceedingly industrious, and waste 
nothing. There is not an inch of a Chinaman's 
field left uncultivated, or a clod that has not 
received its due portion of manure ; the sewage 




of towns and villan^es ia not wasted, or worse 
than wostoil, as in Indin, but is ruturnod to tho 
land ; whence tho 8uq)riHing productiveness of 
Chinese an^ricultnro. The Chinese also thoroughly 
uuderstaud irrigation. They do not waste their 
water or their land in the process, but cause 
drainage and irrigation to go on together. Mr. 
Elliot says tho native farmer thoroughly under- 
stands his business as regards fertilizing the 
soil, and that if ho docs manure very little, 
he at least manures as much as he can ; leaves 

3 used to add to the manure heaps; nitrous 
eiirth is also used in some parts of India ; 
fish are applied to land on the coast; town 
sweepings are carefully used, and so also, are the 
refuse of oil mills and indigo vats; crops to be 
ploughed in green are in some instances grown ; 
salt earth is applied to cocoa-nut trees in Mysore ; 
in the Madura collectorute, even bats' dung is 
collected from old and ruined buildings ; where 
flocks of sheep are to be met with, the owners 
receive regular payment for every night they are 
folded on a farmer's field ; and in some parts 
of the country, where the means of enclosing them 
exist, cattle are also folded on the land. The 
cattle are, however, not stalled, and even what 
can be collected of their dung is dried and used 
for fuel. This is a loss to the Indian lands. 
In England, every 1000 lbs. of the dung of grass- 
fed cattle contains 11 lbs. of valuable manurial 
matter, — 4 lbs. of nitrogen, 3 lbs. of phosphoric 
acid, and 4 lbs. of lime. In India, every morsel 
of dung that falls on roads and lanes and the 
barren plain is carefully gathered, and used as 
fuel. This is chiefly the consequence of the great 
dearth of wood over all the cultivated tracts; 
and tho necessity of planting is now recognised 
by the governments of India. There is a custom, in 
the Nellore district, of planting a certain pro- 
portion of the lands bordering on streams, or 
intersected with watercourses, with the Acacia 
arabica and A. leucophlcea. These shelter the 
grass in hot weather, and their pods are used as 
food for cattle and sheep. The wood is also 
valuable ; and when about ten years old it is cut 
down for timber, after which the land is put under 
crop, and another section is laid down under 
this admirably combined system of fodder and 
timber growing. Manures containing organic 
matter increase the condensing powers of the soil. 
But, as a general rule, the Indian farming exhausts 
the organic matter in the soil, and thus renders it 

H able to take up moisture from the air. Their 
cropping of the land is very exhausting, not so 
much from the crops grown being those that make 
great demands on the soil, but because nearly the 
whole are removed ainl not consumed by the stock 
of the farm ; and the native practice of allowing the 
land to lie fallow for several seasons, is a proof of 
their consciousness that they have been exhausting 
it Also, according to existing rules, a cultivator 
pays rent or revenue ouly on the fields he cul- 
tivates. The ryot has not a fixed holding, but 
changes it at pleasure, and as a consequence 
the land is becoming exhausted, and permanent 
improvements are not made. The ryots of a 
^lage may not pay for more than 200 acres, 
and yet in the course of years may temporarily 
exhaust many hundred acres. If each cultivator 
n were obliged to keep to a given area, the ex- 
hausting character of tho husbandry would render 

the soil unfit to yield the scanty produce obtaincl 
by the ryot. The existing practice is only a 
modification of the Kumari form of cultivation 
as followed by all the hill trills of the EoMt 
Indies, which consists in burning the forest 
or brushwood and sowing their grains in the 
ashes, taking only one crop off the cleared land, 
and proceeding to another place in the year 

In tho south of India, soils are daaaed 
roughly as Nanja and Panja, or wet and dry. 
Nanja soil is fitted for the cultivation of 
rice, admitting of artificial irrigation, and hence 
commonly termed wet cultivation, in contra- 
distinction to Panja, or dry cultivation, which 
comprises all such crops as are dependent solely 
or chiefly upon rainfall and dews. Amongst 
these dry crops may be named an inferior sort of 
rice, yielding a scanty and precarious crop ; several 
oil-seeds, as linseed, castor, gingely or sesammn, 
(Sesamum Indicum), all dry grains, as wheat, 
barley, sorghum, bajra (Penicillaria spicata), 
maize, millet, ragi (Eleusine coracana), and the 
like; all vetches, dhal (Cajanus Indicus), Madras 
gram (Dolichoa uniflorus), Bengal gram (Cicer 
arietinum) ; also indigo, cotton, with a few garden 
plants, as tobacco, chillies, turmeric, which require 
partial irrigation. 

Undoubtedly, for the food of the community, 
more could be made of the land than at present, but 
the agricultural races have still much land avail- 
able. The Panjab has 80,000 square miles of 
cultivable waste, Bengal 85,000 square miles out 
of an area of 144,000 ; Assam has 7500 square 
miles cultivated, and 18,000 of cultivable waste ; 
Burma has a total area of 87»000 square miles, of 
which 5000 are cultivated and 37,000 believed to be 
cultivable. The lands still uncultivated in these 
two proA-inces cover an area of 65,000 square miles, 
five times as large as Belgium, in which a redun- 
dant population could be placed. In the Central 
Provinces, out of a total area of 114,000 square 
miles, 30,000 are cultivated and 40,000 believed 
to be cultivable. In Bombay, 30,000 square miles 
of the 38,000 square miles of cultivable land 
are actually under cultivation ; and in Madras, 
which has, besides the zamindaries, a total area 
of 130,000 square miles, only 10,000 square 
miles of inferior soil remain uncultivated. 

In Northern India, the harvests are ordinarily 
classed as rabi and kharif . The rabi crops, those 
sown at the fall of the year and reaped in the 
early spring, consist of the cotton, maize, sorghum, 
indigo, wheat, barley, oil-seeds, hemp, jute, 
vetches, peas, Bengal gram, and Madras gram, 
and the arhar or tur dhal (Cajanus Indicus). 

However largely the means of irrigating lands 
may be extended, the dry cultivation must ever 
form the backbone of Indian agriculture ; it is for 
this that retentive soils have so high a value. 
The best of these is the regur, kali matti, or cotton 
soil, which overlies the great outburst of volcanic 
rocks that spread from tho Belpaum district north- 
wards to Malwa, and is to be seen in patches 
throughout the country. It is capable of absorb- 
ing and retaining more than one-third of its 
entire weight in water, and has, in a remarkable 
degree, the power of absorbing moisture from the 
air. The rabi crops being grown in the cold season 
of the year, and on the plateaux and table-lands, 
need all the heat obtamable. One conclusion 




come to by Dr. Wight as the result of his cotton 
experiments in S. India, was that, from being 
sown there for a winter growth, it did not receive 
sufficient heat. And throughout the central plat- 
eaux of peninsular India, the cultivators regard 
hedges and trees as injurious to crops, which are 
annually enclosed by the branches of thorny trees, 
and are burned after the harvest ; consequently, 
when the crops are off the ground, the whole region 
has a treeless aspect. 

To secure the utmost benefit from the available 
water supply, the beds of paddy fields are in ter- 
races, so as to admit of the water being led from 
the higher to the lower beds, and in all the moun- 
tainous countries terracing is to be seen carried out 
to a great extent. On the N.W. of British India, 
Elphinstone (Caubul, p. 353) described it as fol- 
lowed by the Othman Khel, and, at Srinuggur, 
he says, walls are made along the sides of the 
hills, and filled with soil from the lower part of 
the hill ; the walls are from three to ten feet high, 
and the terraces about five yards broad. The 
walls are soon concealed by grass and other vege- 
tation, and as they are never straight, but consult 
the bends in the surface of the hills, the effect is 
pleasing and picturesque. In Beluchistan, in the 
Mekran province, and in the valley beyond 
Baghwan, terracing by some prior race has been 
conducted in a manner so cyclopean as to excite the 
wonder of all who have seen the huge rocks which 
have been laid across the slopes of the moun- 
tains. The Malai Arasar, or hill kings of the 
Pulneys, in the extreme south of India, follow the 
terracing system. And in the Archipelago, the 
people of the Tengger mountains, described by 
Raffles, and the Serwatti and Letti, Baba and 
Timor Laut islanders, scarp the hill-sides into a 
succession of platforms and terraces. 

Over-irrigating seems to have the effect of 
bringing the saline particles of the soil to the 
surface. Mr. Schrottky has informed us that in the 
saline soils of Kattywar, the quantities of chloride 
of sodium decreased from the surface downwards. 
The first six inches had 3 per cent. ; at one foot 
below there was 0'48 per cent. ; and in the subsoil 
at 2^ feet, only 0"44 per cent. His recommenda- 
tion for its removal was subsoil draining. Mr. 
Robertson of the Madras school also recommends 
improved ploughs and deep ploughing, to bring 
fresh soil to the surface. 

The agricultural implements of India are con- 
structed with the same objects in view as those of 
Europe, and those employed in the Dharwar collec- 
torate may be noticed for the whole. The large 
plough is used on ground being brought into culti- 
vation for the first time. It is broken up with this 
lengthways and crossways. If the land is heavy, 
eight, even sixteen, bullocks are used ; if light, 
four are sufficient. It is used in cotton and also 
in grain cultivation. A smaller plough is used in 
black soil at intervals from six to ten years, and 
worked with two or four bullocks, according to 
the depth of ploughing and stiffness of the soil. 
In cotton and also in grain cultivation, and 
in red soils, it is used every year. The kulu is 
used with two bullocks after ploughing, for further 
breaking up the soil, and also used without pre- 
vious ploughing in the years when the black cotton 
soil is not ploughed. After the seed — whether 
cotton or grain — is sown with the drill, the iron 
and wooden supports are removed from this instru- 

ment, and the soil smoothed over the seed with 
the upper wood alone, drawn by two bullocks, and 
kept down by the foot of the driver. The tephun 
drill is used for sowing cotton. It is drawn by 
two bullocks; the two seed tubes are fed by a 
woman each. The kuri drill is used in sowing 
grain. It is worked with two bullocks, which 
one man drives, and this man feeds the receptacle 
for the seed communicating to the four tubes, and 
a third man works the extra tubes at the side, 
with which another description of seed or oil-seed 
is very commonly sown in every fifth row. The 
kuri or drill used in rice cultivation is similar to 
that employed for other grains, except that there 
are six tubes, and no extra tube for other grain is 
used, rice being sown alone. It is worked by two 
bullocks. The kulpa, or kulpi, is drawn by two 
bullocks, and is for rootingup the weeds between the 
rows of grain. The row of grain is left untouched 
in the interval in the middle. The earth is also, by 
the same operation, loosened around the roots of 
the grain. Two of these are frequently worked 
together with one pair of bullocks and two 
men. The hulli bandi is not seen much of large 
size in the Dekhan, but is very common in the 
southern Mahratta country, drawn by eight bul- 
locks. The tires are of heavy iron, commonly six 
inches deep. A pair of wheels costs up to 120 
rupees; they last 50 or even 100 years, and are 
handed down as heirlooms in families. 

The nagor, or plough employed for rice cultiva- 
tion, is worked with two bullocks. Rice land is 
ploughed with this two or three times every year. 
The don, or clod-crusher, is drawn with two bul- 
locks, and the driver stands on the implement 
when working it. The khora is a hoe. The korpi, 
or weeder, is used for clearing away any weeds 
which may have escaped the kulpa, drawn by 
bullocks. The akri or hook is used for collecting 
the grain in straw together. The phaura is a hoe. 
The dantala is a rake. The fewutti is a stool for 
standing on when winnowing. It is six or seven 
feet high. The bhirut or mill is used for removing 
the husk from rice. 

In sugar-cane cultivation, the ghurda is used 
for raising water three or four feet ; it is worked 
by men holding the ropes at the corners, and 
swinging it backwards and forwards. 

In Mysore, the implements are the nagalu or 
plough, the halavay or harrow, the kurigay or 
sowing machine, the kuntey or weeding machine, 
the halaleey or levelling machine, and the heggun- 
tey rumte or harrow. — Cunningham's India ; Mr. 
R. H. Elliot on Measures and Stiggestions for the 
Advancement of the Wet and Dry Cultivation in 
India; F. C. Danvers in Jo. Soc. of Arts, on 
Agriculture in India; Mr. W. Robertson, Supt. 
Govt. Farms, Madras, in Jo. Soc. of Arts ; Mr. 
Schrottky, Farming in India; Elphinstone' s Kingdom 
of Caubul, p. 363 ; Cunningham^ s British India ; 
Mr. James Caird's Report on the Condition of 
India, 1880 ; Reports i. and ii. of the Indian 
Famine Commission, 1880 ; Balfour on the Influence 
of Trees on Climate. See Soils. 

cutta was established in 1820 by Dr. Carey ; that 
of Bombay in 1830, and resuscitated in 1859 ; 
that of Madras in 1835 ; that of Lahore in 

salsolaceous plant of E. Asia, the ' soulkir' of the 




Mongols, larfrt'ly eaten by the Ala Shan nomadea. 
■To// Miidler. 

AGIvOHA, a small town on the borders of 
Ilurriaiin, the orif^inal seat of the Agar tribe. It 
was taken by Sliahab - ud - Din Gori, 1 194, on 
which the Agarwal dispersed all over India. See 

ACiKOSTIS, a genus of grasses of the natural 
jrtler Graniinacerc of Lindley ; several species are 
met with in pastures and barren land. See Cyno- 
Jon (lactylon. 

AGULLAS BANK, begins at lat. 82^ S. and 
long. 29 E., and extends its breadtli to the S.W. 
ill it exceeds 125 miles. 
AGUMUKI. Bkng. Bryonia scabrella. 
AGUNDA-PAKU. Tel. Ammauuia vesica- 
AGWAR. Hind. The first portion taken from 
heap of corn, the perquisite in kind of the 
loughman. — Tl^. 

AGYA-GHAS. Hind. Andropogon sclicon- 

rta h'men, . . Burnt. | H'soke gyee, . Burnt. 
The roots of this curious flowered plant are 
ised medicinally by the Karen. Wight figures 
bacciformis, and Voigt names A. puber of the 
loluccas. — Mason. 
AHAK. ' Arab. Quicklime. 
AH ALU, of Kaghan, Viscum album, L. 
AHALYA, in Hindu mythology, was the first 
Toman made by Brahma. She became the wife of 
he rishi Gautama, and was seduced by Indra 
ssuming her husband's form ; but she was 
urified and restored to her husband. Ahalya 
nd ludra are allegorical for the sun and night. — 
AHALYA BAI, a Mahratta princess of the 
lolkar family, who ruled in the middle of the 18th 
entury. She was born a.d. 1735 ; she was not a 
■eauty, but in conversation her countenance lit 
p, and she had a slender frame. She had a quick 
ad clear understanding, strong natural sense, a 
)fty mind, and noble virtues. She was married 
Kundee Rao, the only son of Mulhar Rao 
lolkar ; but before she was twenty years of age 
he was left a widow, with one son, Malli Rao, 
'ho became insane and died, and a daughter, 
(atcha Bai. From her widowhood she adopted 
he white garments of Hindu widows, and ceased 
I) use jewels. On the demise of her son she 
laimed to rule. Opposition was at first given, 
ut by A.D. 1765, while not more than thirty years 
kL she succeeded to the administration of the 
loikar government. She appointed Tukaji 
(oikar to the command of her armies, and his 
unily succeeded to the sovereignty. She was 
fionificent ; she built the Viseswara temple at 
(enares, and the present Indore. She heard 
omplaints in person ; and after a peaceful reign, 
ied A.D. 1795, at the age of sixty. See Holkar ; 
'ahratta Governments. 
AHAN-RUBA. Peus. Loadstone. 
AHAR. Hind. An embankment, a small 
ond ; also a salt pit. 

AHARVVARAH or Aharat, a territory on the 
oath-east frontier of Malwa, which contains 
lany districts. It is to the west of the liam- 
\nga, and extends into a portion of Rohilkhand 
id Muradabad. The Ahar tribe are spread 
irongh Rohilkhand and other districts in the 

N.W. Provinces, following pastoral pursoita. 
They claim to be descended from the Ya<lu 
race or Yadubansa, and the Abir make the 
same claim ; but Mr. Sherring aaya the Ahir 
assert that they are the descendants of Krishna 
himself, and that the Ahar are only the children 
of Krishna's cowherds. — Sherring's Tribes, p. 337 ; 
Malcolm, Cent. Intl. i. p. 325. 

AHDI. Arabo-Hind. In the armies of the 
emperor Akbar, a cavalry soldier who served with 
his own horse and accoutrements ; the Sillahdar 
of the present day. 

AH ETA or Negrito, a small Negroid race, 
the second name, meaning little Negro, being 
given to them by the Spaniards ; but that of Ita 
or Ahet, written Ajeta, is their usual appellation 
among the planters and villagers of the plains. 
The woolly- haired tribes are more numerous iu 
the Philippines than in any other group of the 
Indian Archipelago ; they were estimated by M. 
Mallat, in 1842, to amount to 25,000. The islands 
Samar, Leyte, and Zebu have not any of them ; 
but they are found in Negros, Mindanao, Mindoro, 
and Luzon. In the early accounts of them by 
the Spaniards, they are described as being smaller, 
more slightly built, and less dark in colour, than 
the Negroes of Africa, and as having features less 
marked by the Negro characteristics, but as having 
woolly instead of lank hair ; and their social 
condition could not then have been much better 
than now, since they are described as living on 
roots and the produce of the chase, and as sleeping 
in the branches of the trees, or among the ashes 
of the fires at which they had cooked their food. 
They are all well formed and sprightly, but rarely 
exceed four feet and a half in height. It is impos- 
sible to surmount their tendency to idleness. They 
prefer a savage life to all the charms of civilisation. 
They take no pains in clearing their hair, and do 
not know how to arrange it ; it forms a sortof crown 
round the head, which gives them an exceedingly 
fantastic aspect, and when seen from a distance, 
makes the head appear as if surrounded with a 
sort of aureole. — Earl's Papuans, pp. 121 to 131. 
See Alfoeren ; Papuan. 

AHI. Saksk. a serpent; also a name of 
Vritra, or the rain cloud ; also a mythical chief 
of the races warring against the ancient Aryans. 

AHI-CHHATRA or Ahi-Kshetra, a town 
mentioned in the Mahabharata as the capital of 
N. Panchala. It is the Adi Sadra of Ptolemy ; 
and it has been identified with Adikot, or 
Ahi-Chhatra, near Raranagar in Rohilkhand. Its 
fort was restored, about the middle of the 17th 
century, by Ali Muhammad Khan. Its history 
reaches back to B.C. 1480, at which time it was 
the capital of Northern Panchala. The name is 
written Ahi-Kshetra, as well as Ahi-Chhatra ; but 
the local legend of Adi Raja and the Naga which 
formed a canopy over his head when asleep, shows 
that the latter is the correct form. — Cunningham, 
Ancient Geog. of India, p. 859. 

AHILLA. Singh. Cathartocarpus fistula. 

AHINSAjin Buddhism, the non-injury of animal 

APIIR. In Central and Northern India, and in 
the N.W. part of the Peninsula, Ahir is a general 
term for a pastoral race, who are known in 
Bengal as the Abhir, a contraction from the 
Sanskrit Abhira, a cowherd race noticed by 
Ptolemy as occupying above Patalene. They 




are most numerous in the N.W. Provinces, spread 
through the Central Doab, in the Upper Doab, 
on the west of the Jumna, and in the Lower 
Doab and province of Benares. They are distin- 
guished as three tribes who acknowledge no other 
connection than the name of Ahir. These are 
the Nandbansa, Jadu or Yadubansa, Goala or 
Goalabansa. The first are more numerous in 
the Central Doab ; the second in the Upper Doab, 
and on the west of the Jumna ; and the last in 
the Lower Doab and the province of Benares. 
The two first are numerously subdivided, bearing 
distinctive appellations, taken usually from the 
place were they reside. Some of the Jadbansa 
have been converted to Mahomedanism, and are 
known as Rangar, in common with some other 
tribes. Tribes of Ahir are numerous also in 
Rajputana and the Panjab. In the Dehli territory, 
the Ahir eat, drink, and smoke with Jats and 
Gujars, and in some cases with Rajputs. The 
several subdivisions intermarry, avoiding only 
the four families nearest in affinity ; and where 
they are much intermixed, as in the Dehli Doab, 
with Gujars and Jats, they conform to their usage 
of the marriage of the widow of an elder brother 
by the next in seniority. They have two forms 
of marriage, the bhanwar, or first class, and the 
darejha, or second class. Ahir hold lands along 
the borders of the rivers Jumna, Ganges, and the 
Hiudun, where the uncultivated grass lands afford 
them means of grazing their herds. In Oudh 
they are now generally agriculturists, as well as 
engaged in rearing cattle ; but they have no rights 
in the soil. In 1871 they numbered in Oudh 
1,170,000 souls. In the N.AV. Provinces they were 
two and a half millions. Immense numbers of 
the Ahir seek the high grazing grounds of Cen- 
tral India and Western Bengal, where they form 
encampments in houses made of large bamboo 
mats, residing, with their wives, families, and 
herds, until the grass in the neighbourhood is 
exhausted, subsisting entirely on the proceeds 
from their cows and buffaloes of their milk and 
butter and ghi. Their mat houses can be taken 
to pieces and removed like tents. They are a 
sober, quiet, and contented people. They have 
not any chiefs or head men. They have not, since 
many centuries, been of any political import- 
ance. But in the Ramayana and Mahabharata 
the Abhir of the west of India are mentioned ; 
the geography of the Puranas describes the west- 
ern parts of India, from the Tapti to Devaghur, 
as called Abhira ; and in the 8th century, when 
the Kathi arrived in Gujerat, they found the 
greater part of the country possessed by the Ahir. 
At the present day, in Northern India, ttiey do 
not keep sheep, and in this they are imitated by 
the small bodies of the cowherd race in the Dekhan, 
The Palli herdsmen dynasty, who reigned in 
Bengal from the 9th up to the latter part of the 
11th century, are supposed by Sir Henry Elliot 
to have been Ahir, and they seem to have spread 
in ancient times into all the lands Where their 
herds could find pasture. Gwalior in Central 
India, Gawilghur in Berar, and Golconda in the 
Dekhan, are supposed to have been their halting 
sites. But the countries in the south of the Penin- 
sula were long held by the shepherd Kprumbar 
(Kuru in Canarese, a sheep) ; and Asa Ahir, 
whose stronghold Asirghar was taken, is said to 
have had 5000 buffaloes, 5000 cows, and 20,000 

sheep. There are several Kuru Kot in the south 
and Yemmi-Guda, the hill of the buffaloes, an( 
Yonnai-Guda, the hill of butter, indicate pastora 
stations. Asir-ghur is said to have been so callec 
from that Asa-Ahir. Ahir Koli of Kandesh residi 
along the banks of the Girna and Tapti rivers 
and are employed as watchmen. — Wiliton ; Sir \\ 
Elliot in the Jo. Etli. Soc. ; Sir 11. Elliot. 

AHIRT, a forest in the chiefship of the sam^ 
name, in the southern portion of the Chand; 
district, on the left bank of the Pranhita river 
It has much teak trees. The inhabitants ari 
almost wholly Gonds, and the languages spokei 
are Gondi and Telugu. 

AHKAM. Arab. Orders ; plural of hukm. 

AHL. Pers. People. Ahl-i-kar, servants 
Ahl-i-kitab, the people of the book ; a term appliei 
by Mahomedans to Jews, Christians, and Maho 

AHLADA MARA. Can. Ficus Indica. 

AHLI-NE-NGAI. Burm. A tree of Monl 
mein, used for ordinary house-building purposes 
Its leaves are eaten as greens. — Cal. Cat. Ex. 'GS 

AHMAD, son of Yahya, styled Al Biladur: 
author of Fattah-ul-Baldan. See Biladuri. 

AHMADABAD, a town in India, in long, 72 
38' 30" E., and lat. 23° 1' 45" N., built on tli 
left bank of the Sabarmatty river. It was th 
capital of Gujerat during the Mahomedan occu 
pancy, in 1413-1442. When Ahmad, grandson c 
Jaka, styled Wajeh-ul-Mulk, resolved to foum 
Ahmadabad, he chose a site occupied by a com 
munity of the Bhil race, whose predatory habit 
were the terror of the neighbourhood. He resolvei 
to create his new capital by means of the city c 
Chandraoti, the materials of which he used, an 
compelled all its people to follow the spoils c 
their temples and dwellings to the uninteresting 
unhealthy, low flat on the banks of the Sabarmati j 
It has been held by the Mahomedans of Dehli, b; 
the Gaekwar, and by the Mahrattas. Geuers 
Goddard took it by storm 10th Feb. 1780, but di 
not retain it. In 1818, on the overthrow of th 
Peshwa's power, it reverted to the British. Popu 
lation in 1872, 105,195. The district has 829,03' 
souls, Srawak or Jains, Hindus, Mahomedans, wit) 
a few Parsees, Christians, and Jews. The agricul 
turists are Kunbi, Rajputs, and Koli. Many o 
the Kunbi are skilled weavers. The Kunbi clan 
are the Lewa, Kadwa or Kadava, and Anjana 
The Kadwa Kunbi, when a suitable husban( 
cannot be found, marry the girl to a bunch o 
flowers, which is afterwards thrown into a well 
The girl is then a widow, and can now be marriec 
by the natra, or second and cheap form of mar 
riage. Or they marry the girl to a man alread; 
wedded, obtaining previously his promise t 
divorce her as soon as the ceremony is over ; an' 
the girl is afterwards given in natra to any on 
who may wish to wed her. Some of the Rajput 
are grassya, others cultivators. The Srawa 
Jain merchants are more wealthy than the Meshi 
Hindu merchants. 

The races on the border tract between Gujera 
proper and the Kathiawar district are the Chud 
asama, descended from the Hindu dynasty ( 
Junagarh ; the Waghela, a remnant of the Solanl 
race, who escaped from Anhilwara when destroye 
by Ala-ud-Din, 1297. The Waghela were fir,' 
known as Makwara; theGohil, immigrants froi 
Marwar. The Thakara are the descendants i 




L>Iaiiki and Mukwaim familioA who intermarried 

iih tliu Koli of Muhi Kanta. Tlio Mol-8alam 
re rruiiiara lijijputs, convurta to Mahomodanisin. 
Ik-hd and other city residents are doaignated 

Ahraadabad is famed for its clotlis of gold 
ml ttilvcr, silka, cotton fabrics, manufactures 
f gold, silver, stei'l, enamel, mother-of-pearl, 
loquered ware, and fine woodwork, golti and 
Iver thread, pottery, and paper, many of the 
idustries being under the contract of guilds. Its 
rchitectural structures are mosques, tombs, mau- 
)leums, and wells. Ahmad Shah and his queen 
ro buried there. — Tod's Travels, p. 134; //«;>. 


AHMAD bin HANBAL, the fourth and last 
f the learned doctors of the Mahomedan faith, 
orn A.D. 780. See Imam. 

AHMADNAGGUR, a city and fortress in the 
rovince of Aurungabad, is the principal artillery 
lAtion of the Bombay army. It is on the left 
ank of the Seena river. Its fortress, in the centre 
f a great plain, consists of a curtain with bastions 
nd ditch, and the Pcttah also is surrounded by 
curtain and bastions. The population in 1828 
as 21,208; in 1835, 23,774; and in 1872, 
2,841. It is in lat. 19° 5' N., and long. 74° 65' E. 

was the capital of the territories of the Nizam 
hah Bhairi dynasty ; and their many extensive 
alacos, the Farrahbagh and Rashk-i-Irm, etc., 
re now in ruins. A pretty little mosque, the 
>amri Masjid, is to the south of the fort. The 
yuasty and its officers formed several valuable 
arez. The city is 1760 feet above the sea in 
le Seena therri or valley, and the rock is green- 
tone and greenstone amygdaloid. Ahmadnaggur 

11 to the Moghul Empire in 1599, at the close 
f the reign of Akbar. It subsequently fell to 
le Mahrattas, but imderwent great vicissitudes 
ill ceded to the British in 1803. Aurangzeb 
Alamgir i.) long resided, died, and was tem- 
orarily interred here. The Pettah was taken by 
torm by General Sir Arthur Wellesley on the 8th 
Lugust 1803, and on the 12th the fortress sur- 
ondered. The people of the district are Mahrattas 
f the Kunbi, Mali, and artisan sections, with the 
Ihar, Mhang, Dher, Chamar, and Ramusi, and 
iiigratory tribes of Khelati, Kaikara, and Wadara. 
'he hill tribes are Bhil, Koli, Thakur, and Warali. 
"he Mahomedans are poor. The village municipal 
urvants are the patel, kulkurni, josi or bhat, 
iDinhar, nahvi, sutar, lobar, chamar, parit, 
baogi, rakhwaldar, mulla, and gurao. The Bora 
fahomcdans and the Marwari of the Jain sect 
re the chief merchants. — Pcrs. Obs. ; Imp. Gaz. 

AHMAD SAID RAFFAI, founder of the 
lafai fakirs, known as tlie Howling Darvesh. 
"ee Darvesh ; Fakir. 

AHMAD SHAH was the son of Zaman Khan, 
he hereditary chief of the Abdali. He was 
lescended of the Saddozai clan, which was looked 
pon with a sort of religious veneration by 
heir tribe. The person of a Saddozai was inviol- 
ble ; and no officer, of whatever rank, could put 
a Abdali to death without the authority of a 
taddozai. Ahmad was a prisoner with the Ghilzai 
rhen Kandahar was taken ' by Nadir Shah, 
738 A.D. That conqueror received him with 
ivour, assigned him an honourable maintenance, 
nd sent him to reside in Mazaudaran. Abdul 
korim mentions in his memoirs (p. 17G) that 

Nadir Shah always kept a watchful eye over 
him, but that the officers of all ranks treated him 
in private with great respect. He was with the 
army of Nadir Sludi at the time of that king's 
assassination, June 1747, and on the morning 
following that event, unaware of its occurrence, 
and in the hope of rescuing the king, Ahmad led 
4000 Afghans and Uzbaka against the Persians. 
Fere Baziu, a Jesuit, witness^ the unequal con- 
test 'au milieu des balles et des sabres,' and 
describes the valour and the good order with which 
they retreated to their native country. Ahmatl 
was then twenty-three years of age, and he 
hastened to confirm himself in the command of his 
own tribe, and extend his influence over the neigh- 
bouring tribes and countries. In October (1747) 
he was crowned king at Kandahar; a Mulvi 
poured a measure of wheat over his head, and 
he changed the name of his tribe from Abdali to 
Daurani, by which it has since been known. He 
modelled his court on that of Nadir Sliah, but 
exercised his authority with moderation. He was 
absolute in the plains and cities, as well as in 
Balkh, Sind, Kashmir, and other conquered pro- 
vinces. He left the Afghan tribes to their internal 
government, retaining only sufficient authority to 
secure the supply of their contingents of troops or 
money, and to preserve tranquillity. Beluchistan, 
Seistan, and some other places remained under 
their native chiefs, and were bound to render 
allegiance and military service. He took posses- 
sion of most of Khorasan, and he protected Shah 
Rukh, the son of Nadir Shah, in Meshhed, while 
his own immediate dependencies were confined to 
the east of that city. After ascending the throne, 
he began, in 1748, his march towards India, and 
soon brought all the country up to the Indus 
under his authority. He took possession of Lahore 
and other towns in his route, and advanced to 
the banks of the Sutlej. He found the fords 
occupied by the Moghul army, under Prince 
Ahmad, the heir-apparent, and the Vizir Kamr- 
ud-Din Khan, who had been sent from Dehli to 
oppose the invasion. Ahmad Shah's army did 
not exceed 12,000 or 15,000 men, mostly cavalry. 
He crossed the river at a place where there was 
no ford, left the Indians in his rear, and took 
Sirhind, where the baggage and stores of the 
Indian army had been deposited. The Moghul 
army entrenched their camp, and for ten days 
repulsed all the attacks of the Daurani. On the 
tenth day, after a general and desperate attack 
on the entrenchments, during which a party of 
the Daurani made its way into the midst of the 
Indian camp, the assailants were totally repulsed 
(March, a.d. 1748—26 liabi-ul-Awal, 1161), and 
compelled to retreat homewards during the ensu- 
ing night Before it reached the Indus, Prince 
Ahmad, hearing of the illness of his father, the 
emperor Muhamn)ad Shah, quitted the Panjab, to 
which he nominated a viceroy. On this Ahmad 
Shah turned back, and did not quit the Panjab 
until its viceroy had engaged to pay a permanent 
tribute. The emperor l^f uhammod Shah expired in 
April 1748 (a.h. 26 Rabi-us-Sani, 1161), within a 
month of the battle of Sirhind, and his son Prince 
Ahmad succeeded him. From the Panjab, Ahmad 
Shah sent an ambassador to demand the formal 
cession of that province, — a demand with which 
the recollection of Nadir Shah's invasion induce<l 
the Dehli government at once to comply. After 




a succession of assassinations, Ghazi -ud -Din, 
grandson of Asof Jah, deposed the emperor, a.d. 
July 1754, and put out his eyes, as also those of 
his mother, and raised a prince of the blood to 
the throne, under the title of Alamgir ii. Ghazi- 
ud-Din took the office of vizir on himself. He 
marched towards Lahore a.d. 1756. He had 
been affianced to the daughter of the viceroy, Mir 
Manu, and advanced as if to celebrate the marriage ; 
and when he had completely lulled all suspicion, 
he surprised the town, and took the widow of Mir 
Manu a prisoner in her bed. Her late husband 
had been retained by Ahmad Shah as viceroy, and 
his widow was governing the province for her 
infant son, and when being conveyed to Ghazi- 
Tid-Din's camp, she prophesied the vengeance of 
Ahmad and the ruin of India. Ahmad Shah no 
sooner heard of the outrage, than he marched from 
Kandahar, and advanced through the Panjab, and 
arrived within twenty miles of Dehli, on which 
Ghazi-ud-Din repaired to the Daurani camp and 
was pardoned, but Ahmad Shah marched on 
Dehli to insist on pecuniary compensation. 
Nearly all the horrors of Nadir Shah's invasion 
were now repeated, for though not personally 
cruel, Ahmad Shah had much less control over his 
troops, and the city again became a scene of 
rapine, violence, and murder. He sent a detach- 
ment with Ghazi-ud-Din to levy a contribution 
from Shuja-ud-Dowla, and himself marched with 
a similar intention against the Jats. He took 
Balamghar fortress, and put the garrison to the 
sword. Muttra, a holy city of the Hindus, was 
surprised by a light detachment during a religious 
festival, and the unoffending votaries were ruth- 
lessly slain. He laid siege to Agra and to one of 
the Jat forts, but sickness broke out in his army, 
and about June 1757 he set out for his own 
country. Before leaving, he married a princess of 
the house of Dehli, and contracted another to his 
son, afterwards Timur Shah, and appointed Najib- 
ud-Dowla, a Eohilla chief, to the command of 
Delili, but Ghazi-ud-Din immediately displaced 
liim in favour of Ahmad Khan Bangash. Subse- 
quently the Mahrattas, under Ragoba, brother of 
the peshwa Balaji, took Dehli, and in May 1758 
Ragoba marched and took possession of Lahore, 
and occupied all the Panjab, the Daurani forces 
retiring across the Indus without attempting to 
oppose the Mahrattas. Ahmad Shah was at this 
time occupied in the north-west part of his 
dominions, and when about to move on India, he 
was detained by the revolt of Nasir Khan, the 
Beluch ruler. On settling that matter, he marched 
by the southern road of Shikarpur to the Indus, 
and up that river to Peshawar ; he crossed it in 
the month of September 1759, and advanced into 
the Panjab. It was his fourth invasion of India. 
The Mahrattas offered no opposition, and, keeping 
near the hills, he crossed the Jumna opposite 
Saharunpur. The Mahrattas had 30,000 men in 
the field, but, being in two separate bodies, Ahmad 
Shah came suddenly on the force under Dataji 
Sindia, and that chief and two-thirds of the force 
were cut to pieces. The other division, under 
Malhar Rao Holkar, fled towards the country south 
of the Chambal, but was overtaken and almost 
destroyed by a Daurani detachment, which made 
a prodigious march for the purpose. 

Sada Siva Rao Bhao (Sadashi Rao), who had 
replaced Ragoba, marched to meet Ahmad. His 

army was composed of Mahrattas and Rajput 
cavalry, the whole numbering about 270,000. 
Suraj Mull advised Sada Siva Rao Bhao to 
harass Ahmad. This advice was not followed, 
and the Jat and Rajput armies consequently 
withdrew. The Bhao occupied Dehli, and came 
in contact at Paniput with Ahmad's army of 
38,000 foot, 49,000 cavalry, besides the Rohilla 
and Oudh auxiliaries. Several indecisive en- 
counters ensued, but on the 7th January 1761 
an obstinate battle was fought. The result con- 
tinued doubtful until the Bhao fled from the 
field, leaving his troops in disorder, and Ahmad's 
victory was complete, and about 200,000 of the 
Mahratta army fell. AViswas Rao, the son of the 
Peshwa, was slain, and after the battle, Junkaji 
Sindhia and Ibrahim Khan Gardi were put to 
death. This completely broke the Mahratta 
imperial power, and was the destruction of the 
Mahratta empire. The confederacy of the Ma- 
homedan princes dissolved on the cessation of 
their common danger : Ahmad Shah returned to 
his own possessions without attempting to profit 
by his victory, and never afterwards took any 
share in the affairs of India. In November 176i', 
however, he again appeared on the Indus, irritated 
against the Sikh sect for the trouble they had 
given him, not less than from bigoted zeal against 
all non-religionists. He signalized his march 
through Amritsar by the demolition of the Sikh 
temple of Harmandur and of the sacred tank. 
The first was blown up with gunpowder, and the 
reservoir, besides being defaced and filled up as 
far as materials and time permitted, was polluted 
with the blood and entrails of cows and bullocks, 
— a sacrilege even greater in the eyes of the schis- 
matic disciple of Guru Govind than of the ortho- 
dox brahmanical Hindu. Pyramids were erected 
of the heads of slaughtered Sikhs ; and Forstci 
(Travels, i. p. 279) relates that Ahmad Shah 
caused the walls of those mosques which ha'i 
been polluted by the Sikhs to be washed with 
their blood, to remove the contamination and 
expiate the insult. He died in 1773. At his 
death (Ferrier, Hist, of the Afghans, p. 96) his 
frontier on the north was the Oxus, and the 
mountains of Kafiristan ; on the south the sea of 
Oman ; to the east the mountains of Tibet, the 
Sutlej and the Indus ; and to the west Persia, 
Khorasan, and Kerman. From that time until 
1 820, his sons and grandsons continued in strife for 
the dominion, till set aside by the Mahammadzai 
branch of the Barakzai tribe, whose strivings 
have been no less continuous all through the 19th 
century. — Elphinstone's India ; Ferrier' s Hist. 
Afghans; M''Gregor''s Central Asia; Malcolm'i 
Persia ; Cunningham^s Hist, of the Panjab ; Casi 
Rao's Narrative in As. Res. iii. p. 97; Grain 
Diiff"'s Hist, of Marathas ; Sair i Mutaakhirin , 
Humes'' Cabool; Burnes' Traveb; Fraser's Lift 
of Nadir; Nadir Namah; Jones' Histoire di 
Nadir Shah ; Orme's History ; Balfour''s Memoin 
o/Hazin ; Pere Bazin in Lettres Edijiantes; Elliofi^ 
Life of Hafiz Rahmat. 

AH-NAN. BuHM. A tree of Tenasserim, 
Tavoy, and Moulmein, supposed to be either Xylo- 
carpus echinatus, or the Fagrsea fragrans, Rcxb 
The wood is good for building purposes, and is 
used in shipbuilding. — Cal. Cat. Exhib., 1862 
Cap. Dance. / 

AHOM, a branch of the Tai family, who gav« 




Iioir immo to tho people aud province of Assam, 
'ho Aliom at a very early period conquered 
U the tribes in tho valley of Afsam, founded 

kingdom tliere, and became proselytes to 
(ijuluism. Tiiey intennarried with tho people 
f the country, and their featuroe have greatly 

AH HI MAN, also known as Ahrimanes and 
igroraaniyus. The ancient Persians held, and 
(lodern Parsees hold, a dualistic belief in Or- 
luzd (Ahura mazda), the good, and Ahriman, the 
eaiUy, principle from whom all evils spring. See 
ryans; India; Parsees. 

AH-SEE-E-HA. Burm. A treeof Moulmein, 
ood hard, used for making musical instruments. 
Cal. Cat. Ex., 1862. 

AHSHAM. Arab. PI. of Haahm, servants of 
umble position in tho employ of Mahomedan 
Jers of India. 

AHU. Pers. Cervulus Wallichii, Cuv. 
AHURA-MAZDA. See Ahriman; Ormuzd. 
AHVI. Tam. Atmospheric air. Ahvi Maram, 
r ' steam-wood,' so called from its emitting steam 
hen the root is cut, is a Malabar tree, growing 
about 10 inches in diameter and 15 feet long; 

times it is used for inferior purposes in the 
imes of native vessels, in repairs, etc. — Edye, 
falahar and Canara. 

AI or AYI. Mahr. Mother; the great first 
rent; the earth goddess, largely worshipped by 
le races on the inland frontiers of the Mahratta 
untries, often in lonely situations. 
AI, an island of the Moluccas, about 10 miles 

the westward of Banda Lenthor. It is about 
miles in circumference, and moderately elevated, 
entire surface consisting of nutmeg plantations, 
is spice being its sole exportable product. — Juur. 
d. Arch. 

A I DUMA, a small island on the S.W. coast 
New Gqinea, near the entrance of Triton's Bay 

Warangari, in lat. 3° 53' S., long. 134° 15' E. 
he chief exportable products are wild nutmegs, 
veral kinds of odoriferous bark, ebony, and 
lyu-buka, which, with tortoiseshell and small 
lantities of trepang, form the return cargoes of 
le Coram, and sometimes Macassar, prahus that 
sit the port annually for purposes of trade. — 
mr. Ind. Arch. 

A-IGALU or Ayigalu. Karn. The casket in 
hich the portable linga is carried round their 
scks by the sect of Liugaets. 
AIGAREET MYIT. Malay? A root which 

said to deprive spirituous liquor of all its 
rength ; and a decoction given to an intoxicated 
srson is said to render him immediately sober. — 
ut. Ex., 1862. 

AIGRETTE, or Kalghi, forms part of the 
jignia of rank amongst Hindu and Mahome- 
in chiefs, and of such of their nobles to whom 
e right to wear it in their turbans has been 
»towed. The ceremony of seating on the 
rone, masnad, or gadhi, consists in placing the 
ince thereon, and placing the tika or unction of 
yereignty on tlie forehead of the prince; and 
ing on the jewels, consisting of the aigrette, 
cUace, etc 

AIHLAN or Elan. Panj. Andromeda ovali- 
ia, a plant of the Panjab ; goats and sheep die 
)m eating its leaves. 

AIL. Beng. a ridge of earth thrown up at 
e edges of rice-fields, serving as a balk to hold 

in tite water of irrigation, and dividing tho pIot« 
of cultivated ground the one from the other. 

AILAK. Turk. Summer quarters of the 
pastoral nomades. 

Mftruk, . . . Mahr. Peru maram, . . Tam. 
I'eru mara, . . Maleal. Pedda nianu, . . Tel. 
Ai-iila Sansk. Poyyapa, ... „ 

This tree resembles the ash in it8 general 
appearance, but attains a larger size ; it flowers 
in January and February. It is common about 
old buildings, and in broken ground of the Dekhan 
and of Gujerat, about Baroach and Baroda; is 
common in tho Northern Circars and in the 
Godavery forests, and is met with in Coimbatore. 
Dr. Wight says its wood had been described as 
hard, close-grained, and heavy, and fit for gun- 
stocks; but Dr. Cleghorn, in the Madras Exhibition 
Jury Reports, describes the wood as light and 
white, and he and Graham say it is used for 
making sword handles, etc., also employed to 
make sheaths for spears and catamarans,. and is 
not durable. The bark is used in medicine by the 
natives as a bitter tonic and alterative, and the 
juice of tho leaf as a remedy against indigestion 
and diarrhoea. — £)?•.«. Roxb., Wight, Cleghorn, 
Riddell, Gibson ; Use/id Plants ; Mr. Elliot ; 
Mr. Jaffrey ; M. E. Juries' Reports; Cajitain 

Chau-Chu, Chau-Ch'un, Chun-Chu, Chin. 

A hardy deciduous ornamental tree of Japan, 
China, and the Moluccas; the food of the silk- 
producing insect, Bombyx cynthia. It has been 
introduced into South Europe and Algeria, France 
and England. It grows 60 feet high; woo<I 
valuable, and tree a useful sand -binding plant. 
— Jam. Ed. Journ. viL p. 194; Von Slueller; 

. C. 
Peru maram, Tam. 

Its Balsam. 
Mutti pal, . , . Tam. 


Doop, Baga Doop, S. CAN. 
Mudda Doop, . . Can. 
Walbelin gas, . SiNOH. 
Kumbalu, ... ,, 

A very lofty tree, common up to 3000 feet in 
Ceylon, and in the dense moist forests of the 
AVestern Ghats of the Peninsula of India, from 
South Canara to Cape Comorin, also in the Ani- 
malay hills. The bark has a pleasant and slightly 
bitter taste, and is given in cases of dyspepsia, 
and is considered a tonic and febrifuge. It yields 
a fragrant resinous juice known as Mutti pal. 
This, reduced to powder mixed with milk and 
strained, is given in small doses in dysentery, and 
reputed to be an excellent remedy, owing chiefly 
to tho balsamic properties of the resin. The fruit, 
triturated with mango and mixed with rice, is 
reckoned useful in cases of ophtlialmia. The 
bark is rough and very thick, studded with bright 
garnet-looking grains apparently of a resinous, 
nature. This resin, as commonly mot with, is of 
a dark brown or grey colour, plastic, opaque, and 
with an agreeable odour. It contains 77 per 
cent, of resin, the rest impurity. Alcohol readily 
dissolves the resin, and evaporation leaves it as a 
very viscous, transparent, Ught-brown semi-liquid, 
which does not solidify by many days' exposure to 
a steam heat. When burnt it gives out a frag- 
rance, and hence it is sometimes used for incense. 
Its perfume is, however, inferior to that produced 
by many other resins employed in the concoction 




of the incense employed in Christian and heathen 
worship. The peculiar consistency of the resin 
would enable it to substitute Venice turpentine 
for many purposes. — Ainslie, Wight, etc. ; Useful 
Plants ; Gibson ; Fergusson • Beddome, Fl. Sylv. ; 
Mr. Broughton. 

Bounce puttri, . UEL-i. | Puttuli, .... Uria. 

An edible fresh-water fish of Orissa. 

A. ochraceus, Hodgs. 
Wah ; Wah donka, Bhot. | Suknam, Sunnam, . Lep. 
Red cat bear, . . Eng. | Negalya ponya, . Nepal. 

This richly-coloured animal, one of the Ursidse 
family, is a native of Nepal and Sikkim, dwelling 
among the rocks, and living on fruits, roots, 
bamboo sprouts, acorns ; also on insects and 
larv£e. It is 9 inches high. 

AIMAH. Arab. Land granted by the Moghul 
governments, either rent free or at a reduced 
rent, to learned or devout men, or for some 
religious object. 

AIMAK, a Mongolian, Manchu, and Turki word, 
meaning a tribe, but usually applied to four tribes 
called the Char Aimak, who dwell to the north of 
Herat and Kabal, in the range of the undulating 
country, which in some places assumes a moun- 
tainous, in others a hilly, character ; and in some 
parts is well watered, in others bleak and rough, 
forming a watershed of two natural divisions, from 
the western of which flow the Murghab, the Tajend, 
and the Farrah-Rud, and from the eastern, the 
Helmand, the south-eastern feeders of the Oxus 
and the north-western feeders of the Kabal river. 
They are brave and relentless ; and Afghans, when 
travelling from Balkh, Kabal, Kandahar, or Herat, 
never enter into the mountain districts of these 
intrepid nomadic tribes. One Aimak tribe is 
known as the Firoz Kohi, after the city of that 
name, about 63 miles from Teheran. Timur, 
exasperated at the depredations which they 
committed, transported the whole of them into 
the mountains lying between Persia and India. 
Elphinstone names four Aimak tribes, Hazara, 
Taimuni, Taimuri, and Zuri, and estimates their 
number at 400,000 to 450,000 souls. General 
Ferrier says the Hazara Zaidnat had 28,000 tents, 
the Firoz Kohi 9000 tents, which at 44 for a tent 
would give 160,000 souls. Vambery names four, 
Jamshidi, Taimuri, Firoz Kohi, and Taimuni, and 
says the Jamshidi have 9000 tents, or 40,000 souls, 
and that the whole are of Iranian origin, and 
speak Persian. Ferrier says the three branches, 
under great emergency, could collect 6000 fighting 
men ; but Leech says the Taimuni could collect 
20,000 against a foreign enemy. Lieut. -Colonel 
M'Gregor, reviewing the statements, allows them 
to be able to show 12,000 fighting men, and 
estimates 250,000 souls as the Aimak population, 
• viz. Zaidnat 120,000, Firoz Kohi and Jamshidi 
each 40,000, and Taimuni 50,000. The Taimuri 
dwell at Gorian and Kuh'sun, on the western 
boundary of Herat, and in the villages and towns 
situated east of Iran, from Tarbat Shaikh Jam as 
far as Khaf . About a thousand of these families 
dwell near Herat. The Taimuni dwell in the 
Jolgha-i-Herat, from Kerrukh to Sabawar, the 
few who have extended to Farrah being styled 
by the Afghans, Parsivan. The Taimuni are of 
a wild, warlike nature, though agricultural. The 
Firoz Kohi near Kale No, and the Jamshidi have 

the shores of the Murghab. He says that in the 
reverence for fire, their respect to the east, 
which their tent doors look, they retain mai 
of the fire-worshipping views ; eat horse-fles 
and mix the flour of a nut called khundz 
(chestnut?) with that of their wheat. Sir Jol 
Malcolm informed Elphinstone that there was 
large tribe called Aimak in Syria, which li; 
established itself in Luristan, and produced tl 
dynasty of Atabeks, so celebrated in Persi; 
history. — McGregor's Central Asia, part ii 
Ferrier' s Juurn. p. 225 ; Elphinstone' s Caubi 
p. 481 ; Latham's Descriptive Ethnology ; Ferriei 
Hist, of Afghans, p. 3 ; Vamhery's Sketches 
Central Asia. See Afghanistan. 

AIN, also Arjun. Mar. Pentaptera arjuu 
P. tomentosa, and P. glabra. 

A'IN. Arab. A rule ; ordinary revenue. Aii 
ui-Mal, land revenue. 

AINAH. Hind. The eye ; a mirror. Ainal 
saz, a looking-glass maker. Ainak, spectacles. 

AIN CHUR. Hind. Dried slices of uuri] 

AINDRA-JALIKA. Hind. Conjuring is 
called, from Indra, 'the Hindu deity,' and Jal 
a net, a deceit. Aindri, the Sacti of Indra. — Hin 
Theat. ii. p. 306. 

AING. BuuM. Dipterocarpus alatus. 

AIN - i - AKBARI, a compendium of Indii 
jurisprudence, prepared by the emperor Akbai 
famous minister, Abul Fazl, aided by pandits, 
was the first genuine communication of Hin( 
jurisprudence to persons of other religions, 
gives the detailed account of the Mogul Enipi 
at the end of the 16th century, and was translafc 
into English by F. Gladwin, London, 1800. 

AINI MARA. Maleal. Artocarpus hirsute 

AINKUDI KUMMALAR, the five artisan cast 
of Malabar. See Kummalar. 

AIN MUSA, or Ayun Musa, the springs i 
wells of Moses, 7^ miles S.S.E. of Suez. Th( 
are in a small depression, about half a mile 
circumference. The largest pool is 10 or 15 fe 
diameter, with two smaller ones near it, all slight 
depressed below the surface of the surroundir 
desert. They are masonry structures. In tl 
vicinity are isolated sand mounds. 

AINO, the aboriginal races of Yezo. Th( 
severe treatment by the Japanese has led them 
other countries, and they also occupy the southe 
part of the island of Seghalin or Sakhalin, whi 
is in possession of the Japanese. Aino, in thi 
language at Sakhalin, signifies ' man.' In t 
historical records of the Japanese, they are J 
ferred to as eastern savages ; and about B.C. 6 
they still occupied the northern provinces of Ni 
pon. Towards the close of the 9th century a. 
the Aino of Nippon became subject to the Japf 
ese, and the Aino disappeared from that island I 
a separate race, emigrating to Yezo. In the 1' i 
century the Japanese took Yezo, where a sn I 
number of Aino still remain ; but in the ea 
part of the 19th century the Aino crossed over! 
Sakhalin, by them called Oke or Northern Ytt 
where they formed several settlements. Til 
seem to be an offshoot of the hairy aborigil 
race of Central China mentioned by Chin* 
historians. The main peculiarity attaching a 
them is the heavy growth of thick hair on jC 
chest and limbs, and which very often covere ijoj 
the whole body. Miss Bird mentions having sW 




two boya whoso bocks were covered with fur ns 
ftno an<l soft as that of a cat. In form and fea- 
tures thoy are very unlike the Japanese. Their 
lieaJs are well shaped, with high and prominent 
foreheads, and their faces are very striking. The 
jyes are large and very beautiful, the colour a 
rich liquid brown, the expression singularly soft, 
Hid the eyelashes long, silky, and abundant. 
The physique is very powerful ; but they are 
very little removed from being savages. They 
have ndthcr history nor letters, and claim descent 
from a dog. Their clothes are made from the 
bark of trees and the untanncd skins of animals. 
They are grossly ignorant, very dirty, and tht?ir 
objects of worship consist of the bear, the sun, 
he moon, fire, water, but principally the Japanese 
i»nQueror Yoshitsune, because, as the tradition 
landed down for seven centuries tells them, he 
(vas kind to them. They are a subdued people, 
tupid, gentle, and good-natured. Of the Japanese 
;,'overnment they live in abject terror. The men 
jccupy themselves in hunting and fishing, and the 
iTomen labour ceaselessly at their household duties. 
tVino-Japanesia was a name proposed by Mr. 
jogan to designate all the Japanese and Aino 
aliuids from Formosa to Kamtschatka. — Hodgson's 
Naynsaki, p. 52 ; Ravensteiu''s Russians on the 
lniui\ p. 397 ; Miss BircTs Japan. 

AINPARITI. Mal. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 

AINSLIE, Sir WHITELAW, a Madras medi- 
al officer, who wrote Observations on Cholera 
\Iorbus; on Atmospherical Influence, in Lond., 
\8. Trans., vol. i. p. 378 : on the Climate of Ser- 
ngapatam, As. jf., 1835, vol. xix. pp. 25-34 ; 
ifateria Medica of Hindustan ; and Artisans' and 
\griculturi8ts' Nomenclature, in the English, 
I'amil, Dukhani, Hindustani, Telinga, Arabic, 
i'ersian, Sanskrit, and Latin Languages, 4to, 
itadras, 1813; and a second edition in 1828, in 
;wo volumes, published in London ; also a His- 
orical Sketch of Christianity in India, and other 
Kastern Countries, Edinb., 1835 ; Remarks on 
'Umatc and Diseases of Eastern Regions, Lond., 
\b. Trans., ii. p. 18, iii. p. 55. — Dr. BuisCs Cata- 

AIN-ul-DIK. Arab. Abrus precatorius. 

AlOU or Yowl, a group of sixteen low circular 
itilands on the west coast of New Guinea, and 
iO miles N.E. from the island of Waygiou in the 
lillolo passage. The largest lies in about lat. 0° 26' 
N., long. 131° 0' E. The group is surrounded by 

coral reef, nearly a degree in circumference, the 
3.W. portion of which is separated from the main 
reef by a narrow but deep channel. The inhabit- 
intB are Papuans, few in number, and occupied 
Umost exclusively in fishing and in catching 
urtle, with which the lagoons within the reef 
ibound. Tortoiseshell of good quality is obtained 
here in large quantities, and trepang. Traders 
to Aiou bring red and white calicoes, thick brass 
wrire, old clothes, glass beads, and all sorts of 
Dmamental finery, in which the Negroes of New 
Guinea delight, as much as those of Africa. The 
Datives are tolerably friendly to strangers, bat are 
inclined to be treacherous and revengeful, which 
is the character indeed of all the Papuan tribes. 
—Journal Ind. Arch. ; Horsh. 

AIR. . 

t-ay BuRM. 

yr Atmosphorique, Fk. 
t'Uft, Gee. 

Aor, .... Gr., Lat. 
Ho wa, Ar. , Hind. , Pebs. 

Aroongst the Mahomedan race* of India, the 
air and the water together, Ab-o-howo, are 
reckoned to constitute climate. Amongitt Hindus, 
the water alone is regarded as the agent affect* 
ing the salubrity of the climato. 

AIRAVAT, in Hindu mythology, a Naga king, 
father of Udipi. 

AIRAVATA, one of the fourteen gems pro- 
duced from the churning of the ocean. Airavati, 
in Hindu mythology, the white elephant, the 
vahan of Indra. The word means ' watery,' and 
is applied to the rivers Irawadi, Ravi, and Fhanni. 

Fisli maws. Swim, Eno. I Isinglaas, . . . Exo. 
Fish sounds, . . ,, | Air-bag, .... „ 

A peculiar organ with which the great majority 
of fishes are provided, and by which they are 
enabled to adapt the specific gravity of their 
bodies to the various pressures of the super- 
incumbent water at different depths. It is com- 
posed of a lengthened sac, sometimes simple, as 
in the common perch, sometimes divided into two 
or more compartments by a lateral or transverse 
ligature, as in the trout and salmon, and at other 
times furnished with appendices, more or less 
numerous, according to the particular species. 
In all cases it is composed of a thick internal coat 
of a fibrous texture, and of a very thin external 
coat, the whole being enveloped in the general 
covering of the intestines. Fishermen perforate 
this vessel with a fine needle, in cod and other 
species which require to be brought fresh to 
market, sometimes from a very great distance. 
By this operation the confined air is allowed to 
escape, and the fish constrained to remain quiet 
at tne bottom of their well -boats, where they 
live for a very considerable period. The air 
bladder of certain fish is in much request as an 
article of diet, and in the arts, liussiau isinglass 
is prepared from the sounds of the sturgeon, Acci- 
peuser sturio, found in the Caspian and Black 
Seas and their tributary rivers. In America, 
from the Labrus squeteague, the cod, Morrhua 
vulgaris; in Calcutta, from the sounds of the 
Polynemus sela, the Salea of Bengal ; and the 
sounds of two Madras fish, the Korwaand Katali, 
are so employed, and largely exported to China. 
Iceland fishermen, as well as those of Ajnerica, 
prepare isinglass of a very excellent quality from 
cod sounds. — O'Sh. p. 68 ; Eng. Cycl. 

AIRI of Coorg are carpenters and blacksmiths 
who have emigrated from Malabar. They dress 
like the Coorg race, but do not intermarry. 

AIRUN, a temple in Bhopal, built in the first 
year of the reign of raja Tarapain, by Dyanya 
Vishnu, the confidential minister and brother of 
raja Matri Vishnu. The inscription is the first 
in honour of the boar incarnation of Vishnu, and 
the boar coins probably belonged to this family 
of princes, who worshipped Vishnu as the boar. 
The inscription says that the minister Dyanya or 
Dhanya obtained his office by public electioiv, 
and through the grace of God ! Dhanya is called 
a rishi amongst the brahmans and the devoted 
worshippers of Bhagavan, but there is not any 
preposterous eulogy of brahmans. The language 
of the inscriptions is Sanskrit, but with words 
written corruptly, and probably about the 8th 
century of the Christian era. The character used 
in the inscriptions is that subsequent to Kanouj 
Nagari, or Allahabad, but before the Gaur or 




Harsha character. Another inscription is on a 
pillar in front of the temple ; the king mentioned 
is Buddha Gupta, who governed the country be- 
tween the Jumna and the Narmada. The pillar 
was raised at the expense of Dhanya Vishnu, 
before the temple of the preceding inscription, by 
Vaidala Vishnu, who had been elected to the 
regency. The notice of a new Gupta, and a date 
of the dynasty (165), is of great interest, as 
Buddha Gupta necessarily followed those men- 
tioned on the Allahabad and Bhitari columns ; 
and up to Buddha Gupta's time, if he belonged 
to the Kanouj dynasty, its duration had been 
only 165 years. In the early part of the 5th 
century a.d., Fa-Hian found a buddhist king at 
Kanouj ; and in the early part of the 7th century, 
Huian Thsang found a Hindu king reigning. The 
dynasties, therefore, had been changed between 
the 5th and 7th centuries, and the Gupta family 
had sprung up in the interval. — Ben. As. Soc. Jour. 
vii. p. 634. 

AIT. SiND. A double Persian wheel. 

AIT, an avatara of Mahadeva. 

AITAEEYA BRAHMANA, the name of an 
Aranyaka and a Upanishad of the Rig Veda, which 
contains the earliest speculations as to the Brah- 
manical ritual. It has been translated by Dr. 
Haug, and the Upanishad by Dr. Roer. 

AITCHESON, Su- C. U., a Bengal civil servant, 
author of ' Engagements and Treaties.' 

AIYAN or Ayar, written lyar. Tam. A 
spiritual father ; a respectful title of a head of a 
Hindu religious community. Aiyan, also lyaiigar, 
in the south of the Peninsula of India, an 
honorary title given toBrahmans, especially those 
of the Sri Vaishnava or Ramanuja order, as 
Ramiah Aiyan gar. — W. 

AJAIB-ul-MAKHLUKAT, a book on natural 
history, written in the Persian tongue, by Kasvini ; 
it means ' the wonders of creation.' 

A JALA of Coorg. A class of the Pale or Tuluva 
Pariahs who personate demons. 

AJAM. Arab. Literally means ' foreign ; ' but 
in the southern part of Arabia, Al Ajam is applied 
to the opposite part of the coast of Africa. Ajam 
by the Turks means Turkish Arabia. Persia is 
Balad-ul-Ajam, and the north-eastern coast of 
Africa is Bar-el-Ajam. The Arabs divide the 
world into two great bodies, — first, themselves ; 
and secondly, Ajami, i.e. all that are not Arabs. 
Similar bi-partitions are the Hindus and M'hlechas, 
the Jews and Gentiles, the Greeks and barbarians, 
etc. etc. — Play/airs Aden; Burton's Mecca., ii. 
p. 26 ; Catafago. 

AJATA SATRA, a king of Magadha who col- 
lected the remains of Sakya Muni, and deposited 
them in one large stupa at Raja Griha. He 
reigned for thirty-two years, and died B.C. 526. 
His race were Bhattiya Brahmans. Sakya died 
in the reign of this king. 

AJAURUKH. Hind. Acacia Jacquemontii. 

AJAYA PALA, author of a Sanskrit vocabu- 
lary of repute. 

AJGAKA. Sansk. A python ; a rock snake. 

AJIGARTA, a rishi mentioned in the Aitareya 
Brahmana, who lived in the forests with his three 
sons, Suna Puccha, Suna Sepha, and Suno Lan- 
gula. He sold Suna Sepha to be offered in sacri- 
fice, and was even wUling to do it with his own 

AJIPALA, one of the Chauhan dynasty. His 

name is celebrated in the Chauhan chronicles a 
the founder of the fortress of Ajmir (a.d. 124 
a.d. 145 ?), one of the earliest establishments o 
Chauhan power. 

AJITA. Sansk. a form of Vishnu, also o 
Siva, meaning uuconquered, from a, privative 
and jita, victory, 

AJIT SINGH, a celebrated king of Kanouj, whi 
was murdered a.d. 1680. See Rahtor. 

AJMIR, the capital town of a district in Raj 
putana. Ajipala, of the Chauhan race, foundei 
it in a.d. 145, and it was lost by Dola Rai ii 
685 to Mahomed Kasim, the Arab conqueror c 
Siud. In A.D. 1024, the people hung upon tli 
army of Mahmud of Ghazni. The district ha 
since seen many dynastic changes, and the cit 
has been the scene of many interesting events 
Syed Husain, who (a.d. 1210) was slain in 
night attack by the Rahtor and Chauhan Rajputs 
has a shrine at Taragarh, to which, in 157C 
Akbar walked on the birth of his son Salim. Si 
Thomas Roe, ambassador of James i., here pr£ 
sented his credentials to Jahangir. Thomas Coi 
yat, the pedestrian traveller of the 17th centurj 
who walked from Jerusalem to Ajmir, and spen 
only £2, 10s. on the road, dated his book fror 
Ajmir. The Mahrattas held it from 1756 to 1781 
but Daulat Rao Sindiah transferred it to tb 
British, 25th June 1818. The population of th 
and the Mairwara district in 1872 was 316,59( 
and that of the town of Ajmir, 26,569, Rajputi 
Jat, Gujar, Mhair. The town is in lat. 26° 2' 
10" N., and long. 74° 43' 58" E.—RennelCs Memoh 
xlvi. and xlvii.; Tod; Imp. Gazetteer. 

AJMIRGARH, a hill in the Bilaspur distric 
Central Provinces, 3500 feet high. It has a tan 
from which the Sone flows to the north, tli 
Mahanuddi to Cuttack, and the Nerbudda to tli 
Indian Ocean. The place has always been sacrec 
and is surrounded by temples of great age. 
the south and east of this hill is the table-Ian 
of Chatisghur. 

AJMOD. Sansk. Apium involucratum, als 
A. graveolens and Petroselinum sativum, parsley 

AJODHYA, on the right bank of the Gogr 
river, near Fyzabad in Oudh, is in lat. 26° 48' 20 
N., and long. 82° 14' 40" E. It has now a popu 
lation of 7518 of Hindus and Mahomedans, bu 
in ancient times it was the capital of the king 
dom of Kosala, the modern Oudh, ruled over b 
the great king Dasaratha of the Solar line, an 
father of Rama Chandra. At one time it i 
said to have covered an area of 12 yojana. equ£ 
to 96 miles. During buddhist supremacy Ajodhy 
declined, but on the revival of brahmanism : 
was restored by king Vikramaditya (a.d. 67^ 
There are many Jain temples, and three mosque 
on the site of three Hindu shrines, — the Jai 
Masthan on the site where Rama was born, tl: 
Swarga-dwara (Mandir) where his remains wei 
burned, and the Tareta ka Thakur, famed as tb 
scene of one of his great sacrifices. A mausc 
leum is here of the Bahu Begum, and is the fine! 
in Oudh. 

AJUDHAN or Pak-Pattan, an ancient cit 
in the Panjab. See Pak-Pattan. 


Karku, . . Beas. 
Kauri Buti, . Jhelum. 
Jan-i-Adam, . Pers. 
WadiButi, Sutlej., Eavi. 

Nil-Kanthi, . SuTLE 
Khurbanei, . Tk. In; 
Umkund Babri, „ 




This and Btiveral other species rcBembling it 
(xx'ur in tho Panjab Himahiya from l.WO to 8500 
feet, and in the Salt liange; it is used to kill 
lice. Tho plant is considered depunitive. Ajuga 
repens, lioxb., of the hills of the Panjab and 
Kashmir, is also known there as Jan-i-Adam, tho 
life of nuui, from its many virtues. It is nearly 
iuotlorous, bitter, and astringent, and with other 
siKHjii's is used in fevor as a substitute for 
inchoiia. — ■/. L. Stewart, M.D.; Ilonigherger ; 
Powell, i. p. 3G5. 

AJUNTA, in the province of Aurungabad, in 
lat. 20° 32' 80" N., long. 75° 48' E., celebrated 
for its buddhist chaityas and viharas, is in the 
northern face of a ravine, which has a westerly 
direction parallel to the face of the ghats, 
48 they overlook Kandesh. There are many 
ravines or kora near ; one commences at the 
town of Ajunta, and winds to the south and west 
tor about three miles, opening there into Kan- 
desh. Near its mouth is i^nother ravine, taking a 
westerly direction for two miles, with several wind- 
ings, at one of which, on the northern face of 
the rock, these caves have been excavated. This 
ravine nowhere exceeds 400 yards from brink 
to brink, nor above 500 yards at its bottom. 
Ajunta town is quite a small place, walled, with 
ptes, and a bridge. The natives call the caves 
lerrula, the same with those which Europeans call 
Ellora. They call them also Lena, and both terms 
mean drawings or paintings. There are 24 mon- 
asteries (Vibara) and 6 temples (Chaitya). The 
moniisteries are usually square in form, supported 
by rows of pillars, with cells (Griha) in the walls 
in all three sides. The largest temple is 94^ feet 
by 41;J^ feet. They furnish a continuous narrative 
of Buddhist art for 800 years, from about B.C. 
200 to A.D. COO. The back or end of the Chaitya 
or temple cave is almost always circular ; the 
roofs are lofty and vaulted. Within the circular 
end of the cave stands the Daghoba or relic- 
holder, consisting of a cylindrical case, supporting 
a cupola (Garbha), which is surmounted by a 
square capital or tee (Toran). The paintings on 
the walls depict Buddha and his disciples and 
devotees, with representations of streets, pro- 
cessions, battles, the interior of houses, domestic 
•cenes, of love and marriage and death, huntsmen 
onhorseback spearing the wild buffalo, and animals 
of every size. Women in groups performing 
lel^gious austerities. They are the most complete 
teries of Buddhist caves in India, without any 
mixture of Brahmanism. They escaped the ob- 
servation of the Mahomedans when they invaded 
the Dekhan early in the 14th century, and de- 
stroyed similar paintings in the caves of Ellora. 
Some of the paintings refer to historical events. 
One large picture is supposed to represent the 
introduction into Ceylon of Buddhism, and all 
the figures of men and women in it have only 
vhort waist-cloths or kilts. Another large picture 
^presents the coronation of Sinhala, a Buddhist 
Idng. He is seated on a stool, crowned with a 
tiara, with necklaces, armlets, and bracelets of 
gdd, and girls are pouring corn over his shoulders. 
Naked to the waist, he wears a striped dhoti, 
ooTering from the waist to the knee, with one end 
passed across his chest and over his left shoulder ; 
most of the men attendants are similarly clothed 
with dhotis reaching from the waist to the knee. 
The soldiers present, spearmen and foot and horse, 

Amu8, . 






Bishopswced seed, 


and groups of soldiers with long oblong shields 
and curved swords, have short waist- clot hs only. 
All the wonien are nude to the waist. There is 
a representation of Buddha teaching; his right ann 
is naked; and female figures stand, in differtnt 
attitudes, around, all nude, but bavo necklaces, 
ear-rings, and bracelets, and one has a girdle of 
jewels round her loins. Tho caves were first de- 
scribed by Lieut. Alexander in the lioyal Asiatic 
Society's Transactions. Captain Gresley of tho 
Bombay army noticed them. Mr. James Fergus- 
son and tho Ilev. Mr. Burgess have described them. 
Major R. Gill, of the Madras array, continued 
drawing and photographing these caves for nearly 
30 years, sometimes residing in a cave for days, but 
his drawings were all destroyed in a fire at tho 
Crystal Palace, near London. He built a house 
at Fardapur, now the travellers' bungalow, but 
latterly he resided at Ajunta. Copies of the fresco 
drawings were taken by Mr. Burgess in 1873. — Ed. 
Itev. June 1867, pp. 131-2; Taylor's Mackenzie 
M. S. S. B. As. Soc. Journ. ; Pers. Obs. ; Imp. Gaz. 

Azma, . . . Guj. 

Ajwain, . . Hind. 

Ajma, . . . Mahb. 

Nan-khoah, . . Pebs. 

In Hindustan, ajwain is the seed of the Pty- 
chotis ajowan, D. C. In the Dekhan it is tho 
name of Auethum sowa, or Bishopsweed. Khuras- 
sani ajwain is wholly different, being the seeds of 
the henbane, and poisonous. P. sylvestris, Royle, 
is the Arab Ajwain, called by the Persians Nan- 
khoah, largely used as a carminative and in flatu- 
lent colic, and, Honigberger states, in stoppage of 
urine. Ptychotis ajowan seeds are very small, 
stalked, conical, pointed, streaked with yellow- 
stripes, and stalks of the seeds of a bright yellow. 
Henbane seed is grey, not ribbed or streaked, 
shape obscurely triangular, and flattened, surface 
rough and dotted. Bal ajwain is Pimpinella 
crinita and Ptychotis coptica. Other seeds, 
especially of umbelliferous plants, are sold under 
both these names. — O' Shaughnessy ; Fleming ; 
Faulkner ; HoniglJerger ; Riddell. 

AK. Hind. Calotropis gigantea ; C. procera. 

AKA are tribes who occupy the western ex- 
tremity of the hills which form the northern boun- 
dary of Assam. The Aka or Hnisso are the only- 
occupants of the segment of the hill country lying 
north of the Darrang district, between the 
Daphia territory and Butan. They are known as 
two clans, — the Hazari-khawa and the Kapas-chor, 
or cotton thieves. The Aka only number about 
230 families, but they were, nevertheless, for many 
years, the terror of the inhabitants of Chardwar, 
in the district of Darrang, and were notorious 
as the most daring marauders of the frontier. 
The Aka dialects appear to belong to the Abor 
group, 35 words in Mr. Brown's list of 60 being 
common to Aka and Abor, and prefixes occurring 
as in Abor. — Jour. Ind. Arch. 1853; Daltuiiy 
Ethnol. of Bengal, p. 37 ; Imp. Gazct. 

AKABA, a gulf at the N.E. part of the Red 
Sea ; also the town there. 

AKAKIA. Hind. A red stone brought to 
Ajmir from Dehli, containing iron ; used there as 
a tonic, in the dose of one tola. — Med. Top. p. 125. 

AKAKIAH. Arab. Spoken of both by Hip- 
pocrates and Dioscorides as Akakalis; it is an 
extract from the fruit of the Acacia vera, or from 




its leaves, which are pounded and the juice inspis- 
sated. The inspissated juice of the sloe, Prunus 
spinosa, is substituted for the ancient Akakia. 
The Akakia is not now used in medicine of Europe. 
AKALI. These were armed Sikh devotees and 
fanatics, violent and ignorant. They were first 
established by the Guru Govind, the founder of 
the Sikh faith, and they zealously supported 
him against the innovations of the ascetic Byragi. 
Their Boonga or temple, on the side of the 
holy reservoir at Amritsar, is a fine building; 
but Akali are met with all over the Panjab, 
though chiefly in the Manja territory, between 
Lahore and the Gharra, where Tarantara is their 
chief town. A considerable number are settled 
at Nandair, on the banks of the Godavery, but 
are quiet and peaceable. In reality wealthy, they 
affect poverty and beg ; but in the time of the 
Sikh rule their begging was an insolent demand- 
ing, and as they were a bold united body who 
made common cause, and did not scruple to ex- 
pose their own lives or to make false accusations 
of crimes, these wild-looking men enforced their 
demands with an insolent independence, which 
those only could imderstand who have witnessed 
a band of drunken Akali, almost in a state of 
nudity, brandishing their naked swords, and 
bawling out abusive and obscene language ; their 
power to enforce their demands, therefore, was 
very great. They particularly showered their 
angry words on Europeans ; and until Ranjit 
Singh mastered them, even his life was several 
times in danger. Under the British rule, and 
with power to enforce toleration, they are never 
heard of. They would extort alms from chiefs 
and others, by interdicting them from the per- 
formance of religious rites ; and a chief un- 
popular with the Akali, who made common cause 
with each other, risked his authority. Their 
name is derived from Akali-purusha, worship- 
pers of the Eternal, the word Akal being a com- 
pound of kal, death, and the privative a, 
meaning never-dying, or immortal. It is one 
of the epithets of the Deity, and is given to this 
class from their frequently exclaiming 'Akal, 
Akal,' in their devotions. They wear blue 
chequered dresses, and bracelets of steel round 
their wrists, which all Sikhs do not wear ; though 
it is indispensable for a Sikh to have steel about 
the person, and it is generally in the shape of a 
knife or dagger. They formerly initiated con- 
verts, and had almost the sole direction of the 
religious ceremonies at Amritsar. The Akali had 
a great interest in maintaining the religion and 
government of the Sikhs, as established by Guru 
Govind, upon which their influence depended. 
They often went profusely armed> with half a dozen 
swords ; perhaps also a matchlock, and several 
steel discs on their turbans. — Masii'm''s Journeys; 
Mohun LaVs Journeys ; History of the Panjab, i. 
p. 130, 131; Steinbach's Pavjab,-p.8-d; Malcobn's 
Sikhs, p. 116 ; Ward's Hindoos, ii. p. 278-4 ; As. 
Res. vol. xi. ; M''Gregor, History of the Sikhs, i. 
pp. 81, 236, 237 ; Pers. Obser. See Amritsar ; 
Banda; Boonga; Discs; Manja; Sikhs; Tarantara. 
AKAL-NAFZAH. Arab. Euphorbium. 
AKA-PODWAL, a race in Malabar and 
Canara who follow the rule of Marumakatayam, 
or descent from mothers, the descensus ab utero 
of the Locrians, who drove the Sicilians out of 
a part of Italy. See Polyandry. 

Maleal. a plan 
Alangium decapet 

yielding an elastic gum. 


AKARKAEA. Hind., Pehs. The roots o 
Anacyclus pyrethrum and A. officinarum ; also o 
Spilanthus oleracea, all applied in toothache 
and probably derived from otlier plants in diffc' 
rent places. 

AKAR KOUF, a mound 10 miles north-wes 
of Baghdad, on the west shore of a marsh 1; 
miles long and 6 broad, and 12 to 15 feet deep 
fed by the waters of the Euphrates, through thi 
Saklawiah canal. The ruined pile is called bj 
the Arabs Tal Namrud, and by the Turks Nam- 
rud Tapassi. Both these terms mean the hill 
not the tower, of Nimrod ; and the terra Akar- 
kouf, or Agargouf, given by the Arabs, is in- 
tended to signify only the ground around it.— 
Porter's Travels, ii. p. 281 ; Mignan's Travels. 
p. 102 ; McGregor. See Namrud. 
AKAR-PARSI. Mal. Asparagus racemosns 
AKAR-WANGL Mal. Andropogon muii- 

AKAS. AiiAB, A hoop of a black colour 
worn by the Hodelyah Arabs to retain the 
dark-coloured square of cloth on the head. The 
outer rim is inlaid with pieces of delicately en- 
graved mother-of-pearl, rather larger than a 
shilling. — Hamilton's Sinai. See Aakal ; Arab. 

AKASA. Sansk. Ether, sky, space, ethereal 
space ; the inane or vacant space of Lucretius ; 
the fifth element of the Hindus ; it is applied to 
designate several plants, etc. 

Akasa Garuda gadda, Byronia epigoea, Rottl. ; 
B. glabra, R. iii. 725. 

Akasalinga, also Akasaliga, a form of the lingam. 
Akasam. See Acasanavi ; Hindu. 
Akasananchyayatana, in buddhism, the lowest 
of the incorporeal Brahma-lokas. 
Akasa Tamara, Pistia stratiotes, L. 
Akas-Bel or Amar Bauria, Cuscuta reflexa; 
literally sky plant. 

Akasa- Vulli, Cassyta filiformis. 
Akas-Diya, a lamp suspended in the open air 
by the Hindus, in the month Kartik. 

Akasia, in the Bombay Presidency, land which 
depends on the natural rains. 

Akas-Mukhi, from akas, the sky, and mukha, 
the face, ascetic mendicants among the saiva 
Hindus, who hold up their faces to the sky 
till the muscles of the back of the neck become 
contracted and retain that position. See Urdha 

Akas-Nim, Bignonia suberosa, Roxb. 
AKBAH, the Arab conqueror who overran 
the States of Barbary. 

AKBAR, Jalal-ud-Din Mahomed Akbar, 
reigned in India from a.d. 1556 to 1605. He was 
grandson of the emperor Babar, and seventh in 
descent from Timur. He was the eldest son of 
the emperor Humayun, and was born at Amirkot, 
in the valley of the Indus, on the 14th October 
1542, while his father was a fugitive. Humayun 
regained the throne in 1555, and died by a fall 
from his library stairs a few months later. Akbar 
was handsome in person, courteous in manners, 
skilled in all manly exercises, and courageous tc 
excess. He delighted to master unruly horses 
and elephants, and was devoted to tiger-hunting. 
While yet a lad, he was kept under by his prime 




nniiistor, Hiiliram Khan, but lio returntHl siul- 
detily to ilia imlacc from onu of his hunting 
expeditions, niul isHUinl a procIaniRtion taking thu 
govenuncnt into bis own hands. On this Bahrain 
Khan raiscnl an army, and attompted to seize the 
Panjab, but he was defeated, and pardoned by 
Akbar. IJy the time he attained the aj^e of twenty- 
five years, Akbar had settled himself firmly on 
iiis throne ; and in the course of his lonp reign 
he extended his sway over Kajputana, and from 
Afghanistan to Ahmadnaggur in the Dekhan, and 
from the Suliman mountains on the west, to 
Bengal and Assam in the east. He was an en- 
lightened monarch; he introduced religious tolera- 
tion, and equal justice; encouraged literature, arts 
and science ; and the Ain-i-Akbari, or Insti- 
tutes of Akbar, a legislative work, was compiled 
under his ordcre. Prior to this sovereign, of all 
the dynasties that had yet ruled in India, that of 
the house of Timur was the weakest and most 
insecure in its foundations. The houses of Ghazni 
and Ghor depended on their native kingdoms, 
which were contiguous to their Indian conquest ; 
and the Slave dynasties were supported by 
the inlhix of their countrymen. But though 
Babar had been in some measure naturalized in 
Kabal, the separation of that country under 
Kamran had broken its connection with India, 
and the rival of an Afghan dynasty turned the 
most warlike part of its inhabitants, as well as of 
the Indian Mahomedans, into enemies. Colonel 
Tod remarks (Rajasthan, i. p. 522) that it affords 
an example of the Hindu doctrine of the metem- 
psychosis, as well as of the regard which Akbar's 
toleration had obtained him, that they held his body 
to be animated by the soul of a celebrated Hindu 
gymnosophist ; in support of which, they say 
Akbar went to his accustomed spot of penance 
(tiipasya) at the confluence of the Ifamuna and 
Ganges, and excavated the implements, viz. the 
tongs, gourd, and deer-skin, of his anchorite 
existence. Assuredly, says Elliot, a more extra- 
ordinary man never sat on the throne of India. 
Brought up as a Mahomedan, he was a rationalist 
and deist, and never believed anything, as he 
himself declared, that he could not understand. 
The so-called Ilahi religion, which he founded, 
was pure deism mixed up with the worship of the 
Bun as the purest and highest emblem of the 
Deity. Though Akbar himself could neither read 
nor write, his court was the home of literary 
men of all persuasions. Whatever book, in any 
language, promised to throw light on the pro- 
blems nearest to this emperor's heart, he ordered 
to be translated into Persian. Leedes, an adven- 
turous English merchant, visited Akbar's court, 
and one of his four companions entered the em- 

Eiror's service. Akbar abolished all arbitrary 
nd taxes, and fixed the revenues according to 
the values of the different lands, — ' fallow,' ' out 
of cultivation,' ' in rotation ; ' ' best,' ' middling,' 
and 'bad lands,' and 'over- flooded lands.' The 
Fasli or harvest era of Northern India has been 
traced to the year of Akbar's succession to the 
throne, the 2d of Rabbi-us-Sani, A. H. 963 — a.d. 
14th February 1650. It was in his reign that 
his physician, Budyn, introduced the rhinoplastic 
operation for restoring the nose ; and he bestowed 
on Budyn a jaghir at Kangra. The first mention 
of Thugs occurs in his time, for 500 were executed 
at Etawa. In his invasion of Kashmir, he was 

opposed by the warrior pastoral race of Giilii-wan. 
Akbar's court was the moRt splendid that ha<l 
ever been held in India, and he expended lilwrnlly. 
In marching, the enclosure of his own tents 
occupied an area of full five miles in circum- 
ference. His favourite residence was at Kiitteh- 
pur Sikri, in the province of Agra. He instituted 
many public schools, abolishwl torture, did away 
with the capitation and pilgrim taxes, and 
reformed the laws. He arranged his empire into 
fifteen subahs or districts, — Kabal, Lahorc,Multan, 
Dehli, Agra, Oudh, Allahabad, Ajmir, Gujcrat, 
Malwa, Behar, Bengal, Kandesh, Berar, and 
Ahmadnaggur. Each was ruled by a Subahdar, 
with full military and civil jjowers, and a Dewan, 
nominated by the emperor ; each district had a 
foujdar, entrusted with the military duties and 
civil courts. Akbar had early to subdue a revolt 
of his own army, which he effected by an army 
of Rajputs under Todar Mull. His Afghan 
soldiery serving in Bengal subsequently revolted, 
and against them he sent his near relation, 
Man Singh, who, after twelve pitched battles 
and seventeen years of conflict, completely 
established Akbar's authority there. Akbar's 
brother-in-law, the raja of Jeypore, afterwards 
conquered Kashmir. In Akbar's next efforts to 
curb the Yusufzai and Khaibari highlandcrs 
around Peshawar, his army of 40,000, under his 
foster brother raja Berbul, was completely 
destroyed and Berbul slain, and his subsequent 
efforts under Man Singh and Todar Mull only 
met with a partial success, Akbar next annexed 
Sind and reconquered Kandahar, and after 25 
years of warfare, he was the undisputed possessor 
of the territories north of the Nerbudda. In 
A.D. 1573, he annexed Gujerat, Kashmir, and Sind, 
and parts of Afghanistan were subsequently added 
to the Moghul Empire. He married the daughter 
of the raja of Jeypore, a Rajput state. He early 
expressed a desire to become acquainted with 
Christianity. In 1578 he received the Portuguese 
envoy, Cabral, from Goa, and hearing that an 
excellent priest was then living in Bengal, he sent 
for him to hold a public disputation with the 
Mahomedan rauUas. The accounts given by 
the Jesuits of an order issued by him in 1590 for 
the destruction of all mosques and minarets 
appears apocryphal ; but it seems established 
beyond doubt that a party of Christian mission- 
aries visited the country at his own express 

Akbar died on the 13th October 1605. He is 
buried at Sikandra, five miles from Agra on 
the Dehli road. His is a small altar-tomb of 
white marble, in the centre of a square area of 
about forty English acres, planted with trees. 
It is enclosed by an embattled wall with octagonal 
towers at the angles, surmounted by open pavilions 
and four very noble gateways of red granite, the 
principal of which is inlaid with white marble, 
and has four high marble minarets. The central 
building is a sort of solid pyramid, surrounded 
externally with cloisters, gallfcries, and domes, 
diminishing gradually on ascending it till it ends 
in a square platform of white marble, surrounded 
by most elaborate lattice - work of the same 
material, in the centre of which is the small altar- 
tomb, carved with great delicacy and beauty. 
This is the tombstone. At the bottom of the build- 
ing, in a small but very lofty vault, is the real 




tomb of this great monarch, plain and unadorned, 
but also of white marble. — Heher, ii. p. 335-6 ; 
Tod, Eajasthan,i. p. 324: ; Elliot, History of India, 
p. 248 ; Marshman ; P. Arminius Vambery, p. 
393 ; ElpTiinstone, Hist, of India. 

AKBAR NAMAH, a history of Akbar's reign, 
partly written by his minister, Abul Fazl. 

AKCHEE. See Andkho. 

AKEE, Blighia sapida, a tree of west tropical 
Africa, cultivated also in the West Indies. The 
arillus which supports the seed is eaten. It is 
very wholesome; and from its soft, rich flavour 
has the appellation of vegetable marrow. It 
should be introduced into India. — Macfadyen. 

AKEEK. Pers. Cornelian ; chalcedony. 

AKEL. Port. Arenga saccharifera, Labill. 

AKHA. Hind. A pair of grain bags used as 

AKHAL. Hind. A fifth of the heap after 
the corn is thrashed out. 

AKHANDAM. Tel. Entire, not separated ; a 
lamp which is kept continually burning in a 
Hindu shrine. 

AKHAN JATRA, a Hindu cake festival. 

AKHARWAI, a division of the Kurmi tribe. 

A-KHASSA REGIO, a region described by 
Ptolemy, the snowy land of Ladak. See Kha- 

AKHAT. Hind. In the N.W. Provinces of 
Bengal, a portion of the crop paid to the village 

AKHBAR, from Khabar. Ar. News. Akhbar- 
kaghaz, newspaper. Khalassat-al-Akhbar, the 
summary of news, a work by Khond Amir. 

AKHI. Panj. Rubus flavus ; R. fruticosus. 
Akhra is R. rotmidifolius, and Akhreri is R. 

AKHIARI. Panj. Rosa macrophylla. 

held amongst Mahomedans on the last Wednesday 
of their second month, Saffar. It took its rise 
from the circumstance of their Prophet having 
rallied from his illness. He took a bath on the 
13th, and whilst drying his hair at the door of 
his house, he was accosted by an old woman 
thus : ' I am glad to see you well again ; this is 
the Lord's doing, therefore he should be praised.' 
It is said that this remark prostrated Mahomed 
once raore. On the last Wednesday of the month, 
he took another bath, and, plucking a mango leaf 
from a tree close by, he wrote on it the following 
seven short sentences from the Koran : — ' Peace 
shall be the word spoken unto the righteous by a 
merciful Lord.' ' Peace be on Noah among all 
created beings.' ' Peace be on Abraham.' 
'Peace be on Moses and Aaron.' 'Peace be on 
Elias.' ' Peace be on ye that have been good ; 
therefore enter into Paradise, and remain therein 
for ever.' 'Peace be until the rising of the 
moon.' After meditating a short while on them, he 
washed the leaf, and drank the water thus used. 
Mahomedans differ as to what he used in writing 
the above. Some affirm that he wrote it with ink ; 
others, again, say he used rose-water. Every 
Mahomedan on this festal day writes the seven 
sentences, selected by their Prophet from the 
Koran, on a mango leaf or on bread ; if the former, 
the writing is washed off, and the water (called the 
' water of peace ') drunk, but if the latter, the 
bread is eaten, because they believe that by this 
means peace and quietness, health and plenty, 

will exist in their families throughout the ensuing 
year. After this has been done, the Mahomedan, 
according to his means, attires himself in the 
finest and most costly apparel, perfumes his whole 
body with attar, gets some meat, rice, dholl, 
and cakes, etc., prepared, and distributes them 
to the poor in the name of their Prophet. The 
rest of the day is passed very gaily ; some of the 
richer classes have music and dancing, etc., while 
the poorer have a little richer repast than usual. 
For thirteen days after this festival no Mahomedan 
will leave his country or village to go to another, 
because ill-luck will attend him. 

AKHLAQ-i-JALALL This is one of the most 
celebrated Persian works on ethics. It was 
translated into English, among the publications 
of the Oriental Translation Society, by W. F. 

AKHOUND, the high priest of the Swat tribe ; 
any religious teacher ; a schoolmaster. 
AKHOON-WOON. Burm. A revenue assistant. 
AKHOR. Hind. Aralia Cachemirica. 
AKHOZYE, an Afghan tribe in the valley of 
AKHRA, the dancing-place of the Kol tribes. 
AKHROT. Hind. Aleurites triloba ; Juglans 

AKI, the Lignum vitse tree of New Zealand ; it 
is the Metrosideros buxifolia ; and is a rambling 
shrub, climbing by means of its lateral roots to the 
highest trees. It should be introduced into India. 
AKIBAT. Arab. The end. Akibat-ba-Khair- 
bad, may the end be prosperous. 

AKINCHANYAYATANA, in Buddhism, the 
third of the incorporeal Brahma-loka. — Hardy, 
p. 433. 

AKINDO, in Japan, a merchant. The Akindo 
were not permitted to ride on horseback. — Hudij- 
son''s Nagasaki, p. 12. 

AKIT, a drink in use by the Arabs ; but it has 
different names in all parts of Arabia. In the 
Hejaz it is known by the name of Mazir, as well 
as Iqt (a corruption of Akit). When very sour, 
it is called Saribah, and when dried, without 
boiling, Jamidah. The Arabs make it by 
evaporating the serous part of the milk ; the re- 
mainder is then formed into cakes or lumps with 
the hand, and spread upon hair-cloth to dry. 
They eat it with clarified butter, and drink it 
dissolved in water. It is considered by the Arab 
a cooling and refreshing beverage, but boasts few 
attractions to the stranger. The Beluchi and wild 
Sindian tribes call this preparation of milk krut 
or kurut, and make it in the same way as 
the Bedouins. Krut is perhaps the source of the 
English word curd. — Burton's Mecca, i. p. 362. 

AKKAD. An ancient race who occupied the 
mountainous country of Elam, from which they 
entered Babylonia. Before they left Elam, they 
had invented hieroglyphics ; and the cuneiform 
characters of Babylonia and Assyria are a do- 
generated hieroglyphics, as are also the modern 
Chinese characters. Akkadian tribes established 
themselves to the E. of the S. parts of the Eu- 
phrates, between Koornah and the Karoon river, 
or even up to the Luristan range of mountains. 
The Akkad ruled near the shores of the Persian 
Gulf, and are the earliest mentioned in historic 
times who navigated the Persian Gulf and Indian 
Ocean. They are supposed to have formed part 
of the Kushite race, who had colonies along the! 




ooMts from Bnb-el-Manduh to Mululmr. The coast 
of the PcrBinn Gulf was also tho anciunt home of 
their kinsmen the Canaauites, a part of whom 
became celebrated in after times under the name 
of the Phoenicians. 

AKK.\1), in Cairo, a weaver of silk cord. 

AKKUSil. Bkng. liottlera laccifera. 

AKKYE, or Kyot Laut, the Bubjects of tho 
iea ; a littoral race in Quedah, who dwell on the 
ihoros and islets of the Peninsula. See Kedah. 

AKLBIR. Hind. Datisca Cannabina and Del- 
phinium saniculsefolium. 

AKLIL-ul-MALK. Ar, Astragalus hamosus. 

AKLIM. Ar.mj. a climate, a region. 

AKLU of Kaghan. Viburnum stellionum, 
Rich. ; also V. fuetens. 

AKO-KHEL, a subdivision of the Razai section 
if the Yusufzai of the plains. They are in the 
Peshawar district— 3/' GV., N.W. F. i. p. 87. 

AKOLA. Hind. Alangium dccapetalum. 

AKOLA, a town on both banks of the river 
Moma, in Berar, in lat. 20° 42' 15" N., and long. 
77° 2' E., with a population of 12,236. It gives 
its name to a district of 2654 square miles, with a 
population of 523,913. From the village of Patur 
on the west to near Nanda on the east, a distance 
of nearly fifty miles, and about ten in breadth 
m both sides of the Puma river, are salt wells. 
The best are near Dahihanda. The shafts are 3 
or 4 feet in diameter, lined with basket-work. 
At 90 to 120 feet is a thick and strong band of 
gritstone, through which, when pierced, water 
rushes up 15 or 20 feet. The water is drawn up, 
iuid is exposed in salt-pans. The salt contains 
diliqucsceut salts, which give it a bitter taste, and 
spoil it for exportation. The district, since the 
ISth century, when it was overrun by Ala-ud-Din 
(1294), has been chiefly under Mahomedan rule. 
The Last Hindu ruler, raja of Deogarh, in 1319 was 
:9ayed alive. Besides the Hindus and Mahome- 
ijans, depressed races, as the Pasi fowlers, and 
Maog and Jogi, are present. The Kunbi cultivators 
Trorship at Mahomedan shrines. — Imp. Gaz.; P. Ob. 

AKOMANO, a name of Ahriman. 

AKORA, a Hindu monastery. See Asthol ; 

AKOR KHEL, a section of the Khatak. 

AKRA or ANKRA. Hind. Vicia sativa. 

AKRABI, a clan of the Abdali tribe on the sea- 
QOast to the west of Aden. Bir Ahmid is their 
Hole village. They have a high reputation for 

AKRI. Hind. Withania coagulans. Aksan 
i> W. somnifera. 

AK-ROBAT, a pass near Bamian ; the town is 
about lat. 34° 42' N., and long. 67° 41' E. 

AKRUR-ESWARA, the modem Aklesar, on 
the Nerbudda, opposite Bharoch ; its name is from 
R, privative, and krura, cruel. 

AKSHATA or Ach-Chuta. Mahr. Rice 

gnins, coloured with saffron or vermilion, placed 

^tn the forehead of an idol ; also on the fore- 

'Isof a Hindu bride and bridegroom at their 

I TJage. — W. 

AKSHAYA. S.VNSK. From a, privative, and 
1; 111, to decay. Akshaya Lalita, the 7th of Bbadra 
(August — September), when a festival is cele- 
lirated by Hindu women in honour of Siva 

.1 Durga. Akshaya-patra, a beggar's platter, 
sliaya Tritiya, the third lunation of the light 

Mit of ^'^aisakha, April — May, when offerings are 

made by Hindus to Krishna ; also to Maues. It 
is the supposed anniversary of the creation. 

AKSU, a district of Kashgaria at the base of 
the Alatagh. Aksu town contained 12,000 liousea. 
It is situated at the confluence of the Aksu and 
Kokshal. Its curtain has four gates. 

AK TAGH, a range of mountains forming tho 
boundary between the khanate of Bokhara and 
Khokand, mnning E. and W. 500 miles. — TV. 

AKU JEMUUU or Aku Cheraudu. Euphorbi* 
nivulia, E. nereifolia, E. cattimandoo. 

AKULMUHT. Hind. Caisalpinia bonducella. 

AKULU. Tkl., Sing. Aku, in Tamil, Elle. The 
leaves used by Hindus as platters. They are mmle of 
the plantain leaf, Wala-elle, Tam. ; Ariti aku, Tel. ; 
and leaves of the Banyan tree, Man aku, Tel. ; 
Ali-elle, Tam. ; also of the Butea frondosa. 

AKUND. Beno. Calotropis gigantea. Brown; 
and Calotropis liliacea. 

AKU PATRIKAM. Tel. Leaves of Cinna- 
momum eucalyptoides, Nees. The leaves are used 
as a spice, and medicinally. 

AKUSALA, in Buddhism, demerit ; constituent 
of a, privative, and karma. — Hardy's Eastern 
Monachuim, p. 433. 

AKUT-CHUNI, small rubies or garnets, brought 
via Pali to Ajmir, and used as an aphrodisiac; 
one tola for two rupees. — Geiil. Med. Top. p. 125. 

AKYAB, the chief town in Arakan in lat. 
20° 6' 45" N., and long. 92° 56' 30" E., on the 
right bank of the Koli^yn, a rapid river. It is 
the seat of a commissioner. The European part 
is beautifully laid out, and in 1872 it had 19,230 
souls. The Akyab district lies between lat. 20* 
and 22° 19' N., and long. 92° 14' and 94° E., and 
has an area of 5337 square miles, and a population 
of 276,671. The district is bounded on the N. 
by Chittagong, W. by the Bay of Bengal, S. by 
Ramree island, and by the Youmadoung moun- 
tains. The name is said to be derived from a 
relic of Gautama, called Akyab-dau-kim, retained 
in a temple. Its forests have valuable timber 
trees, — Albizzia procera, Dipterocarpus alata, 
Lagcrstrsemia reginae, Strychnos nux vomica, and 
Xylia dolabiformis. The population is largely 
Buddhist and Hindu. The Arakanese seclude 
their women, and have early marriages. There are 
several tribes in the Arakan hill tracts. — Fhidlay ; 
Imp. Gaz. ; Pers. Ohs. See Arakan ; Hill Tracts. 

AK-YAU. BuRM. Wood-aloes. 

AL. Arab. Pronounced and often written 
in the Roman letters el, and ul, and u. It is the 
definite article 'the,' as Al-Koran, the Koran. 

AL, of Kanawar. Cucurbita maxima, Duch. 

AL. Hind. Morinda citrifolia. 

AL, in Kabal, a fabulous, preternatural being, 
resembling a woman of twenty years of age, the 
ghoul of Persia and Turkey. Persian women 
attribute the disasters of parturient women to her 
malevolence. — Burton's Sindh, p. 899. 


Marmar sbyad, 
Alabatre, . . 
Alabaatros, . . 

. Arab. 


Gr., Sp. 

Alabastro, . 


A village called Alabastron, in Egypt, gave its 
name to this mineral. It is a hyckous sulphate 
of lime in a peculiar crystalline state, sometimes 
quite pure, sometimes containing small quantities 
of carbon or iron. When pure it is of spotless 
white, and in texture and colour is almost 
unrivalled amongst minerals. It is found to a 





large extent in Lower Egypt, and perhaps this is 
alluded to in 2 Kings xxi. 13. It is said to occur 
in the Boogtee hills near Jacobabad, and in 
Afghanistan in the quarries of Maidan. It is not 
known to occur in British India, the images of the 
Burmese being from a carbonate or granular car- 
bonate of lime, though commonly called alabaster, 
and known in Europe as oriental alabaster ; it is 
a stalactitic or stalagmitic carbonate of lime, of 
the same hardness as marble, and used for similar 
purposes, and is found of all shades, from white 
to brown, and sometimes veined with coloured 
zones. The magnificent Belzoni sarcophagus, 
purchased by Sir John Soane for 1000 guineas, 
and exhibited at his museum, is of stalagmite. 
The finest alabasters are from near Volterra in 
Tuscany, between Cecina and Leghorn. An in- 
ferior kind occurs near Derby in England, at 
Montmartre near Paris, and in the Tyrolese, 
Swiss, and Italian Alps. — Mason ; Tomlinson. 

AL' ABBAS. This race, called the Abbassides, 
reigned as khalifs in Baghdad from a.d. 749-50 
to A.D. 1258-59, when Baghdad was besieged and 
taken by Hulaku, the grandson of Chengiz Khan, 
and its reigning khalif, Mustasem, put to death. 
They derived their name and descent from 
Abbas-ibn-Abd-ul-Mutalib, a paternal uncle of 
Mahomed (566-652). Ibrahim, the fourth in 
descent from Abbas, supported by the province of 
Khorasan, obtained several successes over the 
L^mmeid armies, but was taken prisoner and put 
to death by the khalif Merwan, a.d. 747. Ibrahim's 
brother, Abul Abbas, assumed the title of khalif, 
and a victory near the Zab river, a.d. 750, 
secured his position. He was named Us-Saffah. 
His brother and successor, Al-Mansiir, born at 
Homaima in Syria, a.d. 713, succeeded the 
khaHf Us-Saffah a.d. 753. He laid the founda- 
tion of the town of Baghdad ; he established 
schools of medicine and law ; he gave much 
of his time to the study and advancement of 
astronomy; translations were commenced of the 
works of the ancient Greek writers on metaphysics, 
m/ithematics, astronomy, and medicine ; and the 
first known lunatic asylum is said to have been 
established by him. He died a.d. 776. His 
grandson was Harun-ur-Roshid, known through- 
out Europe for his valour, his love of justice, 
his zeal for literature and the arts, and his en- 
couragement of commerce, though guilty of many 
cruel tyrannical acts. He ruled from a.d. 786 
till a.d. 809. He placed all public schools under 
John Mesne, a Nestorian Christian; Manik and 
Saleh, two Hindu medical men, were his personal 
physicians ; and Manik translated into Persian 
from the Sanskrit a treatise on poisons. Ul-Mamun, 
his son, after a brief contest, succeeded to the 
khalifat, and the twenty years of his reign, from 
A.D. 813 to 833, formed an important epoch in 
the history of science and literature. He founded 
colleges and libraries at Baghdad, Kufa, Basra, 
and Nesabur. He built observatories ; Syrian 
physicians and Hindu mathematicians and astro- 
nomers lived at his court ; and works on astronomy, 
mathematics, metaphysics, natural philosophy, and 
medicine were translated into Arabic from the 
Sanskrit and from the Greek. The brief period 
of forty-seven years of the reigns of Harun-ur- 
Rashid and his son Ul-Mamun, was a period of 
great prosperity ; but that of Ul-Mamun was the 
Augustan age. During the khalifat of Makhtadar 

(a.h. 319 — A.D. 931), in consequence of a patient 
having been killed by an ignorant practitioner, a 
law was passed that no one should be allowed to 
practise medicine until he had been licensed to do 
so by the chief physician. Their ruin was hastened 
by their body-guard, which the khalif Mustasem 
had formed (833-842), and succeeding khalifs 
became mere puppets in their hands. Mustasem, 
the reigning khalif, was slain by Hulugu, 20th 
February 1258. — Thomas' Prinsep, p. 304 ; Bal- 
four^s Eminent Medical Men. See Barmicides. 

ALABELA ? a variety of the chank shell. 

ALABU, Beng. ; Alabuvu, Sansk. ; or Anapa 
Kaya, Tel. Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser. 

ALACHA, PusHT. A Kabali silk trouser piece, 
used to make pai jamas. 

ALACHANDALU, also Bobbarlu. Tel. Doli- 
chos Sinensis, L. ; and D. catjang. 

ALACHATA, also Talantu tige. Ipomoea 
dentata, Willde ; I. chrysoides, W. 

ALADDIN, properly Ala-ud-Din, meaning 
Glory of the Religion. This is the hero of a Persian 
tale inserted in the English copy of the Arabian 
Nights. It is not in the Arabian version of the 
Alif Laila. The opening of this story partakes in 
the highest degree of imaginative sublimity. We 
are introduced to a magician, conscious of the 
existence of but one living being able to assist 
him in the acquisition of a wondrous lamp ; and, 
to ascertain the whereabouts of this mortal, he 
applies his ear to the ground, and, among all the 
footsteps which at that moment are tormenting 
the surface of the earth, distinguishes those of 
one particular child, playing six thousand miles 
away in the streets of Baghdad. 

ALADEL. Singh. Artocarpus hirsuta. 

ALAGILI-GHITSA. Tel. Crotalaria verrucosa. 

ALAGIRI MALEI, a- mountain twelve miles 
N. of Madura, in the S. of India, about 1000 feet 
high and 10 or 15 miles long. It is composed 
entirely of avanturine quartz or micaceous sand- 
stone ; some parts have ripple marks. 

ALAIKA CHETTU. Tel. Memecylon rami- 

ALAKA, on Mount Meru, the Himalayan 
residence and capital of Kuvera, the Hindu god of 
riches, unmatched for its lovely Gandharva girls, 
who deck themselves with 

' The amaranth, bright glory of the spring, 
The lotus gathered from the summer flood, 
Acacias taught around their brows to cling ; 
The jasmine's fragrant wliite their locks to stud ; 
And bursting at thy rain the young Kadamba bud.' 

ALAKH, the cry or call of the Gadara beggara 
Alakhnami, a class of Saiva mendicants, wor- 
shippers of the Alakshya, the indefinable god, 
from a, privative, and nama, a name. See Gadara ; 

ALAKNANDA is a mountain stream in the 
Garhwal district of the N.W. Provinces. It is 
formed by the junction of the Dhauli with the 
Saraswati, one of the streams deemed sacred by 
the Hindus. It rises in the snowy ranges of the 
Himalaya. It is one of the main upper waters of; 
the Ganges. It receives in its course the Bhagi- 
rathi. Each of the points where it meets a confluem 
is considered holy, and forms a station in the pili 
grimage which Hindus make to Himachal. Alaj 
kanandain Sanskrit is, alaka, light, and ananda, joy 

ALALI MARA, Can. Terminalia chebula. 

ALAM. Arab. A state or condition, also 8 




egion of the world. Tliere are, in Mahotnodan 
<uief, nioiiy worlds. Miihoiuutl, dcacribing tho 
ireation, suys, ' God Bnid, I was a hidden treasure, 
ad I desirt'd to become known;' and by the 
astrumentality of tho word Be, the universe 
;ame into being. It is recognised as the Alum- 
Rufla and Alain-i-ala, the lower and upper worlds. 

AIi^\M. AuAB. A flag, a flagstaff, a standard, 
I prop, a l^aimor ; the banner of Hasan and Husain, 
iarrie<I in procession in tho Mtdiarram festival. 
\Lun-bjirchir, a standard-bearer. 

ALAMAN. TuuKi. A raiding party of Turko- 
nans ; a foray. 

ALA MAKAM. Tam. Ficus indica. 

ALAMBAGH, at Lucknow ; a palace in a 
>eautiful park, belonging formerly to the royal 
iiraily of Oudh. A victory was here gained by 
ieneral Outram over the rebel soldiery, during 
he mutiny, on the 16th January 1868. 

ALAMGIR, a title assumed by two emperors 
if Dehli. Aurangzeb took it on proclaiming him- 
elf emperor of India ; and it is that by which he 
3 known hi Indian history, and in all regular 
locuments; but some of his own countrymen and all 
luropeans call him Aurangzeb. He was the third 
on of the emperor Shah Jahan ; he was born 
bout the year 1619 (1614?), ascended the throne 
:0th August 1668, and died at Ahmadnaggur, in 
ho Dekhan, on the 21st February 1707. See 
Aurangzeb. Alamgir ii. was declared emperor in 
uly 1754 (a.h. Shaban 1167). He was one 
f tho princes of the blood, whom Ghazi-ud-Din, 
randson of Asof Jah, raised to tho throne, after 
e had deposed the emperor Ahmad Shah, and 
linded him and his mother. 

ALAMPRA, a Burmese monarch, who, in 1756, 
ounded or re-built Rangoon. 

ALAMUT, a bare, steep, solitary rock, 32 
iiiles from Kasvin, and 63 miles N.W. from 
eheran. It is celebrated as having been the 
>rtre8s of Haan-us-Sabah, commonly known as 
;haikh-ul-Jabal, the redoubted chief of the Assas- 
ins — the Old Man of the Mountain of the crusaders. 
lie ridge on which the castle is placed is about 
lOO yards in length from E. to W., and at the 
op not 20 yards broad. The height is about 
too feet, except in the west, where it falls to 100 
i»t. It is a place of great strength. The vicinity 
i the rock is a dreary solitude, but the view from 
he summit is very fine, embracing nearly the 
hole of the valley of Alamut and all the high 
nountains by which it is enclosed. It is some- 
Imes called Al-raowut, also Allahamout, the latter 
rord meaning eagle's nest in the language of the 
trovince. — Van Hammer; Sheil; Malcolm, quoted 
y AfGregor, p. 18. See Hasan-us-Sabah. 

ALANDADI ? a class of slaves in Tamil 

ALANG. Beng. An embankment. 

ALANG-ALANG. Malay. A grass growing 
a all the unwooded parts of the Archipelago ; a 
pecies of Imperata. 

A. hexapetalum, Roxb. Fl. ii. p. 502 ; Lam. 
A. tomentosum, Lam., D. C. 

Ugh-ankra, . . Benq. 
kvbaruli mara, . Can. 
Sopaata, ... 
kola, Akarkanta, Hind. 
nknlo, Ankul, . Mahr. 
Jigolam, . . Maleal. 
uura angolam, ,, 

Ankolamu, . 
Ankola, Ankotha, 
Ecpaatta, . . 
Alangi, . . . 
Uiluga, Udugu, 





This is a small tree or khrub. It is an excellent 
fuel pknt for lucomotivea. It is found in rocky 
places in tlie hotter and dryer part« of Ceylon, 
throughout tho Peninsub of India, in Gujcrat on 
the Bombay side, in the Khassya hills, in Assam 
up to the base of tho Himalaya, in Burma, tho 
Maky Peninsula, and in Cochin-China. The woo<l 
is said by Dr. Roxburgh to be beautiful, and Dr. 
Wight found it to sustain a weight of 310 ll>g., but 
it wants size. Captain Be<ldome describes it as 
furnishing an ornamental, beautiful wood, the tree 
attaining a fair size in the forests of the Godavery 
and Circars. The wood, is said to be peculiarly 
sonorous ; and in Ganjam the leading bullock has 
a bell of it, termed ' lodoke,' round its neck, tho 
sound being heard to a great distance in tho 
jungle. The astringent fruit is eaten by tho 
natives ; its roots are aromatic, and used in native 
medicine in snake-bites. Alangium glandulosuin, 
Thw.y is a small tree of the Central Province of 
Ceylon, and grows at an elevation of 2000 to 4000 
feet. — Mr. Jajffrey; Drs. Roxb., Wight, Gibsov, 
Voigt ; Mr. Elliot ; M. E. J. Rep. ; Mr. Rohde ; 
Useful Plants; Captain Beddome; Thwaites, En. 
PI. Zeyl. ii. p. 133. 

ALAN KHAN, grandson of Chengiz Khan, and 
better known by the name of Hulaku. — He com- 
pleted the conquest of Persia, and afterwards took 
Baghdad, putting to death the last of the once 
powerful khalifs in a.h. 656 (a.d. 1268-9). Ho 
also employed his forces in extirpating the As- 
sassins, well known in the annals of the crusades. 
See Hasn-us-Saba ; Luristan. — Prinsep's Tibet, p. 8. 

ALAOS, a tributary of the Ganges, and tho 
ancient Palabrotha was built at tlie junction. 
The Alaos was also called the Erranaboas or 

ALA PALA. Tel. Pergularia pallida, W. 

ALARA, a brahman who attache<l himself to 

AL ARAB al ARABA, pure Arabs, the de- 
scendants of Kahtan or Joktan, the son of Heber. 

AL-ARAF. Arab. A boundary ; the Mahome- 
dan purgatory between paradise and hell. 

ALARANJI. Tel. Convolvulus parviflorus. 

ALARANTU. Tel. Rostellaria diffusa. Keen. 

AL ARIM, a great tank or artificial lake which 
was formed in Arabia, but which burst in tho 
1st or 2d, or early in the 3d, century of the 
Christian era. Eight tribes then abandoned the 
locality. The bursting is noticed in the Koran as 
the Sail-ul-Arim. 

ALASALE, or Koriti Chcttu. Tel. Plcco- 
8pt5rmum spinosum. 

ALASANDI. Kah. Dolichos catjang. 

ALASE GANA MAKA. Can. Artocarpua 

ALAT-CHANDUL. Beno. Methonica su- 

ALATHI, a titular designation applied to the 
Pshrodi caste of Travoncore. 

ALA-ud-DIN, of the Ghor dynasty, overthrew 
Bahram and destroyed Ghazni. He gave it up to 
three, some say seven, days of flame, slaughter, 
and devastation. All the superb monuments of 
the Ghaznavi kings were demolished, except the 
tombs of Mahmud, Masaud, and Ibrahim. He has 
been named by Mahomedans, Jahan -soz, ' burner 
of the world.' He died a.d. 1156 (a.u. 651), 
after an eventful reign of four years. 

ALA-ud-DIN, emperor of Dehli, was the 



nephew and successor of Jalal-ud-Din. Ala-ud- 
Din was the leader of the first Mahomedan 
invaders of the Dekhan, and took the road of the 
Vindhya mountains somewhere near Chikaldah. 
He took Deogiri, the modern Dowlatabad, about 
A.D. 1294, and returned to Dehli, where he pro- 
cured the assassination of his uncle. In a.d. 
1809 he annexed Gujerat, from which the Hindu 
ruler fled, and Ala-ud-Din carried off Kaula Devi, 
the raja's wife. Her daughter, Dewala Devi, who 
remained with the raja, had been long sought by 
the son of Ram Deo, raja of Deogiri, but the 
father had withheld consent to allow his daughter, 
a Rajputni, to ally with a Mahratta chief, and 
ultimately she was seized at EUora by Ala-ud- 
Din's soldiers, and married to the king's eldest 
son. Ala -ud- Din's general was Malik Kafur. 
Ala-ud-Din died a.d. 1316 (Orme says a.d. 1317). 
In A.D. 1303, when he took Chetore, the females 
immolated themselves. Their funeral pyre was 
lighted in the great subterranean retreat. This 
horrible rite is termed the Johur. He was one 
of the most vigorous and warlike sovereigns who 
have occupied the throne of India. He took 
Anhulwara, Dhar, Avanti, Deogiri, the seats of the 
Solanki, the Pramara, the Purihara, and the Tak, 
and with these the entire Agnicula race was over- 
turned for ever by him.— Tod, i. 265; Marshman. 

KORESHI ibn NAFIS, who died a.d. 1288, 
wrote in Arabic an epitome of the Qanun of 
Aristotle, which he styled Mujiz ul Qanun fi't 
Tibb, the Principles of Medicine. 

ALA-ud-DIN MASAUD was king of Dehli in 
1241-1246, when a Mongol invasion of Bengal 
occurred. Ferishta says it is supposed that they 
entered by the same route which was followed 
by Mahomed Bakhtiyar Khilji when he invaded 
Cathay and Tibet from Bengal, and when forced 
to retreat, he had not perhaps got beyond the 
Assam valley. — Yule, Cathay, Ixxv. 

ALAUSA TOLI, Cuv. and Veil., a fish of the seas 
of Peuang, Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Borneo, 
Java, Sumatra, Pondicherry, Cauvery, Bombay. 
Total length, 1 ft. 6 in. Like A. ilisha in Bengal, 
the Trubu, A. toll, is denominated shad or sable- 
fish. Both are, however, somewhat oily, very 
rich, and bony. Alausa toll forms in the Indian 
Archipelago a distinct and important branch of 
fishery, principally for the sake of its roe. The 
fishery is probably quite inexhaustible, and might 
unquestionably be prodigiously improved by Euro- 
pean skill and industry. The quantity of fish 
caught yearly amounts to between 14 and 15 
millions. The Trubu, about a cubit long, is taken 
in three and four fathoms water on a mud bank. 
About 300 boats are engaged at all seasons in the 
fishery, with the exception of four days during dead 
neap tides. The roes are an article of trade sea- 
ways, and the dried fishes are sent into the interior 
of Sumatra. The raja of Siak draws a revenue 
from this fishery of 72,000 guilders yearly, receiv- 
ing a certain duty upon the quantity taken. In 
the Malayan markets the roe is called Telur ikan, 
the fish roe par excellence. Like the prepara- 
tion of fermented fish and shell-fish, Balachan, 
it is largely used by the Malays and Chinese to 
season and make their food palatable, and it is no 
less a favourite relish with Europeans. The fresh 
roe is thoroughly salted, and next partially dried, 
so as to retain a slight maisturc, in which state 

it is by hundreds closely packed in casks, and 
thus exported. In the Malayan Settlements the 
price is from 3 to 4 Spanish dollars per hundred. 
The dealers there export considerable quantities 
to China, after having taken the precaution to 
repack the roes between layers of salt, and to 
sprinkle them with arrack. To dress them, they 
are soaked for about half an hour in water, and 
then fried. As the roe appears in commerce, it 
is of an elongated flat shape, measuring from 
6 to 8 inches in length, about 2 in breadth, and 
three-quarters of an inch in depth, of a deep 
amber colour. The single eggs are larger than 
those of A. ilisha. — W. T. Lewis, Esq.; Moor, 
Notices of the Indian Archipelago, etc., p. 29. 

ALAVANTAR, a Bhatta Brahman, known by 
his poetical version in Tamil of the Sanskrit 
Gnana Vashistha, which is considered the stand- 
ard work on Vedantism in South India. 

ALA VI, any descendant of Ali, cousin and 
son-in-law of Mahomed, by other wives than 
Fatima, Mahomed's daughter. FatLma's children 
are termed Syud, or ' lord ' (pi. Saadat, fem. 
Syudani) ; children by the other wives are desig- 
nated Alavi Syud, 

ALAWA. Tel. Aquila fulvescens, Gray. 

ALAYA. Sansk, A dwelling, a place of 
abode ; from a, privative, and alaya, to dis- 
solve. Himalaya, the abode of snow. Dewal, a 
temple, is from deo, deity, and alaya, a house. 

AL-AZHAR, the great collegiate mosque at 

ALBA ARBOR, the Cajaputi tree. 

AL-BAIDAWI, a commentator of the Koran. 

ALBANIA. The Albanians of Asia are sup- 
posed by M. RufRn to have formed the basis of 
the present Afghans. He says that they were a 
warlike people, known as Aghvan or Avghan, but 
in consequence of their numerous revolts they 
were transferred from one extremity of Persia 
to another, and driven into Khorasan. — Bunsen ; 
Chesney ; Biirtoii's Mecca, i. p. 199, 

ALBANY ISLANDS are a few miles to the 
south-east of Cape York, the north-east extremity- 
of Australia. The natives of the north-eastern 
parts of Australia are less friendly to strangers 
than the other tribes of this continent, which was 
confirmed by the massacre of Mr, Kennedy and 
the greater portion of his party, when exploring 
the country between Rockingham Bay and Cape 
York. — Jozir. Ind. Arch. 

ALBATEGNIUS, an Arab prince who stated 
the procession of the equinoxes to be 1° in sixty- 
six years. See Astronomy. 

ALBATROSS. Several birds with this name 
are familiar to all voyagers in the southern seaa^ 
the common albatross, Diomedea exulans, being 
very numerous. D. fuliginosa. Lath., and D. 
chlororynchus, Lath., are also met with. Mari- 
ners distinguish them by familiar names. D 
exulans is the wandering albatross-, D. spadicei 
is the green-bill or Nelly of sailors ; D. chlorO" 
rynchus, their Mollymaux or yellow-bill ; and D. 
fuliginosa, the sooty albatross. 

ALBERT N'YANZA, a lake in Central Africa 
140 miles long and 50 miles broad. It was seei) 
by Captain Speke in 1863, and in 1875-76 waj 
circumnavigated by M. Gessi, a member of Colonei 
Gordon's staff. 

ALBICORE, the Scomber thynnus, Linn., ai 
inhabitant of the southern seas. The back ii 




right purpio with a golden tint, belly silvery, 
»/ith a jjlay of iridescent colours, and with largo 
ttd silvery eyes. It is in length from 3 to G feet, 
'ho albicore, bonito, and dolphin often follow a 
uip for a considerable time. Hunuett (i. p. 42) 
nentions that an albicore, with a mark on its 
ack, was first seen in lat. 3° N., and followed 

i ship to lat. 11° S., a distance of 840 miles, 

AL BILADURI, author of Fatah-ul-Baldan. 
EUs name was Ahmad, son of Yahya, t/.v. 

ALBINDA, UiNn. CitruUus fistulosus, S/ocJb ; 
?. vulgaris, var. flexuosa. 

ALBINO. Tliis variation from natural colours 
s met with frequently in all Asiatic countries, 
knd when occurring in man it is more noticed 
"lan amongst the fairer races of Europe, because 
I tlie contrast it offers with those around them, 
Jid because of the scant apparel in use. Albino 
uen or women are not regarded with any peculiar 
(telings, being familiar to all ; but in Asia, albino 
lephants, buffaloes, monkeys, and crows are also 
aet with. White crows with pink eyes, also 
yhite deer, occur in Tipperah ; albino crows arc 
ot uncommon in Malabar, and albino monkeys in 
5eylon ; but a kind of white monkey of Ceylon 
lis been said not to be albino, though doubtless 
> ; and one of the titles of the king of Burma is 
iOrd of the White Elephant. The albino elephant 
f the king of Siam, seen in 1881 by Carl Boch, 
as of a pinkish-grey colour. When the British 
>ok possession of Kandy in 1803, they found 
ve beautiful milk-white deer in the palace ; and 
thers have since been seen in Ceylon. An albino 
eer was caught in 1845 at Macassar, and a grey 
ne at Antipi, near Batavia, in 1840. The 
rdinary domesticated buffalo frequently is an 

AL BIRUNI, the surname of Abu Rihan, author 
f the Asar-ul-Bakaya, or Vestiges of the Past, a 
iironology of Ancient Nations, which he wrote 
•D. 1000 — A.H. 390-1. He was a native of Khiva, 
ut wrote his book probably at Herat, after his 
ountry had passed under the rulers of that dis- 
rict This central position gave him access to 
umy nationalities, and enabled him to understand 
ae systems of computing time in use among the 
ews, Syrians, Greeks, the Nestorian and Melekite 
hristians, the Egyptians, Babylonians, Zoroas- 
rians, Indians, the heathen and Mahomedan 
Liabs, the Bukhariots and the Khivans. Al Biruni 
ppears to have busied himself particularly with 
be Jewish and the Zoroastrian traditions ; but he 
rag singularly impartial in his investigation. The 
udn object of his book is ' to fix the duration of 
iogs' reigns ; ' and to do this, lists of all the royal 
oases of ancient nations are brought together, and 

strict investigation instituted into the chronolo- 
ical systems appropriate to each, for the purpose 
t reducing them all to some common basement 
pon which a universal history could be built. 

Al Bu-uni wrote in Arabic, and the manuscript 

i|»e8 of h is book are rare and exceedingly difficult to 

ad. He supplies us with many curious notices of 

leBuddhists, Manichajans, Zoroastrians, the Veiled 

rophet, the founder of the belief in the coming 

' Mahdi, the strange sect of Zakariyya, and other 

known but highly interesting sects, both 

I la and Christian. Al Biruni was an excellent 

einatician, with an exact and scientific mind, 

>3ing a large share of critical acumen, free 

uiii prejudice aud bigotry, a truth-loving, patient 

investigator, and an able linguist The nature 
and origin of rivers, their flow, their tides, their 
annual rise and fail, are facta well known to and 
accurately explained by him. It is, indeed, truly 
astonisliiug to road his explanations of these pheno- 
mena, in almost the very words of mo<lem science. 
He introduces one statement of the law of gravi- 
tation as though it were well known to the scholars 
of his time, asserting that his remarks about the 
flow of water, etc., will never be evident to the 
vulgar ' unless they study physical sciences, and 
learn that the water moves towards the centre of 
the earth, and to any place which is nearest to the 
centre.' This is Newton's law of gravitation in 
the very words in which it is generally found in 
modern school-books. Al Biruni very clearly seta 
forth the causes of constant and intermittent 
springs, and is not less precise in his explanation 
of the action of a syphon, and points out the 
effects produced by the pressure of the atmosphere 
on water. Al Biruni explains that the tides arc 
caused by the moon revolving ' from one certain 
point of her cycle back to the same, or from the 
sun to that point. Thus the flow is the strongest 
in the first half of the lunar month, and weakest 
in the second half. Besides, also, the sun has an 
influence upon this.' He mentioned the disappear- 
ance from Ceylon of the pearl oyster, and their 
appearance at Sofala, in the country of the Zends. 
— Tennent''s Ceylon. See Pearls. 

ALBIZZIA, a genus of plants of the natural order 
Fabacese. It includes many plants formerly 
arranged under the genus AcMcia. A. bigemina, 
I''. V. Mueller., is a tree of Nepal, Sikkim, and 
Ceylon, up to 4000 feet. A. julibrissin, Durazsini, 
is a favourite ornamental tree from the Caucasus 
to Japan, grown for shade. A. lucida, Benlh., 
is a timber tree of Darjiling Terai, and A. mollis, 
Cuv.., is a plant of Kaghan. — Von Mueller. 


Mimosa amara, Boxb. ii. 548. 

,, pulchclla, ,, 
Bel kambi, , . . Can. 

Lallye Mar. 

Narlingi, , . Tam., Tel. 

Acacia amara, WUlde. 

„ Wightii, Graham. 
Shekram, . . . Tam. 
Nalla renga, . . . Tel. 
» regu 

This tolerably large tree grows in the north of 
Ceylon, and throughout the Peninsula of India. 
It has a maximum height of about 30 feet, seldom 
exceeding five or six feet of girth. The wood is 
dark brown, mottled, and very handsome, strong, 
fibrous, and stiff, close grained, hard, and durable, 
and superior to sal and teak in transverse strength 
and direct cohesive power. It is much used by 
the natives for building purposes, beams, etc., and 
in the construction of carts and ploughs, and makes 
excellent fuel, and was most extensively cut for the 
locomotives in the Salem district and along the 
Bangalore line. The natives use the leaves for 
washing their hair. The tree grows most rapidly 
as coppice. — Drs. lioxb., Wiyht, ami Gibson; Mr. 
Ferfjusson ; Beddonie, Fl. Sylv. p. Gl. 


I Mimosa elata, Roxb., Wall. 
Baro, .... Panj. 

Acacia elata, Oraham. 
Sect ; Thaeet-thae, BURH. 
Chickul mara, . . Can, 
Dhoon siria, . . Panj, 
Safed ,, . , . „ 

Kareo, . of N.W. Prov. 
Telia Sopara, . . Tel. 

This very handsome large tree grows in Ceylon, 
is pretty common in Sunda and Canara, above 
and below the ghats; occurs in the Godavery 
forests, in Tavoy, Mergui, and Amherst, on the 




banks of the Irawadi and Ataran ; is plentiful in 
Pegu and Tounghoo ; grows in Assam, the N.W. 
Provinces, Dehra Doon, Kamaon, and the Pan- 
jab. Dr. Brandis says this Burmese wood maj', 
at a future time, become an important article of 
trade, the heart-wood being strong and durable, 
and less heavy than that of most trees of same 
family ; but the proportion of sap-wood is large. 
It is used by the Burmans for bridges and house 
posts. Breaking weight, 250 lbs. A cubic foot 
weighs 42 to 65 lbs. In a full-grown tree on 
good soil, the average length of the trunk to the 
first branch is 40 feet, and average girth, measured 
at 6 feet from the ground, is 10 feet. It sells at 
12 annas per cubic foot. — Drs. Brandis, Cal. 
Ex. Cat. of 1862, Roxb., M'Clelland, Gibson, 
Voigt, Stewart; Captains Dance, Beddome ; Messrs. 
Thompson, Fergusson. 

Acacia Lebbek, Willde. 

„ speciosa, „ 
Siris, . Beng., Hind. 

Sit, Bur. 

Vaghe, .... Tam. 

Benth. Sirissa tree. 
Mimosa serissa, Moxb. 
Albizzia latifolia, Boivin. 
Kat Vaghe, . . . Tam. 
Dirasana, . . . Tel. 
Pedda duchirram, . ,, 

This large tree is common in every part of India, 
Burma, and Ceylon, in all soils and situations, is 
easily raised from seed, and is of very rapid growth. 
A. speciosa was long supposed to be distinct as a 
species from A. Lebbek. It grows to about 50 
feet high, with a trunk up to 8 and rarely 12 
feet in girth. It flowers in the hot weather, and 
the seeds ripen in the rains. It is generally nearly 
destitute of leaves in the cold season, and it has 
an extensive but thin head. Its Sirissa name is 
from the whistling noise given out when the wind 
is blowing. The seasoned timber weighs 60 lbs. 
the cubic foot, and 0*800 sp. gr. It is hard and 
durable, of a light reddish brown colour, with 
darker veins, and it is not liable to warp or crack. 
It is used for naves of wheels, pestles and mortars, 
picture frames, furniture, parts of boats, etc., 
and the heart-wood makes good charcoal. A gum 
very similar to gum arable exudes from the trunk ; 
the leaves and twigs are good fodder ; and the 
seed is officinal. It grows well from cuttings, 
poles stuck in the ground rooting readily. Its 
branches are brittle, and suffer in localities ex- 
posed to the wind. — Drs. Boxh., Stewart, Mason, 
M'Clelland, Cleghorn, Gibson; Captain Mac- 
donald; Beddome, Fl. Sylv. part v. p. 53. 

ALBIZZIA MOLUCCANA is a tree of large 
size, growing to 70 or 100 feet in height, and has 
a handsome foliage of bipinnate leaves. It is used 
in Java for shading coffee plants in preference to 
all others, because its leaves do not fall in the dry 
season ; the leaves being small, cause a more equal 
distribution of rain ; and the leaves close at night, 
thus giving the coffee plants more fully the benefit 
of the moonlight and dew. 


Mimosa odorat., Linn., B, 

„ marginata. Lam. 
Tandai, . C. of Panjab. 

Acacia odorat., Willde. 

,, lomatocarpa, D. C. 
Ean Sarras, Dekh. , Mal. 
Chechua, Sanka^ur, GOND. 

Sirsa HiND. 

Buna, . . . ofKAGHAN. 
Karintha karra, . Mal. 
Ran Sarris, Mahr., Dekh. 
Siri, Lasre, Polach, Drek, 

This large handsome tree grows abundantly 
over all the Peninsula of India, in any soil, on the 
coast or in the interior ; is found also in Ceylon, 

Karmru, . . . 

. Beas. 

Karha, . . . 


Surri mara, . . 


Karroo Vaga, . 
Selawunjah, . 

. Tam. 


Sela maram, 

Shinduga, Telsu, 

.' Tel, 

Bengal, Assam, the eastern provinces of Burma, 
Pegu, and Tenasserim, and in the Panjab. In the 
Madras Presidency, about Coimbatore, it is ol 
rapid growth and in considerable abundance, 
attaining the height of 30 to 40 feet. It often 
attains a good size in the Bombay Presidency, but 
in Nagpur it is only in gardens that its dimensions 
are great ; the timber it yields in other localities 
being, as a general rule, of small scantling. It is 
even there, however, obtainable in beams fron 
16 to 18 feet long and 3 feet in girth, at 5 annai 
per cubic foot. In Coimbatore, beams 1 fooi 
square are procurable. The heart-wood is dark- 
coloured, turning almost black with age ; is hard 
strong, and heavy, and takes a good polish ; the 
grain being ornamental, though rather open. Ii 
Nagpur it is described as being distinguishabl( 
from the timber of the Pentaptera tomentosi 
only by its much straighter grain, and greatei 
lightness. It has an outer ring of white wood o 
from 2 to 3 inches in Nagpur, but which Dr 
Gibson says, is, in the Western Dekhan, alway 
three-fourths of the whole. This part alone i 
assailable by white ants ; but by being creosote< 
it could probably be made a useful railway timber 
All accounts describe its heart-wood as strong 
hard, and heavy ; in Nagpur, of sufficient size t< 
form rafters, and excellently suited for nave 
and felloes of wheels ; but there is an uncertainty 
as to its powers to bear moisture. A beam L 
inch square sustained a weight of 670 lbs. Th( 
oil manufacturers of Nagpur use it for their mills 
and it is there generally employed to make carts 
The wood is said to deserve to be better knowi 
for the general purposes of carpentry. In Kangri 
the wood is said to be soft, and used only fa 
fuel ; its leaves are used for fodder ; a useful gun 
exudes from the trunk. — Captains Beddome 
Sunkey ; Drs, Mason, Wight, Cleghorn, Brandis 
Stewart, Gibson, M'Clelland, Rvxb. ii. p. 646 
Voigt ; Madras Exhibition Juries'' Reports ; Majo 
Drury ; Mr. Rohde. 

Acacia procera, Willde. | Mimosa procera, Boxb. 
Telia sopra, . . . Tel. | Pedda Patseru, . Tei 

This tree grows in the Andamans and Britisl 
Burma, also in the Peninsula of India, in thi 
Madura District, on the Neilgherries, on the Goda 
very, in the Northern Circars, in Darjiling Terai 
Goalpara, Garhwal ; and it is cultivated in Ceylon 
but is not indigenous there. Its heart-wood i 
dark-coloured and strong. — Roxb. ; Major Bed 
dome ; Mr. Fergusson. 

Acacia stipulata, D. C. 
A. Kangraensis, Jameson. 
Amluki, .... Beng. 
Boo-mai-za, . . Burm. 
Kal-bage, . . . S. Can. 
Oi, Ohi, . . . Kangra. 
Lasrin, .... Panj. 
Ola, Kasir, Durgari, ,, 

This unarmed species is one of the largest tree 
of the genus, and its flowers are of a pink colon 
It grows in the N.W. Himalaya, Kangra vallej 
the Panjab, the Dehra Doon, and Garhwal, risic 
to altitudes from 3000 to 6000 feet, and attainin 
a girth of 7 to 9 feet. It grows in Ceylon, and a 
the Peninsula of India, Bombay, Mysore, Madra 
Travancore, Courtallum ; also in Bengal, and i 
Burma from Rangoon to Tounghoo, and on tl 
banks of the Ataran river, and in Tenasserii 

Mimosa stipulata, 


,, stii^ulacea 

> >) 

Surangra, . . . 


Kubal mara, . . 


Hulan mara, . . 


Konda chiragu, . 


Chindagu, . . . 






South Cannra it« timber is much in iwo ; it is 
t.x>ng, compact, stiff, coJiree-grained, and fibrous, 
a light rcildish-brown colour, and is used for 
ilding purposes, naves of wheels, etc. Its 
ecjfic gravity is -880, and it weighs 65 Ibe. the 
bio foot wheu seasoned, and GS to 05 unseasoned ; 
attains a very large size, and must be a very 
pid grower, as Dr. lioxburgh mentions one 
at he planted which measured 48^ inches in 
rcumference at 4 feet from the ground when 7 
ars old ; and Dr. Stewart mentions one that 
lasured 7 feet in girth when 17 years of age, in 

Saharunpnr garden. — Drs. Brandis, Cal. Ex. 
0/18C2; Roxb. ii. .549; VouiU M'Clelkmd; 

L. Stewart ; Major Beddome, Fl. Sylv. part v. 
65 ; Drnry, Useful Plants ; Messrs. Thompson, 
well, and Feri)usso}i. 

AL-BORDSH, the Haro - berezaiti of the 
cients, is supposed to be on the western slope 
Bolur Tagh, on the high land of Pamir. 
ALBUQUERQUE. Don Alphonzo de Albu- 
lerque, an officer in the service of the king of 
)rtugal, who was sent to the Indies in 1504 
J 1508. This bold and enterprising commander 
xjeeded Almeyda in the command of the 
)rtuguese in India ; he took Muscat and other 
portant places on both sides of the Arabian 
ilf. Goa was twice captured by Albuquerque, in 

beginning of, and on the 25th Nov., 1610. He 
ptured the Fort of Malacca (1511), also the 
imd of Ormuz, in the Persian Gulf. On the 18th 
bruary 1513, he started from India on an ex- 
iition, consisting of 20 ships, manned by 1700 
rtuguese and 800 Indians, and failed in an 
tempt to take Aden by escalade ; he afterwards 
ntered at the island of Kamaran, and returned 
)m the Red Sea. He landed on Perim island 
1618. His command lasted from 1,507 to 1516, 
1 he was superseded and died. De Barras, the 

torian, was his companion. He widely extended 
I) Portuguese power. — Playfair^s Aden ; Marsh- 
rn. See De Barras ; Perim. 

Antilope bubalis, Pallas. 
bale Abab. | Bakkar-ul-Wash, . Arab. 

It ranges tlirough N. Africa and Arabia. It is 
oat the size of the largest stag, and is par- 
«larly remarkable for the great length of its 
wL and its narrow, flat, and straight forehead 
d lace. It is common iu every part of Northern 
'nca, living in numerous herds on the confines 
the Tell or cultivated parts, and the Sahara or 
liett, and also, according to Captain Lyon, 

the mountains south of Tripoli. Barbary 
iiDB to be its chief habitat, but a few individuals 
d their way across the desert to the banks of 
B Nile. Its representation occurs among the 
iioglyphics of the temples of Upper Egypt. 
« young calves frequently mix with domestic 
ttle, and soon attach themselves to the herd, 
ey fight like the common bull, by lowering the 
10, and striking suddenly upwards with the 
tu, which are formidable weapons either for 
aok or defence. — Engl. Cyc. p. 263. 

, ... Arab., I Alchemie, . . . Ger. 
ddinie, . . . Fb. | Alcliimia, ... It. 

H^rch for the philosopher's stone, to convert the 
~iar metals into gold, and to cure all diseases. 
4t Asiatics, whether Muhomedans, Hindus, or 

Chinese, believe in the possibility of this art of 
transmuting metals, and are easily duperl by im- 
postors. In China it is now laid aside ; but prior 
to the Christian era, the prooeases were largely 
studied, and everywhere iu the search for gold 
many mercurial com|x>uud8 were discovered. 

Samshu, . 

Araq, Rub, 


Yuen-thin, ... „ 

San-Shau, ... ,, 

Spirits of wine, . Eng. 

. . Arab. 
. . Chin. 

Alcool, .... Fr. 
Eanrit de vin, . . „ 

Alkohol, Wemgeiat, 0«B. 

Daru, Hind. 

Alcole, Aquardcnte, It. 
Spiritu di veno, . „ 

Alcohol is the spirituous portion of fermented 
liquors. By carefully distilling fermented liquors, 
the alcohol, mixed with a portion of water, can 
be separated, forming a product, the properties of 
which differ according to the substances from 
which it is derived. Thus the fermented and 
distilled juice of the grape yields brandy ; that of 
the sugar-cane, rum ; the wort of barley, which 
is generally malted for the purpose, yields whisky 
and spirits of wine ; and rice produces arrack. 
In the East Indies, the fermented juice of the 
various palms, jagari or raw sugar, and mahwa 
flowers are all largely used. The quantity of 
alcohol in wine, beer, etc., is very variable. 
Port and sherry and some other drying wines 
contain from 19 to 26 per cent, of alcohol ; 
the lighter wines of France and Germany about 
12 to 18 per cent. Strong ale contains about 10 per 
cent. ; and ordinary spirits, as brandy, gin, and 
whisky, 40 to 50 per cent., or occasionally more. 
One or other of these products has from time 
inunemorial been used by all races, as at present 
amongst most Asiatics, along with their food. — 
Tvmlinson; Faulkner. 


A. verticillata, Roxb. \ Malika jhanji, . . Beno. 

A herbaceous plant of Europe and Bengal, with 
small white flowers. — Voigt ; Roxb. 

ALE or Beer is brewed at the Neilgherries, and 
in the stations on the Lower Himalayas, and 
this branch of industry is increasing, but the 
bulk of that used is imported from England. In 
the five years 1874-5 to 1879-80, from 1,066,847 
to 1,481,698 gallons were annually imported, 
value up to Rs. 34,98,488. The bitter ales manu- 
factured at Burton-upon-Trent are extensively 
imported into India. It is probable that their 
fame has been acquired by the use of the best 
materials, and employing great care in the process. 
The Burton ales speedily become bright and clear, 
never require finings to be employed, and are fit 
for use almost as soon as brewed. This is no 
doubt owing to the depurating power of lime, to 
the presence of which in the Burton water, and 
its precipitation during tlie boiling, the trans- 

f>arency and brightness of the beer are attributable, 
ieera of Messrs. AUsop and Sous and of Messrs. 
Bass and Co. contain only a moderate amount of 
alcohol, and an unusually large quantity of bitter 
extract, consisting of the extract of hops. From 
the pure and wholesome natixre of the ingredients 
employed, the moderate proportion of alcohol 
present, and the very considerable quantity of 
aromatic anodyne bitter derived from hops, con- 
tained in these beers, they tend to preserve the 
tone and vigour of the stomach, and conduce to 
the restoration of the health of that organ wheu 
in a state of weakness or debilitv. These bitter 




beers differ from all other preparations of malt, 
in containing a smaller amount of extractive 
matter, thus being less viscid and saccharine, 
and consequently more easy of digestion ; they 
resemble, indeed, from their lightness, a wine of 
malt rather than any ordinary fermented infusion, 
and they are strongly recommended by the medical 
profession. — Hassal, 448 ; Trade Statement ; Bal- 
four, Coinmercial Productn. 

ALECTORIA JUBATA, Kek Kieo, Ramree. 
This lichen is gelatinous, and is eaten by the 
natives with rice. 

ALELLU. Hind. Cuscuta refiexa. 

ALEPI, a seaport town on the coast of Malabar, 
27 miles from Cochin. It is situated in Travancore, 
and is a depot for the timber from the territories 
of the raja. Its lighthouse is in lat. 9° 29' 40" N., 
and long. 76° 18' 50" E. Its native name is 
Alapalli. — Horshurgh ; Buist. 

ALEPPO, in Syria, the ancient Berroea, is styled 
by the natives Haleb-us-Shabha. It is 76 miles 
inland from Iskanderoon, in lat. 36° 11' 26" N., 
and long. 37° 5' 23" PL, and from Antioch by the 
road 90 miles. It probably first rose into import- 
ance on the destruction of Palmyra, to which it 
succeeded ; and, like Palmyra, it was admirably 
situated for the purposes of trade, so long as the 
communication with the east by the desert was 
the only route known, and the productions of 
Persia and India were brought hither by caravans 
from Baghdad and Bassora. Aleppo stands in an 
open plain, encompassed at the distance of a few 
miles by low hills ; and the city is about three 
miles and a half in circumference, surrounded by 
walls of hewn stone, about thirty feet high and 
twenty broad. The population is composed of 
Turks, Arabs, Christians of all denominations, and 
Jews. The warlike Khind race in Beluchistan are 
said to have been brought from Aleppo. — Taylor's 
Saracen, p. 213 ; Robinson's Travels, ii. p. 253. 

ALEPPO SENNA, Cassia obovata. 

ALETHI. Hind. Trianthemacrystallinum, Fa^Z. 

from Nepal to Japan, also in Bourbon. "Wood 
durable and beautiful. Oil of seeds, an excellent 
varnish. — Von Mueller. 


Camirium cordifolium, 

Tui-Tui, .... AUST. 
Alkola, J'aphal of Bombay. 

Juglans camirium, Lour. 
Aleur. Moluccana, Willde. 

Akrot, . . . . 
Jangli Akrot, . 
Hijli Badam, . 
Kamari, Kamira, 
Tiaily, . '. . , 
Nattu Akrotu, . 
Woodooga, . . , 






Belgaum wahiut, . 
Country walnut, . 
Candlenut tree, . 
Lambang nut tree, 
Molucca nut tree, . 

This is a prolific, large-sized, ornamental tree, a 
native of the Society Islands, from which it was 
introduced into India ; and a variety of it, the A. 
Moluccensis, known to the Javanese under the 
name of Kamira, is well known in Australia, A. 
triloba is now growing in several parts of India, 
China, the Moluccas, Java, the Malay Islands, 
Ceylon ; plentiful near Hyderabad of the Dekhan, 
in the southern Mahratta country about Belgaum, 
in Bengal, and Assam. Almost all parts of it 
are covered with a farinaceous substance, and a 
gummy substance exudes from the seeds (as also, 
it is said, from the tree itself), which is chewed 
by the natives of Tahiti and Australia. The 
quality of its wood is indifferent. In Java it is 

grown as a shade to the nutmeg plantations, and 
the cultivated nut is eaten as a fruit ; the flavour 
closely resembles that of the almond. The small 
globular rough fruit of the uncultivated variety 
produces a nut remarkable for the quantity of 
clear oil it contains, which is collected in large 
quantities by the inhabitants of the Moluccas, 
and is in general use for burning in lamps. In 
fact it there supersedes cocoa-nut oil, which ij 
scarce. In Tahiti tissues are made from the 
bark ; but its most valuable product is its fruit, 
which is roundish, two-celled, each containing 8 
nut resembling in flavour the filbert or Englisl 
walnut. In Polynesia, the nuts, strung on i 
thin slip of bamboo, are burned as a candle. Thej 
are considered aphrodisiac in the Moluccas ; bul 
this can only be from the oil they contain, and 
like other similar fruits, are apt to purge and pro- 
duce colic, unless roasted, or kept for a year 
About 50 per cent., or, according to Simtnonds 
31|^ gallons, of the nut yield 10 gallons of a use- 
ful, fine, clear lamp oil. In the Sandwich Islands 
the oil is employed as a mordant for their vege 
table dyes, and the root affords a brown dye foi 
their native cloth. — Roxh. Fl. Ind. ; Hog ; Voigt 
Exhib. of 1862 ; Jaxm Cat. ; JMadr. Ex. Jur 
Reports; Jaffrey ; Riddell; Useful Plants; Sim 
monds' Commercial Products; Agri. Hort. Soc. o^ 
India, viii. p. 220. 

ALEXANDER of Macedon, styled the Great 
was the son of Philip ii. of Macedon, and o 
Olympian, daughter of Neoptolemus. He wa 
born at Pella B.C. 356. After settling affair: 
at home, he directed his arms to the east, an( 
in the course of eleven years made such im 
pression on the countries he overran or marche( 
through, that to this day his name, cities tha 
he founded, and dynasties to which he gave origin 
continue. He succeeded his murdered fathei 
Philip, B.C. 338 ; crossed the Hellespont in 334 
fought the battle of Issus in 333 ; took Tyre 332 
conquered Egypt in 331, and the same year de 
feated Darius at Gangamela ; — the following year 
330, Darius was murdered by Bessus at Bactrisl 
During 329 he was engaged in Bactria and th 
modern Afghanistan. Alexander crossed the Indi" 
into India in 326, reached Susa in 325, an 
Babylon the same year, and in 323 he die 
at the age of 33, after a reign of 13 years. TI 
lasting impression of his successes has doubi 
less sprung from various causes. His mode < 
settling the Egyptian government is mentionc 
by Sharpe as the earliest instance that history hj 
recorded of a conqueror governing a provin« 
according to its own laws, and allowing the religic 
of the conquered to remain as the establislj 
religion of the state ; and the length of time t| 
the GrKCO-Egyptian monarchy lasted, and t 
splendour with which it shone, prove the wisdo 
and humanity of the founder. This example b 
been copied, with equal success, in Dutch ai 
British colonial, and Indian governments ; but i 
do not know whether Alexander had any prec 
dent to guide his views. Except Alexander, i 
the great conquerors of Hindustan have spriu 
from provinces towards Tartary and the northes 
parts of Persia, and they have generally penetrat 
into India by the way of Kabal, Kaudahi 
Ghazni, and the Panjab, until the British came 

Major Rennell apprehends that Alexander ne^ 
greatly deviated from the direct line of marc 




fom the foot of Caucasus, or the range of nioun- 
lins called Hindu Koh, to the Indus near Puck- 
oli, or Peucelaotis. That his route from the 
E. coast of the Caspian Sea lay through Aria, 
lAranga, etc., to Arachosia, or the modern Herat, 
larang, and Arokhage, to the S. of Kandahar; 
tience he marched towards Kabal and Ghazni, 
roesing mountains covered with snow; and in order 

chastise Bessus, who had fle<l into Bactria, he 
Msed the mountains between Ghorbund and 
tamian, at whose foot geographers have placed 
lie Paroi)aniisan Alexandria, the first station in 
is future march towards the Cophenes. 
The city that Alexander built in his route east- 
ards towards the Indus he gave his own name to, 
at its name and its particular site have been lost. 

was called Alexandria, and was near the Cau- 
igus, and Hennell points to Bamian as the quarter 

which he would place it. General Ferrier 
mentions that the fortified town of Herat is sup- 
osed to have been founded by Alexander the 
reat, but he does not quote his authority. This 
ortion of India was then partitioned amongst a 
reat number of petty princes, independent of, 
id often in hostility with, each other. At this 
itical period, two of the most powerful of these 
ilera, named Taxiles and Porus, were at war, 
id the former, in order to crush his adversary, 
ined the invader. The territory of Taxiles 
ppears to have been the Doab between the Indus 
id the Hydaspes (Jhelum), that of Porus, who 
lid subdued most of his neighbours, extended as 
IT as the Hyphasis (Beas). Alexander had an 
•my of 136,000 men, 15,000 being cavalry, with 
great number of elephants. This force included 
large body of hardy mercenaries from the hills 
est of the Indus and north of the Pan jab, under 
chief named Ambisares. At the head of this 
>rce he marched to the Hydaspes, which he 
^ached in the month of August. On the other 
eft) side of the river, Porus was posted with 
),000 infantry, 4000 cavalry, 200 elephants, and 
K) war chariots. Alexander, finding the river 
ach swollen by the rains, sent for boats from 
16 Indus, which were brought overland, in the 
eanwhile amusing Porus by marching and 
>unter-marching his troops along the banks of 
M river, as if searching for a ford. On the 
rrival of the boats, he passed the river at Jalalapur, 
14 miles from Attock, where it is, in the rainy 
Hon, upwards of a mile broad, and never ford- 
Ue. In the battle which ensued, 326 B.C., Porus 
'M defeated and taken prisoner. It was at this part 
f the Hydaspes, on its right or western bank, that 
le conqueror, in commemoration of this event, 
uilt the cities of Nicsea and Bucephalia. He built 

third city on the Acesines. After the defeat 
Porus, Alexander marched across the doab 
Btween the Hydaspes and the Acesines (Chenab), 
HMribed as a flat and rich country, through the 
initories of Porus, passed the latter river, and 
ivanced to the Hydraotes (Ravi), where he 
iptured Sangala, represented to be a strong city 
f the Cathaji (the modern Cathi), the most 
lUant and skilful in war of all the Indians. A 
ady of the Cathsei was encamped before the city, 
Iwh Alexander, having defeated them in a 
battle, took and razed. Sangala is sup- 
Med to have been situated to the south-east of 
and Burnes states that there are the 
of a city answering to Sangala in the 

vicinity south-cast of that capital. From henoe 
the conqueror marched to the Hyphusis (lieaa), 
whether above, or, as more probable, below, Itn 
junction with the Sutlej, is not quite clear. HIh 
historians do not mention the latter river, and they 
allude to a desert beyond the Hypliasis, which 
exists below the conflux of the two rivers. Hero 
the soldiers received such appalling accounts of 
the deserts they would have to pass, and of the 
countless hosts assembled to oppose their progress, 
that, struck with consternation, an<l exhaust^ by 
fatigue and suffering, they refused to march 
farther, and Alexander was constrained to give 
orders for their return. Some traditions of Alex- 
ander exist in the Rajput state of Bikanir; a 
ruin near Dandosir is said to be the remains of the 
capital of a prince of this region, punished by the 
Macedonian conqueror. 

This, therefore, was the extreme limit of Alex- 
ander's progress eastward. He recrosscd succes- 
sively the Hydraotes, the Acesines, and the 
Hydaspes, where a large fleet had been prepared 
for a descent of that river. The boats, 800 in 
number, were built of timber procured from the 
mountains, and Burnes says that in none of the 
other Panjab rivers are much trees (Deodar, a 
kind of cedar) floated down, nor do there exist 
such facilities for constnicting vessels, as in the 
Jhelum. About the middle of November, B.C. 325, 
Alexander, who had been in the field since May, 
therefore all through the rainy season, embarked 
on board one of his vessels, and whilst the fleet, 
which he commanded in person, dropped down 
the stream, two divisions of the army marched 
along the Hydaspes, and a third along the 
Acesines, to the confluence of these streams, where, 
after a voyage of five days, the fleet arrived much 
shattered. The army was now distributed into 
four divisions, three of which marched at some 
distance from each other in parallel columns, 
whilst the fourth, under the king, advanced 
inland from the river, to drive the Malli into the 
other divisions. On arriving at the junction of 
the Hydraotes with the Acesines, the king had 
several combats with this tribe, whose capital he 
took, pursuing them to the oi/her side of the 
Hydraotes. In these conflicts Alexander exhibited 
much courage, exposing himself to great personal 
danger, and was severely wounded with an arrow. 
Thence he marched into the countries of king 
Musicanus, king Oxycanus, the Sindomanni (the 
Sindians) and other districts on the Ijower Indus. 
Subsequently, deputies from the Malli and the 
Oxydraceai came with presents to solicit peace, 
alleging, by way of excuse for their obstinate 
resistance to the Greeks, their strong love of liberty. 

Descending the Indus, Alexander arrived at 
Patala (Tatta, but Wood prefers the site of Jerk), 
'where the river divides into two great branches,' 
but changes since preclude identification now. 
According to Arrian, Patala, in the Indian tongue, 
signified the same as delta in the Greek. Alex- 
ander proceeded down one of the branches 
(probably the Piti) to the sea, and afterwards 
returned to Patala, whence, leaving his fleet with 
Nearchus, he inarche<i with his army to Persia, by 
way of Gedrosia (Mekran) and Caramania (Ker- 
man), in September, B.C. 826. On quitting Patala 
on the Indus, he proceeded with his army through 
the dominions of the Arabita;, a part of the pre- 
sent province of Lus, and in it forded the Arabia 




(Poorally) river. To the westward of that diminu- 
tive stream, he traversed the territory of the 
Oreitse, and thence, crossing over one range of 
mountains, he entered the province of Gedrosia 
(Mekran), in which his troops were thinned by 
the accumulated hardships of thirst, famine, and 
fatigue. This march was incontestably to the 
southward of the Brahuik chain ; and had the 
Greek historians been even less explicit, the nature 
of the country alone must have decided any 
question that might have arisen on this point. 
Crateras, who was charged with the guidance of 
the heavy baggage and invalid soldiers by Ara- 
chosia and Drangiana, as certainly marched far 
to the northward. 

The political state of the country at that period 
may be discerned even in the loose notices left 
us. Arrian states that there was then a family 
enjoying supreme dominion in India, which de- 
rived their pedigree from Budseus (probably 
Buddha), whose creed extended widely over this 
and the neighbouring countries down to the fifth 
century of our era. The authority of this para- 
mount Indian sovereign, however, did not reach 
the Pan jab, which was severed into separate king- 
doms and principalities. That of Musicanus, we 
are told, was governed by Brahmans ; and Burnes 
conjectures that the powerful kingdom of Alore, 
or Arore, which extended from the ocean to Kash- 
mir, and from Kandahar to Kanouj, ruled by 
Brahmans so late as the seventh century, was the 
kingdom of Musicanus. The Oxydraceae (probably 
the Kutchi), and the Malli (no doubt the people 
of Multan, which is still called Malli-than, ' the 
country of the Malli') — who, though generally at 
variance, combined against Alexander, and brought 
against him an army of 90,000 men — seem to have 
possessed much power in the south-western parts 
of the Panjab. Besides those nations, the Greek 
writers mention seven independent states iu the 
country of the Five Rivers. 

Alexander had not time to establish any system 
of government in the vast provinces he conquered 
in the east. Where his authority was acknow- 
ledged, it was exercised through military com- 
manders, who, after his death (323 B.C.), became, 
by the force of circumstances, supreme. Seleucus, 
governor of Babylon, not only secured the 
country, but extended his power, by the destruc- 
tion of his competitors, as far as the Indus, 
which he crossed B.C. 325 to attack Sandrocottus 
(identified with the Chandragupta of Indian his- 
tory), who had expelled the Greek garrisons from 
the Panjab, which was thus restored to native 
rule. Seleucus is said to have passed the Hesudrus 
(Sutlej), and, after gaining several victories over 
Sandrocottus, being suddenly recalled to defend 
his own territories, to have concluded a treaty of 
peace with that monarch, to whom he ceded the 
Panjab and valley of the Indus as far as Pesha- 

General Ferrier thinks that Alexander was 
probably at Begram, 25 miles north, 15 east from 
Kabal, the ruins of which are described in a 
memoir by Mr. Masson, in the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Calcutta, vol. v. p. 1. Burnes, 
Masson, and Ferrier met with tribes who claim a 
Grecian descent. According to Burnes, the Mir 
of Badakhshan, the chief of Darwaz m the valley 
of the Oxus, and the chiefs eastward of Darwaz, 
who occupy the province"? of Kulab, Shughnan, 

and TVakhan north of the Oxus, also the hill states 
of Chitral, Gilgit, and Iskardo, are all held by 
chiefs who make that claim. The whole of 
the princes who claim descent from Alexander 
are Tajaks, who inhabited this country before it 
was overrun by Turki or Tartar tribes. The 
Tajak, now Mahomedans, regard Alexander as a 
prophet. The Badakhshan family are fair, but 
present nothing in form or feature resembling the 
Greek. They are not unlike the modern Persian, 
and there is a decided contrast between them, the 
Turk, and Uzbak. 

His career was marked by the cruel murders of 
friends and conquered opponents, over and above 
the usual severities of war. He razed Thebes 
to the ground, B.C. 335 ; he hanged 2000 citizens 
of Tyre, and sold the survivors, women and chil- 
dren, as slaves, B.C. 332 ; Philotas was destroyed, 
B.C. 330; and same year Parmenion in Ecbatana 
was assassinated ; B.C. 329-328 he cut off the ears 
and nose of Bessus, and sent him to Ecbatana to 
be killed by his countrymen ; the philosopher 
Callisthenes was hanged B.C. 327, and in 328 
he slew Clitus, his ofiicer, with a spear, these two 
having opposed his claim to be a god. — Smith'' s 
Bio. Die; Sharpe's Egypt; Ouseley^s Travels; 
Chatfield's Hindustan ; Pottinger^s Travels ; Fer- 
rier' s Journal; History of the Afghans ; Malcolm's, 
Persia ; History of the Panjab ; RennelVs Memoirs ;i 
Riches Kurdistan; Elphinstone's India; BurnesA 
iii. p. 84 ; Annals of liajasthan, ii. p. 186 ; Cun-i 
ningham's Ancient Geography of India. \ 

ALEXANDRIA in Egypt was founded by< 
Alexander the Great, B.C. 332, and it became of 8o[ 
much importance, that, in the time of the Roman 
emperors, it was second only to Rome itself ir 
extent and population. In a.d. 638, it was be- 
sieged and taken by the khalif Omar, by whoa 
the celebrated Alexandrian library is said to hav( 
been destroyed. It declined from that time, anc 
when the French took possession of it in Julj 
1798, the population was reduced to about 7000 
Since the time (a.d. 1830) that the route t( 
India became directed by the Red Sea and Sue; 
to Alexandria, this city has again risen to grea 
prominence, and become filled by mercantile mei 
from Europe, Asia, and America. In 1878, it 
population was estimated at 850,000, but th< 
consulates from Europe have erroneously per 
mitted many to attach themselves ; Italians wer 
30,000, and the Jews 10,000. The ruler has th 
title of Khedive. 

ALEXANDRIA apud Caucasum, was a cit 
built by Alexander in his route towards Indis] 
and Rennell points as its site to the quarter cj 
Bamian, but he considers that it is impossible t' 
guess its particular situation. At all events, li 
says (pp. 170, 171) the proximity of Alexandria It 
the northern mountains is a fact which Arria; 
impresses very strongly. Vigne thinks that tl 
pretensions of Bamian to be the Alexandria a^ 
Caucasum are far from being without foundatioiit 
and he remarks that, if Bamian be Alexandria Sj 
Caucasum, he would identify Begram with Nicae; 
or perhaps Kabal is Nicsea, as both places lie 
the route from Bamian on the high road to Indi 
and in the Caucasus. Masson and Mr. Prinsc 
suppose the modern Beghram, 30 miles from Kab 
(25 miles in direct distance), to be the anciei 
Alexandria apud Caucasum. Burnes thinks it 
the town of Bamian, and this opinion is support! 





)y Ritter, Gosselni, and some others. But Mnason 
>>mnrkB that Bainian lies north of the Hinchi 
ICnsh, and Alexander is supposed by some to have 
niorod to the soutli of that mountain. — Masnon''ii 
Jhumeff.s, ii. p. 150, 383) ; Vif/ne's Personal 
Narrative, p. 198; lienneirs Memoirs, p. 170. 

ALEXANDRIAN ERA is that of the Seleucidro. 
f t commences with the entrance of Seleucus Nicator 
nto Babylon, n.c. 811 years 4 months. It was once 
Jiuch used, especially by the eastern Greeks, and 
:iy the Jews, who call it the era of contracts, 
'rom their having been compelled by the Mace- 
ionian kings to adopt it in civil processes. It is 
itill used by some of the Arabs. The Arabic 
lame for it, Tarikh-zu-ul-Karnain, the era of the 
.wo-homod, seems to have given rise to the 
nipposition that it began with Alexander, whose 
reil-known claims to descent from Jupiter 
Vmmon, occasioned his being represented with 
lorns, as was Seleucus also, from some cause not 
o fully ascertained. — Riches Kurdistan, ii. 75. 

oophyllum, Liiin. Alexandrian Senna is Cassia 
«utifolia. C. lanceolata, G. officinalis. Alex- 
aidrian Trefoil, Trifolium Alexandrinum. 

Jnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
:)mpress of India, in the year 1858 (Ist Novem- 
•or) assumed, from the English East India Com- 
tiiny, the direct government of British India, and 
a. A.D. 1876 (28th April) took the title of 
•Impress of India. At the latter date there were 
a alliance 601 rulers, chiefs, and feudatories, with 
lie titles of maharaja, maharawal, raja, rana, rawal, 
ae, rao, nawab, and other Hindu, Mahomedan, 
nd Malay forms. In the proclamation issued on 
lie 1st November 1858, the people were assured 
»y Queen Victoria of religious freedom, and the 
ree and impartial right to employment. 

ALFA. Ar., Hind., Pehs. — A peculiar form of 
Idrt worn by the Rafai fakirs. See Darvesh. 

AL-FATIHAH, literally ' the preface,' is the 
itle of the first chapter of the Koran. 

ALFAZ - ul - ADWIAH, a Persian book of 
Dedicine, compiled by Muhammad Yakub-bin- 
fuBuf, physician to Shah Jahan, translated by 
•'. Gladwin. 

ALFOEREN, Alfour, or Arafura, inhabit the 
nterior of New Guinea, Ceram, and all the 
Ri^er islands in the south-eastern part of the 
ndian Archipelago ; Mr. Earl's inquiries satis- 
iod him that it was a term generally applied to 
ha inland inhabitants of these islands, to dis- 
ioguish them from the coast tribes, Alfores and 
^Uorias being terms used by the Portuguese in 
ndia precisely as the Spaniards called the ab- 
•rigines of America ' Indios,' or Indians, and 
he Mahomedan inhabitants of Sulu and Mindano, 
MoroB ' or Moors. The Portuguese term ' Al- 
orias' signifies free men, or manumitted slaves; 
mt the root ' f ora ' means out, or outside, and 
herefore the term Alfoers became naturally 
pplied to the independent tribes who dwelt 

nd the influence of their coast settlements. 

india; Negrito; Papuan. 
I GiE. Sea-weeds. 

k Puen, . . BuRH. I Leung-fan-tsai, . . Chin. 
-au, Tu-fa-tsai, Chin. | Awa-Nori, . . . Jap. 
■ Algie tribe of plants comprehends the sea- 
ls, lavers, and fresh-water submersed species 
ailar habits. Many of these are edible, and 


are largcily employed to burn into keln, and as 
manure for grass lands. lAininaria Raccharina, or 
the sugar sea-belt, is said to bo eaten by the Ice- 
landers, and is considered a great delicacy in 
Japan. Carrageen moss, Chondrus crispiw, is 
used in Ireland as an article of food, and is sold 
in Ix)ndon as a substitute for Iceland mo«8. A 
species of Gclidium has heensaidto be the substance 
collected by the swallows, to construct the edible 
nests of Java ; and several species of gelidium are 
made use of as food in the East. The lavers, 
species of Porphyra and Ulva, are eaten in Great 
Britain with vinegar, pepper, and oil. Cor- 
sicau moss is Gracillaria nclminthocorton and 
Laurencia obtusa; Ceylon moss is the Plocaria 
Candida ; Chinese moss is PI. tenax ; Australian 
moss is Eucheuma speciosum ; and Irish moss is 
the Chondrus crispus, and Gigartina mamillosa. 
Sphajrococcus lichenoides, Gigartina mollissiraa, 
and other species are also used. The sea-weeds 
commonly eaten by the Burmese are called Kyouk 
Puen ; they are the Gigartina spinosa, Grev., 
and the Ceylon moss of commerce, the Sphseror 
coccus lichenoides, Ag. Gigartina lichenoides is 
the Agar-agar of the Malays. Algae are found 
plentifully on the Japan coasts at low water, 
when they are gathered for food. There are 
chiefly two sorts of plants found growing upon 
the shells they take up ; one is green and narrow, 
the other reddish and broader. They are both 
torn off and assorted ; each sort is afterwards put 
into a tub of fresh water, and well washed. This 
done, the green sort is laid upon a piece of wood, 
and with a large knife cut small like tobacco, then 
again washed, and put into a large square wooden 
sieve, two feet long, where there is fresh water 
poured upon it, to make the pieces stick close 
together. Having lain there for some time, they 
take it up with a sort of a comb made of reed, and 
press it with the hand into a compact substance, 
squeezing the water out, and so lay it in the sun 
to dry. The red sort, which is found in much less 
quantity than the green, is not cut small ; other- 
wise they prepare it much after the same manner, 
and form it into cakes, which are dried and sold 
for use. A sea-weed called Awa Nori is gathered 
on the sea-beach of Japan ; when dried and roasted 
and rubbed down to a very fine powder, it is eaten 
with boiled rice, and sometimes put into miso-soup. 
Sea-weed is imported from abroad into China by 
junks, as well as collected on the Chinese coast ; the 
foreign sort is principally the leung-fan-tsai, from 
which agar-agar is made. In China, this sea- weed is 
eaten after merely cleaning, and stewing it in fat 
or oil. Almost all the plants of this onler yield 
soda and iodine on incineration. Until the early 
part of the 19th century, they were collected in large 
quantities, and burned for the sake of the 80<la 
yielded by the ashes. After separating the alkali, 
iodine was obtained from the mother liquors. 
Though the trade in kelp (the local name in 
Britaiu for sea-weed soda) has been nearly anni- 
hilated by the plan for making soda from common 
salt ; still sea-weed ashes constitute the sole source 
from which iodine is manufactured. The green 
conferva which floats on the salt-water lake near 
Calcutta readily yields iodine. It should be dried, 
burned, the ashes packed in crucibles, and heated 
to bright redness. The residue, treated with 
water, on evaporation yields a saline mass of 
muriate and sulphate of soda, chloride of potassium, 



and iodide of potassium and sodium. The natives 
of tiie districts at the base of the Himalayas use, 
in the treatment of goitre, a dried leaf ' brought 
from a great distance,' and which they call giliur 
ka putta, or goitre leaf. It much resembles frag- 
ments of a common f ucus. — Morrison ; Voigt, p. 
745 ; Hooker's Him. Jour. ii. 389 ; O'Sh., p. 671 ; 
Kogmpfer\t Hist, of Japan, ii. p. 618 ; Thimbercfs 
Travels, iii. p. 115 ; Cooke. See Agar-agar. 

ALGEBRA. The mathematicians Brahma 
Gupta, who lived in the 6th century, and Bhas- 
cara Acharya, in the 12th century, both drew 
their materials from Arya Bhatta, in whose time 
the science seems to have been at its height, 
and who, though not clearly traced further back 
than the fifth century, may, in Mr. Colebrooke's 
opinion, not improbably have lived nearly as 
early as Diophantus, the first Greek writer on 
algebra, that is, about a.d. 360. Algebra had 
attained the highest perfection it ever reached in 
India before it was known to the Arabians, and 
indeed before the first dawn of the culture of the 
sciences among the people. — Elphin. pp. 130, 133. 

ALGOSA. Beng. Cuscuta capitata. 

ALGUADA REEF, called also Sunken, also 
Drowned Island, from Alagada, drowned, is S.S. W. 
Sj leagues from Lychime or Diamond Island, off 
the Ava coast. It is a very dangerous reef of 
rocks, level with the sea, extending N. and S. 
about 1^ miles, with detached rocks around it at 
considerable distances, on some of which the sea 
breaks in bad weather. A lighthouse was erected 
by Captain Eraser of the Bengal Engineers. It is 
in lat. 15° 40' 15" N., long. 94° 16' 45" E., with a 
brilliant revolving light, and is built on a ledge 
of sandstone. The workmen were chiefly Chinese, 
and the materials were obtained from Calagouk 
or Curlew Island. The centre stone of the first 
course weighed 8.f tons. The centre stone of the 
second course was about 3^ tons. The foundation 
consists of large blocks of granite, which fit 
together with mathematical accuracy, and the 
work proceeds along lines of radii from centre to 
circumference in a succession of concentric rings. 

ALGUM-WOOD of Scripture is supposed to 
have been an Indian product, and assumed to 
be sandal-wood. The articles mentioned along 
with it — ivory, gold, apes, and peacocks — are indi- 
genous in India. Sandal-wood is indigenous on 
the coast of Malabar ; and von Mueller says one 
of its numerous names there, and in Sanskrit, is 
Vulguka (?), which Jewish and Phoenician mer- 
chants corrupted into Algura, and which in 
Hebrew was still further changed into Almug. 

ALHAGI MAURORUM. Tourne. Camel's thorn. 

A. mannifera, Desv. 
A. Nepalensium, D. C. 
Ononis spinosa, Hassclq. 
Al-gul, .... Arab. 
Juvasa ; Juivassa, Beng. 
Shinz Kubi, . . Brahui. 
Juwansa, . . . Hind. 
Gokan, .... Panj. 
Zoz; zozan; jojh, „ 

Manna Hebraica, D. Don. 
Hedyisarum alhagi, Linn. 

Jawan, Tamiya, . Panj. 

Shutur-khar, . . Pers. 

Khari Jhar, . . SiNDH. 

Kandero, ... ,, 

Girl karnika, . . , Tel. 

Tella-giniya chettu, ,, 
The Manna. 
Juwansa, . . . Hind. | Turunjabin, . . Hind. 
This shrub grows in the deserts of Egypt, Syria, 
Mesopotamia, Panjab, Afghanistan, Beluchistan, 
Sind, also in Gujerat, the Southern Mahratta 
country, at Monghir, Benares, and Dehli. It 
sends forth leaves and flowers in the hot season, 
when almost all smaller plants die, and afi^ords a 

grateful food for the camel in desert places. The 
manna, the turunjabin of the bazaars, exudes from 
its leaves and branches, but is secreted apparently 
only in Persia and Bokhara. Dr. Royle con- 
siders A. Nepalensis identical with the Alhagi 
maurorum, but states on strong grounds that no 
manna is secreted by it either in India, Arabia, 
or Egypt. Kandahar, Herat, Persia, and Bokhara 
seem its proper districts, and thence the turunjabin 
is imported into India. When pure it sells in 
Bengal for 10 rupees the seer. — Ainslie; Wellsted, 
i. p. 130 ; O'Shaughnessy ; Drs. Royle, Stewart, 
Voigt; Mignan's Travels, pp. 240, 241; Pot- 
tinger's Travels, p. 185 ; Enq. Cyc. Useful Plants. 

Arab. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the (three) 
worlds! A pious ejaculation by Mahomedans, 
which leaves their lips on all occasions of con- 
cluding actions. The words Al-Hamd-ul-Illah, 
Praise be to God, form the Mahomedan grace 
after meat. It was used, it is said, first by 
Abraham when the angels came to him. — Lane. 

AL HAMIR. This word appears to be derived 
from the Arabic root Hamar, which signifies to be, 
or become, red. It is said to be the translation of 
this word which gives the name of the Red Sea. 
Alhambra, one of the four wards of the ancient 
city of Granada, is deducible from the Arabic 
root Hamar. It was so called by the Moors from 
the red colour of its materials, al-hamra signify- 
ing a red house. — Mignan's Travels, p. 267. 

AL-HAMOWUT and Al-Hasaui. See Alamut; 
Assassin ; Hasan-ibn-Saba. 

ALL Tel. Linum usitatissimum. 

ALL Hind. A land measure of four Bisi; 
nine Ali = 1 Jula. — W. 

ALI, often styled Ali-ul-Ilahi, the divine, was 
the son of Abu Talib. He was the cousin and 
companion of Mahomed, also his son-in-law, he 
having married Fatima, Mahomed's only surviv- 
ing child ; he was the first of the family of the 
Koresh to adopt the new faith. He was born at 
Mecca in the 910th year of the Alexandriaa 
era, and in the 80th of the Arab era, called; 
the year of the Elephant. He was muchi 
esteemed by Mahomed, who called him the Door, 
also the Lion of God, and his sword is known as 
Zu-ul-Faqar. Mahomed is said by the Shiah sect 
to have declared Ali his successor at Ghadir-Khum, 
a watering-place for caravans between Mecca 
and Medina. Notwithstanding these claims, and 
his personal merits and valour, on the death of 
Mahomed in his 63d year, in a.d. 632, and in the 
eleventh year of the Hejira, Ali was not recognised 
as his successor, but Abu Bakr Avas so elected, and, 
after a reign of two years, was succeeded by Omar, 
who was assassinated in the 12th year of his reign. 
He was succeeded by Othman, and only then, m 
A.D. 656, by Ali. With All's rule severe politicSi 
convulsions continued, much the consequence of h| 
impolicy. On succeeding to the khalifat, he removed 
from office all who had been appointed by hi 
predecessors, and this was one source of all bil 
troubles. But some of the earliest arose from th« 
intrigues of Ayasha, and after these were settled^ 
the governor of Syria, Moawiyah ibn Abi Sofian, 
threw off his allegiance to Ali, and had himseli 
proclaimed khalif of the western provinces. An 
appeal to arms resulted in the defeat of Ali, after 
a desultory war of 102 days, and Ali then retired| 
to Kuffa in Chaldea, on the banks of the Euphrates ; 




Hicro ho was asftassinated in n nionqnp, A.r>. 660. | 
Hit) two sons, Hasan and Ilnsain, also died violent 
leatbs, and from the contcats for political power 
lereral religious sects aroeo ; and from the Shiah 
«ot have sprung the Ismaili, Dnise, Karmathian, 
Khariji, ana Mutawali. The people of Karund, in 
iie south of Persia, believe AH to be a god, and 
hey are styled the AH Ilahi, The shiah sect of 
IVfahomedans all consider that AH ought to have 
)een the first khalif. In Khorasan, AH is usually 
<tyled Shah-i-Mardan, ' King of men.' The 
Shajah sect and the entire Ismaili sects all wor- 
ship AH as an incarnate deity ; and the incarnation, 
n 1881, Aga Mahomed, a pensioner of the British 
;k)vernmeat, died at Bombay, and was succeeded 
tjy his son. — Ferrier^s Journey, p. 210; Palgrave; 

ALIA, or Elwa. Arab. Aloes. 

ALI ABBAS, styled Magus, a native of 
Persia, of considerable celebrity as a physician. 
He lived about the beginning of the 10th century. 
His principal work consists of abstracts of the 
loctrines and opinions of the Greek physicians. 
It was translated into Latin under the title of 
}pus Regium. 

ALI-AKU. Tel. Memecylon tinctorium, also 
tf. capitellatum edule and multiflorura. 

ALIAR. Panj. Dodonaea Burmanniana. 

AL-IDRISI, the patronymic of Abu Abdullah 
Mahomed. He was born at Ceuta, in Morocco, at 
liie end of thellth century. His ancestors inthe 9th 
ind 10th centuries had furnished a line of princes 
for Morocco and Malaga. He travelled in Europe, 
uid settled at Sicily, and wrote there his book of 
!|eography, which was translated by M. Jaubert. — 
Elliot's History of India. 

ALIF LAILA. Arab. Literally one thousand 
and one nights. The name of a celebrated book 
in the Arabic language, known in Britain as the 
Arabian Nights' Entertainments. The work was 
partly translated by Lane, and, about a.d. 1836, 
hy a Bengal civilian. The early English edition 
was imperfect and incorrect. 

ALIGARH, a town and district in the N.W. 
Provinces of India ; the town is in lat. 27° 65' 41" 
N., and long. 78° 6' 46" E. ; population, 58,639. 
The area of the district is 1964 square miles, 
■with a population of 1,073,833, chiefly Hindus, 
Jadun and Chauban liajputs, Bania, with Cha- 
mars (178,126), Jat, Lodha, Koli, Garaiya, and 
Ahir, and a number of Mahomedans (117,911). 
There are extensive patches of usar or barren land, 
eauscd by saline efflorescence. In the early part 
«£ the lUth century, the fortress of Aligarh was 
held by De Boigne and Perron, oflBcers of Sindhia. 
It was taken by Lord Lake, 4th September 1803. 
On the 20th May 1857, the sepoy garrison here 
mutinied and marched to DehU. The district is 
Btudded with indigo factories, which in 1873 
produced 3625 maunds, or 2663 cwts., of the 
marketable dye. 

ALI-GOL. Arab.-Hind. Amongst the Mah- 
ratta irregular infantry. — W. 

ALI - ibn - HUSAIN, ANSARI, of Baghdad, 
author of the Ikhtiar-i-Badii, a medical work 
Tnitten in the year 1392, shortly after the classic 
age of the Arab school of medicine. 

ALI ILAHI, a sect at the town of Karund, 
in the south of Persia, who worship AH as a god, 
and believe in his incarnation. They eat pork, 
drink fermented liquors, never pray, nor fast at 

the Ramaflan, an<l are cruel an*l savage in their 
habits. The sect has marks of Judaism, singu- 
larly amalgamate<l with Sabsaan, Christian, and 
Mahomedan legends. Pottinger aaya that their 
chief tenet is that AH is God. The Gurani tril>o 
of the Zagros chain, between Kernianshah and 
Zohab, are all of the AH- Ilahi sect, and tliey 
have a yearly festival, which they call the feast 
of the fowl. In every village, each head of a 
family brings a fowl to their shaikh or priest. So 
soon as these are cooked, the people assemble ; a 
cloth is thrown over the kettle, which is placed 
before the priest, who dips his hand into it, and, 
taking it out piecemeal, presents a morsel to each 
person present in rotation. The individual to 
whose share falls the head of the fowl, is supposed 
to be more favoured than the rest by AH during 
the course of the year. It has been suggested 
that the AH-Ilahi are of Jewish extraction, and 
that this ceremony of the fowl may proceed from 
the rabbinical custom of sacrificing a cock once 
a year on the eve of the day of atonement, 
although nowhere countenanced by the law of 
Moses. This similarity of custom between the 
Jews and the AH- Ilahi explains why the latter 
place the figure of a cock on the shrine of their 
holy men. Baron de Bode found several of these 
cocks, some carved in wood, others made of por- 
celain, placed on the top of the tombs of their 
several rir in the mountainous districts of Holivan 
and Zohab, among the Gurani tribes. — Palgrave; 
Pottinger^s Travels, p. 234; De Bocle's Travels; 
Taylor; Chatfield, Hindustan, 145; Sale's Prelim. 
Disc. Koran ; Hyde's Rel. Vet. Persar. See 
Chaldea ; Karund ; Kibla ; Haft Tan. 

ALILAT, the ancient Grecian name for tho 
Arabic deity, Al-Ilahat. — Sale's Koran. 

ALIM, wife of Wajid AH Shah, last king of 
Oudh. This queen wrote some delightful lines, 
and had the pretty takhallus of Akhtar or Star. 
She was a charming player on the sitar, or Indian 
guitar. She was aiive in 1881, living with her 
husband at Garden Reach. 

ALI MARDAN KHAN was the Pereian 
governor of Kandahar. In a.d. 1637 (a.ii. 1047), 
to escape the tyranny of his sovereign, the king 
of Persia, he gave up the place to Shah Jahan, 
and took refuge in Dehli. He was received with 
honour, and was afterwards, at different times, 
made governor of Kashmir and Kabal, and em- 
ployed in an invasion of Balkh and Badakhshan. 
He excited admiration at the court of Dehli by 
the skill and judgment displayed in his execution 
of pubHc works, of which the canal 120 miles 
long, from the river Jumna to Dehli, bears his 
name, and affords a proof. It was re-opened in 
1820 by Sir Charles Metcalfe Elphin. p. 513. 

ALI MASJID, a fort in the Khaibar pass, in 
lat. 84° 8' N., and long. 71° 20' E., 8 miles from 
its east entrance, 26 miles from Peshawar, and 69 
miles from Jalalabad. It has twice been taken and 
held by the British, — once in 1839, and again in 
1878. It is 2483 feet above the sea. The tribes 
in and near the pass are clans of the Afridi. 

ALINGI-MARAM. Tam. Alangium deca- 

ALISA. Tel. Dilivaria ilicifolia, Juss. 

ALISH. Hind. Rubus fruticosus. 

ALI SHER are khel or clans of Gadaizai 
Iliazai and Nurizai Iliazai Yusufzai, who in- 
habit Buner.— iV'GV. N.W. F. I. i. p. 92. 




Tseh-sie, .... Chin. 1 Shwui-sie, . . . Chin. 

This water plant grows in the Sech'uen pro- 
vince of China. Its fleshy rhizomes are used for 
several diseases, as also are its fruits. The rhi- 
zomes are said to stimulate the generative organs 
of women, and are believed to confer the power 
of walking on water. — Smith, p. 7. 

AL ISTAKHRI, the cognomen of Shaikh Abu 
Ishab, author of the Kitab ul Akalim. He was 
bom at Istakhr, or Persepolis. 

ALIVERDI KHAN, died a.d. 1756, and was 
succeeded in the office of nawab by his grand- 
nephew, Suraj-ud-Dowla, during whose admini- 
stration many of the British garrison and civi- 
lians of Calcutta perished in the guard-room, since 
known as the Black Hole. 

ALIVERI, garden cress seeds of Lepidiura 
sativum, used in medicine. — O^Shaughnessy. 

ALIWAL, a village in the Ludhiana district of 
the Panjab, in lat. 30° 67' N., long. 75° 37' E., 
on the left bank of the Sutlej. A great battle 
was fought here between the Sikhs and British, 
28th June 1846, Sir Harry Smith commanding. 
The British force of 10,000 men and 32 guns was 
opposed by Rungoor Singh with 20,000 men and 68 
guns, and the Sikhs were driven across the Sutlej. 

ALIYA, a branch of the Turkia subdivision of 
the travelling grain dealers called Binjara. 

ALIYA, Can. A son-in-law ; Aliya-Pattam, 

ALIZAI, an agricultural and pastoral clan 
of Kakar, said to number 10,000 fighting men. 
They are peaceably inclined, and large numbers 
come every winter to Dera Ghazi Khan to labour 
as wood and grass cutters and road makers. — 

ALIZAI, a clan of the Mahsud Waziri. See 
Waziri. Also a clan of the Daurani. 

AL-JABL. Arab. See Alamut ; Al-Hasan ; 

AL-JANNABI flourished in the 16th century. 

AL-JAZIRA. Akab. The doab of the 
Euphrates and Tigris, the ancient Mesopotamia. 

ALKALI, the Khar and Sajji Khar, Hind. 
Southern India is particularly rich in alkaline 
and earthy minerals, one source of which seems 
to be decaying granites : — 

Dhohee's Earth, a whitish grey, sandy efflor- 
escence, often covers miles of country where de- 
cayed white granite forms the surface soil ; this 
earth contains from 13 to 25 per cent, of crude car- 
bonate of soda. It begins to accumulate in the dry 
■weather, and immediately after the rains it can be 
scraped off the surface to the depth of 2 or 3 inches ; 
and by repeated boiling, and the addition of a little 
quicklime, the alkali is obtained of considerable 
strength. With a little care, very clean carbo- 
nate of soda can be obtained, fit for the manu- 
facture of toilet soap, white glass, and glazes for 
pottery. The Nellore, Cuddapah, Masulipatam, 
and Chingleput districts yield this earth in great 
quantities. Repeated attempts have been made 
to prepare from it Barilla for exportation, and 
very fair specimens have been exported at different 
times, but the moderate price of the carbonate of 
soda of Britain, prepared from sea salt, will always 
prevent this from being a remunerative article of 
export. Coloured frits, for bangle glass, have 
lately, however, become an article of export from 
the Madras Presidency. 

Nitrate of Soda in Bellary and Hyderabad 
forms a natural efflorescence. Its chief use is as 
a substitute for saltpetre for the manufacture of 
nitric and other acids and chemical substances. 
It is too deliquescent for making gunpowder, 
though it answers well for some descriptions of 

Muriate of Soda. — Mineral salt of very fair 
quality is obtained in Cuddapah, Mysore, Bellary, 
and Hyderabad, and occurs also in the Guntur 
and Nellore districts, almost invariably accom- 
panied by gypsum, magnesian limestone, sand- 
stone, sulphur, red and brown iron ores, and alum 

The Natron lake of Lunar, in lat. 20° N., 
furnishes several salts, viz. : 

Dalla, a carbonate of soda with a faint trace of 
muriate of soda, about 2 per cent, of impurities. 

Nimmak Dalla, nearly pure muriate of soda. 

Khappul, carbonate of soda, with water and 
about 2 per cent, of impurities. 

Pappree, nearly pure carbonate of soda. 

Mad-khar, an impure salt, containing carbonate 
of soda, 27 ; clay and sand, 30 ; water, about 17 ; 
common salt, 25 = 99. 

Bhooskee, a crude, impure substance containing 
neutral carbonate of soda, 26 ; insoluble matter, 
chiefly sand and clay, 58 ; water, 15 ; common 
salt, 2 = 100. 

Travertin contains carbonate of lime, 78 ; 
carbonate of magnesia, 4 ; insoluble matter, 
with oxide of iron, etc., 9 ; chloride of sodium, 
2 ; water, 3. 

ALKANET, Dyer's bugloss, orchanet. 
Ti-huieh, . . 


Orkanet, . . 

. . Ger. 


Ancusa, . . 

. . It. 


Arcaneta, . . 

. . Sp. 


Alkanet is the commercial term for a dyeing 
material, obtained from the genera Echium, 
Anchusa tinctoria, A. officinalis, and Lithosper- 
mum tinctorium. The root yields a fine red colour 
to oils, spirits of wine, lip salves, ointments, wood 
and cotton, and it is also used for colouring many 
of the beverages sold under the name of port- 
wine, and the corks used for the bottles in which 
this fluid is sold. Anchusa paniculata, A. undu- 
lata, and A. officinalis have been introduced into 
India, but no success recorded. In India, Red 
Saunders wood and Carthamus tinctoria take their 
place. — Tomlinson; Faulkner. 

AL-KARI, a class of Rajput cultivators in 
Naghm, named from their special cultivation of 
the Al tree, the Morinda citrifolia. 

AL-KAZWINI, the cognomen of Zakariya, son 
of Mahomed, son of Mahmud. He lived about 
the middle of the 13th century, and wrote the 
Asar ul Bilad, also the Ajaib ul Baldan. 

AL-KHALIK. Arab. An overcoat; a double- 
breasted dress, made with long sleeves, and to fit 
to the form as low as the hips, with skirts reaching 
down to the calf of the leg ; it is tied across the 
chest on the left side. It is worn by Mahomedans. 

AL-KORAN, the Koran. 

ALKUSHI. Beng. Mucuna prurita, Hook. 

ALLA of Sutlej. Mimosa rubicaulis, Lam. 

doo of the Singhalese ; a large tree, 30 to 40i 
feet high, of the Central Province of Ceylon, at 
an elevation of 1000 feet. The timber is in use for 
ordinary purposes ; a very tough fibre is obtained 
from the inner bark, which is used for a variety 




of purposes. — TTiwaites, Zeyl. ; Deddome, Fl. Sylv. 
pATt xxvi. p. SOr). 

ALLAH. Arab. Grod,thcIiOr(l, the Almighty. 
This word is said to bo dcriveil from thu Arabic 
Terb ' lah,' which means trembling and shining ; 
but ita relationship to the Hebrew el or eloah and 
aUhah has also been conjectured (Peschel). It 
may also bo an Arabic rendering of the Hebrew 
' el,' God ; the Persian khuda. It has also been 
supposed to have been derived from the Arabic 
word ilah, a deity, with the addition of the definite 
article al, — thus, al-ilah, the god, It was current as 
part of a name before the time of Mahomed. Allah 
Ta'alla Ls the most high God, lit. God (whose 
name) be exalted. Al Ilahat were the goddesses 
of the pagan Arabs. Mahomedans reverently use 
this holy name. They have 99 attributive names 
of God, and their rosaries have 99 beads, with a 
largo prolonged bead, making the 100th, for 
Allah, God, the Almighty. Amongst other of 
the attributes are the (al) — 

Rahman, the merciful. Adil, the just. 

Kahim, the clement. A«im, the great. 

Khalik, the creator. Uak, the true. 
Gbaifur, the pardoner. 

They will say Bismillah al daim, al abd, al abdi, 
In the name of God, the Eternal, the Everlasting. 
One of the most solemn oaths of the Afghans is 
by the name of God (Allah), three times repeated 
in three different forms, ' Wullah, Billah, Tillah.' 
— Sale\s Koran; Elphinxtone' s Cauhul, p. 21 L 

ALLAHABAD, a city in the N.W. Province^ 
of British India, which gives its name to a revenue 
division of 2747 square miles, comprising the dis- 
tricts of Allahabad, Banda, Cawnpur, Futtehpur, 
Hamirpur, and Jonpur, lying between lat. 24 47' 
and 25° 47' 15" N., and long. 81° 11^' and 82° 23' 
8" E. The city is the seat of the government 
of the N.W. Provinces and Oudh, and is built 
on the left bank of the Jumna, in a fork at the 
S.E. extremity of the doab formed by the con- 
fluence of the Ganges and Jumna, and 316 feet 
above the sea. It is in lat. 26° 26' N., and long. 
81° 65' 15" E., and is called Prayag by the people. 
Its population in 1872 was 103,473. The city 
565 square miles distant from Calcutta by 
taiL Its ancient name seems to have been Vaisali, 
from its founder Visala or Besa-biraja, one of the 
third Solar line of Vesala, of the Surya Vansa or 
Solar dynasty. The spot, being a sangara or 
junction, is considered sacred by the Hindus, who 
make pilgrimages to it ; and until the middle of 
the 19 th century it waa of frequent occurrence 
for pilgrims to renounce life by drowning them- 
selves there. With earthen pots fastened to 
them, they would wade into the water, or would 
go in a boat to the exact spot at which the rivers 
unite, and when the pots filled, they sank. In 
the fort at Allahabad is a tall slender mono- 
lith, with a tapering shaft erected by Asoka, 
B.C. 240. It has the edict of that monarch, and 
also a later inscription detailing the conquests 
of Samudra Gupta, about the second century after 
Christ. It was re-erected a.d. 1605 by Jahan- 
ffir, who has commemorated his accession in a 
Persian legend. Fah Hian, a.d. 414, and Hiwen 
Thsang, a.d. 629-645, visited this city. In 
historic times, Rajputs obtained a footing in this 
district They seem to have had their particular 
leaders, who, after locating themselves and their 
followers, displaced the original inhabitants by 

degrees, and extended thcroselrea as far aa thcj 
oould. Thus, in pargana Jhunai, the Bats Itajputa 
trace their origin to two leaden, viz. Bawani and 
jQtan. To the descendantsof the former the large 
estate of Mowaya waa allotted, and to those of 
the latter other nine estates. Some entire mouzahs 
in each of these taluks were subsequently assigned 
to different branches of the family, and the re- 
mainder held jointly by all. It waa invaded by 
Shahab-ud-Din Gori A.D. 11!)4, and from that time 
till the introduction of British rule, it remained in 
Mahomedan hands. During the mutiny and re- 
bellion of 1857-58, Sir Henry I^wrence and Sir 
James Outram strongly urged the importance of 
securing the safety of Allahabad, and it remained 
the sole city for a safe footing, being in the 
hands of the rebels only from June 6th to 11th. 
The populace opened the jails, and all officers, 
Europeans, and Eurasians were murdered ; but the 
fort was held by Sikhs till Colonel Neill arrived 
on the 11th of June, and on the 18th the station 
and town waa recovered. The Hindu and semi- 
Hinduized population of the district consists of 
Brahmans, Rajputs, Bania, Ahir, Chamars, 
Kayasth, Kurmi, with Mahomedans. Famines 
from drought occurred in 1770, 1783, 1803, and 
1837.— Vol. vi. p. 970-980 of the Bl. Ax. Hoc. 
Jour. ; Travels of a Hindu; Imperial Gazetteer. 

ALLAH BAND, a bank of earth mixed with 
sand and shells, near the southern frontier of Sind, 
which was upheaved by an earthquake in 1819, 
across the Purana branch of the Indus. It is 50 
miles long, and in places 16 miles broad. In 1826 
the Indus overflowed and breached the bund, the 
waters expanding into a vast lake, since merged 
into the Runn of Cutch. 

ALLAKAPPO, one of the eight places at 
which relics of Buddha were deposited. See 
Buddha ; Tope. 


A. Aublettii, Pohl., Don. 
A. verticellata, Desf. 
A. grandiflora, Lam. 

Orelia grandiflora, Aribl. 
A. oenotherifolia, PoU. 
A. angustifolia, ,, 

P'ha yung-b'han, BURH. | Arali, . . . ALaleau 

A native of Surinam, the WeeX, Indies, Guiana, 
Brazil, introduced into Indift from Guiana in 
1803. The leaves, a valuable cathartic, used 
especially in painter's colic. In too large doses, 
violently emetic and drastic This shrub has very 
large bright-yellow fragrant flowers and fruits 
throughout the year. It might take a place in the 
medicines of European hospitals. — Useful Plants; 
liiddell; Jaffrey; O'Shaugh. i>.4iS', Voigt, p. 52S. 

ALLAMA PRABHU," the guru or spiritual 
adviser of the elder Basava, who was concerned 
in the revolution at Kalyan, in which the king 
Bijala was slain. He is regarded by the Vira 
Saiva as an incarnation of Siva. He travelled 
much in the Peninsula. The Prabhu Longalila 
was written in his praise. — Garrett. 

ALLAM PARWA, in lat. 12° 16' N., and long. 
80° 3' E., a small village on the coast, 65 miles 
distant from Madras. It was formerly a place of 
some note, and in 1750 was given to Dupleix by 
Muzaffar Jang ; it was taken from the French in 
1760 by Sir Eyre Coote. Formerly famed for 
its oyster beds. 

Tel. Andropogon nardus? RottL, Ains. 116; 
A. iwarancusa, BL? The Sanskrit syn. Guch'ch 
signifies ' tofta,' a peculiarity of A. iwarancusa. 




ALLARD, M., a French captain who travelled 
through Central Asia, and afterwards served 
Ranjit Singh, whose armies he brought into a 
high state of discipline. 

ALLAREE. Tam. An eel. 

AL-LAT, Al-Azzah, and Manah, were three 
female deities of the pre - mahomedan Arabs, 
who worshipped also stones, trees, and shapeless 
masses of dough. Al-Azzah was worshipped 
under the form of a tree, Manah of a large stone, 
Yaguth of a lion, Sawa of a woman, Yauk of a 
horse, and Nasr of an eagle. Al-Lat was with 
the tribe of Thakeef, in the town of el-Taif ; it 
was destroyed by Mahomed's order. Al-Azzah 
was the idol of the tribes of Koresh and Kinaneh ; 
it was destroyed by Khalid. — Sale's Koran. See 

ALL AW A. Heb. ? Hind. A beltain fire or 
bonfire raised by Mahomedans in the Maharram, 
in a pit in front of the Ashur Khana. Men dance 
around it, shouting, Ya, Ali! ya, Hasan! ya, 
Husain! Dulha! Dulha! — Meaning, Oh! Ali; 
oh ! Hasan ; oh ! Husain ; bridegroom, bridegroom ! 
Also a hole dug within doors or out, over which 
they wash their hands and throw refuse into. 

ALLEKO-ZYE, a small Afghan tribe of the 
Daurani section. See Afghan ; Daurani. 

poem, the comedy of the princess Ali Arasani, 
who is said to have married Arjuna. 

near Bangalore, much resorted to by women who 
crave for children. — W. E. 

ALLIGATOR, the aligador of the Spaniards, or 
cayman, is a name commonly but erroneously ap- 
plied to the crocodiles of the Nile, the Ganges, and 
other eastern rivers. Dean Trench in his Study 
of Words (p. 125) says, ' When the alligator was 
first seen by the Spanish discoverers, they called 
it, with a true insight into its species, " el ella- 
garto," or the lizard, as being the largest of the 
lizard species to which it belonged.' Alligators 
are wholly confined to tropical and Southern 
America, where they are styled also cayman, 
jacare. The alligator closely resembles the croco- 
dile, but has characters sufficiently distinct to have 
constituted a new genus. See Crocodile. 

ALLIGATOR PEAR. The Avocado, or subal- 
tern's butter tree, is the Persea gratissima. 

ALLIKALANGU. Tam. RootofNymphsealotus. 

ALLIKI or Gitti-Gadda. Tel. Scirpus dubius. 

ALLILU KAI MARA. Can. Terminalia 

ALLIPAYARU. Tel. Grewia laevigata, Vahl. 

ALLIPUR, four miles from Calcutta, the 
station town of the Twenty-four Parganas. 

ALLITERATION is much practised by eastern 
races, alike with the names of places, of people, 
and of things. The use of a double assonant 
name, sometimes to express a dual idea, but often 
a single one, is a favourite oriental practice. 
Urjun and Surjun were brothers of Goga, lord 
of Durd Darehra, in the wastes of Rajwara. 
Chin and Machiu is a phrase analogous to Hind 
and Sind, used to express all India ; and Gog and 
Magog (Yuj and Majuj, Ar^b., Peks.) is applied 
to the northern nations of .Asia ; Sind and Hind 
are, however, capable of sepaj^ation. As far back 
as Herodotus, we have Crophixand Mophi, Thyni 
and Bithyni ; the Arabs have converted Cain and 
Abel into Kabil and Habil, Saul and Goliah into 

Talut and Jalut, Pharaoh's magicians into Risam 
and Rejam, of whom the Jewish traditions had 
made Jannes and Jambres ; whilst Christian 
legends gave the names of Dismas and Jesmas to 
the penitent and impenitent thieves in the gospel. 
Jarga and Narga was the name given to the 
great circle of beaters in the Mongol hunting 
matches. In geography we have numerous in- 
stances of the same thing, e.g. Zabulistan and 
Kabulistan, Koli Akoli, Longa Salanga, Ibir 
Sibir, Kessair and Owair, Kuria Muria, Ghuz and 
Maghuz, Mastra and Castra (Edrisi), Artag and 
Kartag (Abulghazi), Khanzi and Manzi (Rashidi), 
Iran and Turan, Crit and Mecrit (Rubruquis), 
Sondor and Condor (Marco Polo), etc. The 
name of Achin in Sumatra appears to have becu 
twisted in this spirit by the Mahomedan mariners, 
as a rhyme to Machin ; the real name is Atcheh. 
In everyday conversation in India, such allitera- 
tions occur as Choki oki, a chair ; Kursi gursi, a 
chair ; Chavi-gavi, a key ; Keli-geeli, a key ; Bach 
kach, children. — Yule, Cathay; Pers. Obs. 

ALLIUM, a genus of plants, largely cultivated 
in Indian gardens, and, alike by Europeans and 
natives, extensively used in food, both in soups 
and as vegetables. Of this genus Voigt names 
23 species, but a notice here of the shallot, the 
onion, the leek, and garlic will suffice. The 
species are all remarkable for having, in a greater 
or less degree, the odour of garlic, and for the 
agreeable stimulating effects that accompany it. 
. For this reason some of them have been objects 
of cultivation from the highest antiquity. The 
Welsh onion, A. fistulosum, used in soups and 
salads, and the Spanish shallot, A. ophioscordion, 
have not been cultivated in India. 

Khyet-thwon-nee, Burm. I Piaz, Hind* 

Hi-ai, Hi-ai-tu, . Chin. I Gandan, Gandana, Pusht. 
The shallot is a native of Asia Minor ; in China 
it is pickled. In most parts it is cultivated ia a 
light rich soil, and propagated by dividing the 
clustered roots ; it should be sown in beds at the 
commencement of the rains, and will give a crop 
during the cold weather. Dr. Stewart says it 
(or A. Porrum, X., the leek) may be the plant 
mentioned by Masson (?) as cultivated at and 
near Kabal for the leaves, and by Bellew as 
growing wild near Ghazni (7000 feet), where it 
is not eaten. Masson states that the leaves may 
be cut two or three times a year for 25 or 30 
years, and mentions one field at Kabal dating 
from the time of Nadir Shah, more than a hun- 
dred years before his visit. — •/. L. Steivart, Panjah 
Plants, Tp. 230; Voigt, 66S', Riddell ; Roxb. ii. U2. 
ALLIUM CEPA. Limu The onion. 

Gandhana, . . . PusHT. 
Pallandii, Latseeka, Sansk. 
Gatta . of Salt Eangk. 
Pad-wasl, . ,, 

Luno, Singh. 

Vengayam, . . . Tam. 
Nirulli, .... Tei,.- 
Erra-Ulli-gadda, , , 
Valli gadda, ... , 
It is not certain of what country this is ai 
native, but it has from time immemorial been| 
cultivated in Egypt, and is commonly cultivated) 
all over India and China. Many brahmana 
of India do not eat the onion, regarding it asi 
similar to mutton. It is grown to 10,500 feeti 
in Ladak. It is one of the favourite vegetables 

Basal, also Basl 

. Arab. 

Pulantu, . . 

. Beng. 


. Burm. 

Kunballi, . . 

s. Can. 

T'sung, , . . 

f Chin. 

Piaz, ; . . 

. Hind. 

Ganthia-, . , 

of Ladak. 


. Malay. 

Bawang, Brambang, „ 




of the Chinese; their large coarfte rariety ii 
called Muh-t'8ung, or tree onion. Every part 
of the plant is supposed to have some thera- 
peutic action. Onion tea is largely used, and 
the life-boatmen of the Yangtaze river depend 
on it to excite vomiting and reaction in the 
apparently drowned. Th(jir wild onion Keh- 
t^ung, and foreign onion Hu-t'sung, are also 
nsed medicinally. — Smith ; J. L. Stewart, Paiijub 
PUtuLs, p. 230. 
ALLIUM PORRUM. W. The leek. 
A. rubcllum, Bieb, 

Kooruas? . . . 


Khorat ? . 

. . of By. ? 

Puroo, . . , . 


Korrat, . . 

. . Egypt. 

Tau-kyet-thwon, . 



. . Pebh. 

This is cultivated all over India, is common in 
the N.W. Panjab, including the Salt Range, and 
in the Siwalik tract east to near the Sutlej ; and 
the Kanawar plant growing at 9000 feet, as well 
as one found in Lahoul still higher, seem to be the 
same. In most places the root is eaten raw or 
cooked. — J. L. Stewart, Panjab Plants, p. 23L 

ALLIUM SATIVUM. Linn. Garlic. 

Som ; Sum ? . . 




Loshoon, Lashuna, 


Mahu Shuda, . 


Kyet thwon phyn, 


Sudulunu, . . . 


BeluU, .... 


Vallai pandu, . . 


Swan, Ta-swan, . 


EU-ulli, VeUulU, 


Lahsan, .... 


Telia gadda, . 


Bawang-putib, . 


Velli gadda, . 


Liirgely cultivated in India and in all Asiatic 
countries ; its roots consist of pungent acrimonious 
bulbs, which have a strong offensive smell and 
flavour. They are employed as a condiment, and 
as an ingredient in curries, pickles, chutneys, 
etc. ; they are also used in medicine. Garlic is 
the oKopohov of the Greeks, Som of the Arabs, 
and Shumim of Numbers xi. 12. It has been used 
as an article of diet, and likewise in medicine, from 
very early times. Garlic seed oil — called Telia 
gadda nuna, Tel. ; Wulla poondoo yennai, Tam. — 
is only medicinal. It is clear, colourless, limpid, 
and contains the full odour of the plant. It 
might be available in cookery for those who 
relish the flavour of garlic in their dishes, but 
this will evidently be the fullest extent of its ap- 
plication ; hence it can scarcely be considered of 
any importance commercially. — Royle ; Faulkner. 


Allium odorum, L. 

Bhuk, .... Jhelum. | Skodze, . . . Ladak. 

A long-leaved species growing in Khagan at 
10,500 feet; the leaves are dried and eaten in 
irinter with meat ; tlie root is not eaten. What 
appears to be the same species, occurs in Spiti at 
12,000, but no part of it is eaten.— J. L. Stewart, 
Panjab PUvits. p. 231. 

ALLIUM ULIGINOSUM, Smith, the Kau of the 
CLinese, resembles the leek, and is largely used 
amongst the Chinese. Its seeds are given in sper- 
matorrhoea, a common ailment amongst the 
Chinese. — Smith, p. 8. 

Ohamisaoa nod., Mart. I Achyranthes nodiflora, 
Cdoda noditlora, Linn. \ Linn. 

Common in Coromandel and Ceylon, and is 
eaculent.— /iox6. i. 678. 

ALLO NEREDU. Tel. Eugenia jambolana, 
R.f a variety with large edible fruit. 

ALLOW. Hind. A stinging nettle of the 
Himalaya, yielding fibres. 

ALLOYS. The natives of all the East Indies 

are acquainted with a rariety of alloys for making 
cannons, iiuagea, gongs, cymbals, bells, and orna- 
ments, with cop}K>r and zinc, tin and lead, besides 
being great workers in copjier and braas for the 
various domestic utensils. In the Travancoro 
state, the workmen have l)cen very successful in 
their fabrication of alloys, but the ingredients 
they use are not known. In the Coimbatore 
district, the metals are employed iu the following 
proportions : — 

Copper 10 parts, zinc 6^ — alloy valued at 4 
annas per seer of 24 tolas weight, and is used for 
all purposes. 

Copper 10, zinc 5— alloy valued at 3J annas 
per seer, somewhat darker than the other, but 
considered equally useful. 

Copj)€r 10, zinc 10 — alloy valued at 8 annas 
the seer, considered inferior to the others, but is 
also in current use. 

Copper 10, tin 2^ — a beautiful bell metal 
alloy, valued at 6 annas the seer. Is used for 
the same purposes as the others. 

Copper 10, tin 2, lead ^ — an inferior-looking 
alloy, but employed for similar purposes. 

Native smiths render the mixed metal from 
copper and tin malleable with greater proportions 
of tm, as also do the Chinese for their gongs and 
cymbals, by gently striking it while hot, at re- 
peated heatings. Some years ago, bronze sheath- 
ing for ships was prepared on the same principle. 
Teiing natives call such malleable bell metal 
'akkansu' (Tel.). It is formed into vessels for 
containing acid food, buttermilk, etc. 

Pot metal (copper and lead) is improved by the 
addition of tin, and the three metals will mix in 
almost any proportions. Zinc may be added to 
pot metal in very small quantity ; but when the 
zinc becomes a considerable amount, the copper 
takes up the zinc, forming a kind of brass, and 
leaves the lead at liberty, which in a great measure 
separates in cooling. Zinc and lead are indis- 
posed to mix alone, though a little arsenic assists 
their union by ' killing ' the lead, as in shot metal ; 
antimony also facilitates the combination of pot 
metal, — 7 lead, 1 antimony, and 16 copper mixed 
perfectly at the first fusion, and the mixture was 
harder than 4 lead and 16 copper, and apparently 
a better metal. — Mr. Rohde's MSS. See Bells. 

ALLSPICE. Pimenta vulgaris, Lindley. 
Bayberry tree, . Eng. I Toute ^pise, , . . Fb. 
Pimento, . . Eng., Sp. | 

Pimenta vulgaris is a large tree, supposed of S. 
America. Allspice is rarely adulterated, owing 
possibly to its low price. It should be introduced 
into India.— //ossa// ; Mason. 

ALLU. Guj., Hind. In Kathiawar and Raj- 
putana, an ordeal in cases of disputed boundaries, 
in which the claimant walks over the contested 
limits with a raw hide or a cloth on his shoulders, 
previously dedicated to one of the fearful forms 
of Durga, from whose vengeance he will suffer if 
his claim be unjust. — W. 

ALLU BACU-CHALL Teu BaseUa alba, Z. 

Calendrier, . . . Fb. | Jantri, .... Hind. 
Kalendrier, . . . Ger. | Almanaque, . . Sp. 

The word Almanac is supposed to be derived 
from the Arabic, and the natives of India have 
their almanacs arranged on the same principles 
as those of Europe. To the Hindus, whose re- 
ligious festivals arc largely astronomical, and to 




a less extent to Mahomedans, the almanacs are 
of great importance. They are published in large 
numbers, in various forms, and are widely cir- 
culated. Some are small and cheap ; others are 
large, and profusely illustrated by pictures re- 
presenting the signs of the zodiac, figures denot- 
ing the sun in different months, etc. The people 
consult almanacs chiefly to find out lucky and 
ualucky times ; without this they deem all else to 
be vain. Every Hindu almanac consists of five 
sections, hence the name Panchanga, viz. the 
lunar day, the solar day, the lunar asterism, the 
conjunctions and transits of the planets, eclipses, 
etc. , and the karana or subdivisions of the lunar 
day. Their use of the lunar year for their religious 
rites, and of the solar or sidereal year for civil 
duties, is so perplexing, that learned astronomers 
pass along the streets every morning, and intimate 
to their houses of call the ceremonial to be 
attended to. 

ALMAS. Arab., Pers. Diamond. 

AL MASUDI, a patronymic given to Abu'l- 
Hasan Abi, a native of Baghdad, a great traveller, 
acute observer, and writer. He wandered to 
Morocco and Spain on the west, and eastwards 
to China, through all the mahomedan and many 
other countries, and he wrote his travels, which 
he styled Muriij-ul-Zahab, or Meadows of Gold. 
—Elliot, p. 19. 

ALMIRAH, an Anglo-Indian term from Al- 
marinho (Port.), a wardrobe. 


Lauz Arab. I Luz, Hkb. 

Mandel, DuT., Dan., Ger. I Amygdala, . . . Lat. 

Amande, . . . Fr. | Mandorla, . . . Sp. 

This term is applied to the common almond, 
from the Amygdalus communis. The sweet arid 
the bitter almonds of commerce, the Jordan and 
Valencia almonds, are the kernels of the fruit of 
different varieties of Amygdalus communis, Lirin. 
It is a Mediterranean tree, extending into Persia, 
cultivated in the north of Africa, Italy, Spain, 
etc., a native of the Himalaya, and abundant in 
Kashmir. Jordan and Valencia almonds are im- 
ported into Britain from Malaga and other Span- 
ish ports ; bitter almonds, chiefly from Barbary, 
Sicily, etc. Almonds, both bitter and sweet 
varieties, are imported into N. India from Ghoor- 
bund, and into S. India from the Persian Gulf. 
The ' Indian almonds ' are fruits of the Ter- 
minalia catappa, Aleurites triloba, and Canarium 
commune ; and the almonds of Gen. xliii. 11 have 
been thought to be pistachio nuts. 

Almond, bitter. 
Hang-joh-hang, . Chin. | Ku-mei, .... Chin. 

This is the fruit of the var. amara. 

Almond confection is the Hang-su of the 

Almond oil. 
Badam minak, 

Roughan-i-Badam, Pers. 

Ingudi-tailam, . Sansk. 
Badama vittulu nune, Tel. 

This oil is from the fruit of the almond tree. It 
is colourless, or very slightly yellow, and is con- 
gealed with difficulty. It is obtained for native 
use in India, but does not as yet form a recog- 
nised article of export. About 80 tons of this 
oil are annually imported into Britain, the price 
being about Is, per lb. But it is principally the 
produce of the Arzo tree, forests of which grow to 
the south of the empire of Morocco, which produce 

an exceedingly hard species of almond. In manu- 
facturing the oil, they are well rubbed or shaken 
in a coarse bag, to separate a bitter powder which 
covers the epidermis ; they are then pounded to 
a paste in marble mortars, and the paste subjected 
to a press. The almond is supposed to contain 
46 per cent, of oil ; but from 5^ lbs. only 1 lb. 6 oz. 
can be extracted by the cold process, and above 
2 lbs. if heated iron plates be used. The oil of 
almonds is the basis of the great part of the 
liniments, ointments, and plasters of the European 
pharmacists. It is, however, little used in Indian 
pharmacy, the oil of the Sesamum orientale 
answering perfectly as a substitute. 

Almond, sweet ; Hang Tien-moi of the Chinese. 

Almond tea, Hang-jin-tang of the Chinese, is 
sold in the streets of China as a ptisan. It is 
made by boiling the kernels mixed with other 
substances. — Smith, p. 9 ; Cat. Ex. Cal. 1862 ; 
Simmonds ; O^Sh. 

ALMORA, in lat. 29° 35' 16" N. and long. 
79° 41' W" E., a hill station and sanatorium 
in the north of India, situated on the top of 
a ridge which runs east and west at eleva- 
tions of 5425 to 6607 feet above the level of 
the sea. It is the capital of the province of 
Kamaon. It is 30 miles from Naini-thal. The 
Indian Government established a sanatorium at 
Lohooghat in the Alinora hills, a position un- 
surpassed in India for salubrity of climate and 
picturesque scenery, and known to be highly 
suitable for the European constitution. A sulphur 
mine was discovered at a place called Aina, some 
9 miles north-west of Almoia. The soil of the 
neighbourhood yields quantities of saltpetre. It 
produces graphite, copper, andiron. — Schl.; Robt.; 
Englishman; Dr. Bnist^s Catalogue; Imp. Gaz. 
See Kamaon ; Sanatoria. 

ALMS and almsgiving have ever taken an im- 
portant place in the religious systenis of the 
world. The Hebrews were commanded to leave 
for the poor, and Ecclesiastes xi. 1 bids to cast 
their bread upon the waters, with an assur- 
ance that after many days it would return to 
them again. In the Buddhist, Hindu, and Maho- 
medan religions, as also amongst the Romish 
Christians, it is not only deemed good to give 
alms, but the giving bestows a merit on the 
individual, and gifts are generally delivered with 
much openness, in such case differing from the 
injunction in Matt. vi. 2 : ' When thou doest thine 
alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee.' Hindu 
and Mahomedan sovereigns bestow much to the 
shrines of their respective faiths, and annually, 
on the Maharram, the Mahomedan kings entertain 
many Syuds on permanent pay. Some mendi- 
cants, alike Hindus and Buddhist, are not allowed 
to solicit or demand alms, but have to go with a 
quick step, and with or without a bell, through 
the streets, and without comment accept whatever 
is thrown into their wallet. With Mahomedans 
the duty next in importance to prayer is that of 
giving alms. Certain alms are prescribed by law, | 
and are called Zekat ; othere, called Sadakah, \ 
are voluntary. The obligatory alms were, in the 
earlier ages of El-Islam, collected, by officers 
appointed by the sovereign, for pious uses, but 
now it is left to the conscience to give theia, 
and to apply them. They are to be given once 
in every year to the jioor, provided the pro- 
perty be of a certain amount. The proportion 




il generally one-fortieth, which is to be paid 
n kind, or in money or other equivalent. It is 
k common custom to give what the donor can 
ifford in aims during the month of Maharram, 
ispecially on the tenth day; hence the phrase, 
he alms of the ' Ashr.' This custom seems to have 
)een copied from the Jews, who are accustomed 
10 abound in ahnsgiving during the ten days con>- 
Dencing witli their New Year's Day, and ending 
with the day of atonement, more than in all thereat 
»f the year. Ali, the son-in-law of Mahomed, twice 
n his lifetime gave away all his property. But 
ihe Hindu pilgrims to sacred shrines are often 
xacting, even insolent, and, though rarely so to 
liuropeiuis, will sit down at a door and refuse 
to stir until their day's food be given ; also Maho- 
aedan fakirs, of whom there are several sects, 
>ften continue to demand till alms be given. 
The Buddhist mendicants of Burma are the least 
Jamorous ; but so completely is the act of offering 
:o their shrines the final individual merit, that 
308tly gifts can be immediately removed, while 
>ut6ide the great temples at liaugoon and Prome, 
mch vast quantities of food-offerings are daily 
hrown, as to be disgusting, and the temple ser- 
■ants, who are slaves or of unclean race, clear 
b away. All these classes have distinguishing 
.•ostumes, — the Buddhist with his yellow robe ; 
.he Hindu sanyasi or viragi smeared in ashes, 
md with ochre-dyed clothes ; and the Mahomedan 
;'akir may have a loin-cloth and taj or crown. 
iVmongst them all are many true ascetics; and 
recently, in 1867, a Hindu devotee was to be 
>een, who had at that time sat for five years in 
tne of the Ellora caves. But there are amongst 
them also many impostors. See Ali ; Alms-bowl 
>f Buddha ; Buddhism ; Fakir ; Groul ; Jhula ; 
Kashgul i Ali ; Mendicant ; Patra ; Pinjrapole ; 
Ainyasi; Viragi. 

ALNUS GLUTINOSA, grows at the foot of 
l?usiyama mountain. 

Himalayan older, Eng. | Kunch, Koish, . HiND. 

A very large and straight tree of Darjiling, 
Kullu, and Kangra, and fringing the Pabur river 
lianks above the junction of the Touse. Its bark 
is used in tanning, and its wood for gunpowder 

Olethropsis nitiJa, Spach. | Betula nitida, Don. 

Snin, .... Beas. 
lAunp, Tsapu, Chenab. 
fjfol, Rikimra, Jhelum. 
Biol, Sawali, Silein, Kang. 

Koe, Ravi. 

Kunsh ; Kiinich, Sutlej. 
Piak ; Niu, . . ,, 

Gira, Ghuzhbe, Tr, -Indus. 

This handsome tree of the N.W. Himalaya and 
tlie Panjab rises to 90 or 100 feet, with a girth of 
10 or 12 feet. Its twigs are used for binding 
loads, and for parts of the foot-bridges ; its leaves 
M fodder ; the bark for tanning, dyeing, and for 
making red ink ; its wood for bedsteads, and 
for the crooked stick of rope bridges. — Dr. J. 

alder, the Kunch of the Panjab, is found in the 
Sutlej valley, between Rampur and Sungnam, at 
an elevation of 4000 to 5000 feet. The charcoal 
from it is employed in iron-smelting. — Cleghorn, 
Panjab Report, p. 64. 

ALGA LACTINEA. See Insects. 

ALOE plants belong to the Liliacese, and are 
lid throughout India, 104 species having been 

infcroduoed into the Calcutte Botanical Society*a 
Qarden. In Arabia and in Egypt, the aloe pkuit 
is hung, like the dried croco«lile, over houw-ii 
as a talisman against evil spirits. Burckhardt 
assigns, as a motive for ita being planted in 
graveyartls, that ita Arabic name Sabar (it is ab»o 
called Sibar) denotes the patience with which the 
believer awaits the last day. I^ne remarks 
that the aloe thus hung over the door, is put 
there to ensure long and flourishing times to 
the inmates, and long continuance to the house 
itself ; and women believe that the Prophet visits 
the house where this plant is suspended. In India 
it is hung up to attract eye-tiiea and mosquitoa 
entering a room. Burton believes this practice 
to be a fragment of African fetishism, and mentions 
that the Galla race, to the present day, plant 
aloes on graves, and suppose that when the plant 
sprouts the deceased has been admitted into the 
gardens of ' Wak ' the Creator. The African A. 
spicata is common in the Peninsula of India, It is 
a good hedge plant, and the leaves yield a useful 
fibre. — Lane, Useful Plants; Burtoti's Mecca, iii. 
p. 850. 

Lu-wei, Lah-wei, . Chik. | Siang-tan, . . . Chin. 

Grows in the Canton province of China ; also, 
it is said, in Java, Sumatra, and Persia. The 
drug obtained from it is bitter, coal-black, and 
porous. — Sinith, p. 9. 

ALOE FIBRE, Pita fibre, Nita, and Pita,ar« the 
commercial names given in Southern India to the 
fibres of the American aloe, or Agave Americana ; 
of the A. vivipera, or Bastard aloe ; the fibres 
of Foufcroya gigantea; those of the Adam's 
needles, the Yucca gloriosa, or common-leaved, 
and Y. aloefolia, or aloe-leaved, Yucca. And 
Dr. Hunter also mentions the Y. angustifolia, 
tenacissima, filamentosa, and regia as species yield- 
ing fibres, to all of which perhaps the same com- 
mercial term is applied. Agave Americana and 
A. vivipera have become so naturalized in India 
as to seem indigenous. They are, however, not 
yet sufiiciently abundant in Southern India to be 
employed to any very great extent for the pro- 
duction of fibre ; but as they t&ke root and grow 
readily, there is nothing to hinder their very 
extensive application. Aloe fibre now forms au 
article of export from the western coast. In Mexico, 
a highly prized thread is manufactured from the 
leaf fibre, and made into the ropes used in their 
mines, and for nets and rigging of ships. Also, 
the famous hammocks of Panama are made of 
agave fibre. From the Aloe perfoliata (which 
Dr. lloyle deemed identical with his A. Indica), 
Dr. Hunter of Madras obtained a fibre two feet 
long, white, and of fine quality, which readily 
took colours. The Agave Americana has a short 
cylindrical woody stem, terminated by fleshy, 
spiny, bluish green leaves, and it flowers once, on 
a tali flower stem, 20 to 40 feet. The roots as 
well as the leaves contain the ligneous fibres 
styled 'Nita' thread, useful for various purposes. 
The leaves are sometimes eight feet long, one 
foot broad, and five inches deep, and abound in 
fibres of great length ; tough and durable, their 
separation is effected by crushing or bruising, 
steeping in water, and afterwards beating. In 
applying them for the manufacture of fibres, it 
is very essential to have the sap removed as early 
as possible after the leaves are cut, and with this 




view a grooved cylinder press is found very- 
effectual, while frequent beating removes a thick 
viscid milky juice, which, if allowed to remain 
after cleaning, imparts a stiffness to the fibre. — 
M. E. J. R. of 1855 and 1857 ; Drs. Royle, 
JRiddell, Hunter ; Bal/our^s Com. Pro. ; Simmonds ; 
Faulk. See Aloe ; Agave ; Fourcroya ; Yucca. 
ALOE INDICA. Royle. Indian aloe. 
Aloe perfoliata, Boxb. ii. 167. 


. Beng. 

Kadenaka kate- 

Mok, .... 

. BUKM. 

vala, .... Maleal. 

Kanwar, . , 

. DUK. 

Kwar, Gandal, . Panj. 


. Hind. 

Masti, .... ,, 


• 5 J 

Kumarika, . . SlNGH. 

Jivak Pat, . . 

Kattale, . . . Tam. 

Ghigowar, . . 

• )> 

Kalabanda, . . Tel. 

Ulna-tan, . . 

. Malay. 

Chinni kalabanda, ,, 

Gahru, . . . 

• j> 

Yerra kalabanda var., „ 

It is common in dry situations in the N.W. 
of India, and is probably the source of some of 
the common aloes (Musabbir) of the bazaars. This 
aloe is chiefly planted to form hedgerows, and 
makes an excellent fence. It flowers in the rains, 
has large reddish flowers, and the stem grows to 
the height of ten or twelve feet. The leaves make 
a good common cordage, or rope, used for mats, 
etc. ; the fibre is two feet long, white, and of fine 
quality, and readily takes colours. The pulp is 
eaten by the natives, after having been carefully 
and repeatedly washed in cold water; they 
generally mix it with a little sugar, and reckon it 
cooling.— Ainslie's Mat. Med. p. 260 ; O'Sh. p. 665 ; 
Dr. Hinder, Madras Exh. Jur. Reports; Voigt, 
658 ; Roxb. ii. 167 ; Dr. Stewart. 

ALOE LITORALIS. Kcenig. Sea-side aloe. 

Sirrughu, . . . 
Sirru Kattalay, . 
Chmna kalabanda, 



Kumari Beng. 

Ghota-kanwar, . . DuK. 

Taif SocoTR. 

Kariapolam, . . . Tam. 

A reddish-leaved species growing near the 
coast, and plentifully at Cape Comorin and its 
neighbourhood. It yields gopd aloes. Ink is 
prepared from its juice, and its pulp mixed with 
alum is largely used in conjunctivitis. — Waring ; 

ALOE SOCOTRINA. Lam. A native of the 
island of Socotra ; leaves minutely serrated ; 
flowers scarlet at the base, pale in the middle, 
green at the point. Yields Socotorine aloes, also 
the true hepatic and Mocha aloes. — O'Sh. ; Birdw. 

ALOE SPICATA. Thun. A native of the 
interior of the Cape of Good Hope ; leaves distantly 
toothed, with a few white spots, the flowers filled 
with purplish honey. — O'Sh. p. 665. 

ALOE VULGARIS. Lam. Common aloe. 

A. Barbadensis, A. perfoliata, Royle. 

Kattalay, .... Tam. | Kalabanda, . . . Tel. 

This plant is common in the Peninsula ; it is 
Baid properly to be a native of Greece, or, as some 
say, of the Cape Colony, but has long been 
naturalized in both Indies, and is cultivated in 
many tropical and hot countries. The leaves are 
armed with spines, and are a little mottled ; 
flowers yellow. This species yields the Barbadoes 
aloes of commerce, by some called hepatic aloes. 
— Useful Plants; O'Sh. p. 664. 

ALOES; Bitter Aloes. 
Sibr, also Sabr, . Aeab. 
Musabbar, Pikros, „ 
Mok, .... BURM. 
Chin-hiang, Lu-wei, Chin. 
Alia, Elwa, . . HlND. 
Gaharu, Alua-tan, Malay. 
Alivah ,, 

Katasha, . . 

. Maleal. 

BolSiah, . . 


Kumarilla, . 

. Singh. 

Komarika, . 

• )) 


. . Tam. 


. . Tel. 

Many species of the aloe furnish aloes, but tl 
best known are — 
A. Abyssinica, Lam., of Abyssinia. 
A. Arabica, Lam., the A. variegata, Forsk. 
A. Indica, Roxh., N.W. India, the A. perfoliata, R, 
A. Socotrina, Lam., of Socotra. 
A. spicata, Thun., Cape of Good Hope; and 
A. vulgaris, Lam. 

Aloes is the bitter, resinous, inspissated jui( 
of the leaves, and is imported into Britain undi 
the names of Socotorine, East Indian or hepatii 
Barbadoes, Cape, and Caballine aloes. In the foi 
years 1852-53 to 1855-56, Madras exported 51 
cwt., valued at Rs. 4037, and imported in the lai 
year to the value of Rs. 2686. In the year 1851 
Britain imported to the extent of 33,333 lbs., an 
re-exported 157,506 lbs. to the various countrii 
of Europe. The usual way of extracting tl 
substance is by making a transverse incision i 
the leaves or cutting them off at the base, an 
scraping off the juice as it flows if done in th 
former way, and allowing it to run in a vess( 
placed for the purpose, if in the latter. Th 
aloes, after being received into a vessel, are es 
posed to the sun or other heat, by which meai 
they become inspissated. The Cape aloes is dee 
brown, shining, of greenish tint and resinou 
fracture ; edges transparent, odour strong. Bai 
badoes aloes, commonly termed hepatic, is exporte 
in gourds, ranges in colour from dark brown c 
black to red or liver colour ; odour disagreeabli 
Socotorine aloes, although long considered th 
best kind, fell below Barbadoes in comnjercii 
value. Kurachee aloes are intermediate i 
properties between the Socotorine and Dekha 
kind. Aloes, although aperient, unlike othe 
cathartics, the effect is not increased if given i 
large doses beyond a certain point. To person 
predisposed to apoplexy it is more beneficial tha 
most other purgatives. The compound decoctio 
is a valuable emmenagogue, particularly whe; 
combined with preparations of iron. — Ben. Phai 
192 ; O'Sh., 665 ; Balfour, Commercial Products 
O^SL, Beng. Pharmac. 
ALOES- WOOD. Eagle-wood, lign-aloes. 

Agallochum, Heb., Lai 
Kavoriki, . . . Jai 
Aghil, Karaghil, Malay 
Garu, Kayu-garu, ,, 
Kassina (the tree), Siam 

This natural product is repeatedly mentione( 
in the Old Testament, in Num. xxiv. 6, Prov 
vii. 17, Ps. xlv. 8, Cant. iv. 14, as a value( 
perfume. It is possible that the substance me 
with in commerce is obtained from more than om 
plant. See Agallochum; Aquilaria aloexylon 
Calambeg, Eagle-wood ; Lign-aloes ; Exccecaria. 

ALONZO TALESSO, a great navigator, whc 
left the Tagus river, and in 1506 entered th( 
Eastern Archipelago, and made the discovery o. 

ALOON-ALOON. Jav. A square or parterr* 
in front of a chief's house, usually ornamentet 
with the waringi tree. 

ALOR, or Aror, an ancient capital of Sind 
Its ruins are in the Shikarpur district, in lat. 27 
39' N., and long. 68° 59' E. It was the capital o 
the Sogdi of Alexander, and it appears to have beei 
the capital of the kingdom of Sigertis, conquera 
by Menander of Bactria. The Imperial Gazettee 
says it was destroyed by an earthquake, whici 

Kakal, Halhal, 

. Arab. 

Sak-hiang, . . 

. Chin. 

Habulai ? . . 

. Egypt. 

Hahulai? . . 


Bois d'aigle, . . 

. Fr. 

Adlar Holz, . . 

. Ger. 




boat A.D. 9G2 diverted the Iiulus into its present 
ihannel. It is written Alror in Biladuri, Edrisi, 
nd other Arab authors. — Tod'a Jiajaslhan, i. p. 
2; Burtons Scinde, i. pp. 128, 166; Dr. liutKCa 
^ataUufue ; Postau's Personal Observations ; Imp. 
raz. p. 30. 

Ippia citriodora, Kth. | Verbena triphylla, L'Her. 

Much esteemed for the delightful fragrance of 
ts leaves, and is much cultivated in gardens, 
;enerally thriving well. — Voigt. 

ALP AM. Malkal. Bragantia Wallichii, Br. 

ALPHABET. The Phoenician traders carried 
he invention of letters with their trade. They 
vera imported into Greece by an eponym named 
'adraiis, a word of Semitic origin, and meaning 
.ncient. Rouge and others traced the Phoenician 
Iphabet to an Egyptian source, and the cuneiform 
sttcrs and th.e figures of the Chinese are supposed 
) be corrupted liieroglyphics. At present, the 
lindustani or Urtiu, the Panjabi and the Persian, 
re written and printed in the same character; but 
he Arabic, Bengali, Burmese, Canarese, Chinese, 
Jnjrati, Hindi, Japanese, Mahratta, Malealam, 
falay, Siamese, Singhalese, Tamil, Telugu, and 
ulu are each written and printed in a separate 
baracter. The Sanskrit alphabet has 50 letters, 
English 26, Egyptian 25, Greek 24, Hebrew 22, 
Jujrati 21, Bengali, Uriya, and Malealam, each 
2, Telugu 23, Canarese 23, TamU 14, and the 
"■amil consonants carry the sound of short a. 
letters of the English alphabet are, however, 
sed by the natives of Great Britain for all the East 
ndian words, and Dr. Hunter has recommended, 
or the words in use in British India, the un- 
ccented a as u in but, the unaccented u as u in 
»ut, the unaccented i as i in pit ; and to accented 
, i, and u, the sounds of a in far, ee in feet, and 
in boot. This will increase, by three, the 
inmber of English letters in use in British India. 
Tie Arabic, so largely used by all Mahomedans, 
as 28 letters, but amongst them are two with 
he sound of s, two with that of h, three with 
.hat of z, two with that of t, two with that 
)f d, two with the sound of a, two with that of k, 
10 that its letters might be reduced to 19. In the 
louth of India, the Arabic numerals have been 
;ienerally introduced into Government accounts. 
Phis was on the recommendation of Sir Erskine 
t*erry, in the middle of the 19th century ; and it 
uuj been supposed possible to use the Roman and 
Italian characters for all the other tongues, but 
ihe 19th century will see the bulk of the educated 
Mople of India using English, with compara- 
iiyely little knowledge of their respective mother 
Jongues. The alphabets of the Thay or Siam- 
!», of the Burmese, and of the Mon of Pegu, 
ire of Indian origm. With the native In(&n 
iongues s and h are everywhere interchangeable, 

and f amongst the Mahrattas equally so, 1 
ind z and j amongst the Tamil. The European 
anguages with difficulty accept the English j and 
A. The latter in French has to become sch, as in 
)chah for shah, a king ; Jami has to be written 

ALPHEUS, a genus of prawns common in the 
Indian Ocean. See Prawns ; Shrimps. 

Uvaria lutea, Roxb. ii. 666. 
Muvi, Muvvi, . . Tel. | Chiri dudduga, . . Tkl. 

F 81 

A fine tree of the mountains of Orion, of Silbet 
and Ava. 

Alphonsca Madrasapatana, Bedd., a very hand- 
some, evergreen, shade-yielding tree, common 
on the banks of streams on the Cuddapah and 
North Arcot hills up to 3000 feet. 

Alphonsea ventricoea, //. /. et T. ; Uvaria 
ventricosa, Roxb. ii. 668; a beautiful tree of 

Alphonsea Zeylanica, H. f. et T. 
Guatteria acutifolia, Wall. | Uvaria lutea, W. and A. 

A branchy, leafy tree of Travancore and 
Courtallum. — /f. T.; Beddome, Fl. Sylv. 
p. 76. 

ALPINIA, a genus "of the Zingiberace». Some 
of the species yield aromatic fruits, and some of 
the plants are wholly aromatic. A. aromatica ia 
named as a plant of the eastern valleys of Bengal, 
the fruit of which is often sold as cardamoms ; A. 
porrecta. Wall, from China, and A. spicata, Roxb., 
from Sumatra, may also be noticed. A. alba and 
A. Chinensis are much used by the Malays and 
Chinese. The latter has an aromatic root, with 
an acrid, burning flavour. The fi-agrant root 
of A. nutans was sometimes taken to England, 
according to Dr. Roxburgh, for Galanga major. 
Its leaves, when bruised, have a strong smell 
of cardamoms. A. mutica, Roxb., is a native 
of Penang, has large flowers, with lips crimson 
yellow and orange-edged. A. Roscoena, Rom. 
and Sch., is a native of China. — Roxb. 

Hellenia allughas, Linn. | Heretiera allugbas, lAnn. 
Taruka,Tara,BENG.,HiND. | Mali-inshi-kua, Maleal. 

This is found in Coromandel, in the S. Kon- 
kan, in the Kotah jungle marshes, in the estuary 
of the Irawadi at Sarampur, in Silhet and Assam. 
It has large and beautiful rose-coloured inodorous 
flowers ; its roots are aromatic. — Roxb. i. p. 60 ; 
Voigt, 570 ; Gen. Med. Top. p. 171. 

A. Roxburghii, S^Deet. 

This is one of the smallest of the India Alpinias. 
It is a native of the eastern parts of Bengal, and 
is found at Chappedong in Tenasserim. Its 
flowers are white, with a crimson yellow lip. — 
Roxb. I 63 ; Voigt, 571. 

Alpinia cemua, Sims. I Renealmia erecta, RedotUe. 

Benealmia calc, Andh. \ 

A native of China ; has large white flowers, 
their lips coloured with dark purple veins on a 
yellow ground. — Roxb. i. 69 ; Voigt, 571. 

Maranta galanga, Linn. Amomura galanga, Lour. 
Galanga major, Rumph. 
Kulnnjan, Arab., Hind. 
Hung-tau-k'au, . CHIN. 
Kau-liang-kiang, . „ 
Greater Galan^, Eno. 
Galanga cardamoms, „ 
Chitta-ratta, Malkal. 
Sugandha-vacha, Sansk. 
Mahabhara vacha, „ 
Kulanjana, ... ,, 

This is a perennial plant, a native of Sumatra, 
cultivated in the Indian Archipelago, Moluccas, 
China, Cochin-China, Singapore, Penang, Chitta-- 
gong, Travancore, the B. Konkan. Its tubers 
constitute the true Galanga major roots of the 
druggists, .and are used for the same purposes as 
ginger. It has a faint aromatic smell and strong 

Kulanyoga, . . 


Dhamula, . . . 

* 9f 

Tikshra mula, . 

* 9f 

Suganda yoga, . 
Koluwala, . . 


Perre-aretei ? . 

. Tam. 

Dumba-stacam ? 


Pedda dumpa- 

raahtrakam, . 

• >> 



pungent taste, -with some bitterness, pungency, 
and acridity, on which account it has fallen into 
some disuse, though in 1850, 64 tons were ex- 
ported from Canton, value 2880 dollars. Hung- 
tau-k'au of the Chinese means red nutmeg. The 
fruits have the same properties as the root. The 
flowers are said to be antidotal to the effects of 
wine. A lesser Galanga is said to be obtained 
from the Alpinia Chinensis, also from a species of 
Hedychium. — Smith, pp. 9, 10 ; Roxb. i. 59; Voigt, 
570 ; Ainslie ; Hogg, p. 786 ; O'Sh. 652 ; Simmonds, 
Useful Plants; Thwaites, p. 319. 

Maranta Malaccensis, Bur. j Renealma Sumatrana, 
Galanga „ JRumph. \ Bonn. 

A native of the Moluccas and Chittagong ; a 
beautiful, stately plant, with large pure white 
flowers, their lips orange crimson. — Roxb. i. 64 ; 
Voigt, 571. 

Renealmia nutans, Andr. 
Globba ,, Idnn. 

Costus zerumbet, Pers. 
Punag champa, . Beng. 
Pa-gau-gyi, . . Burm. 

Roscoe. • 

Globba sylvestris, Rumph. 

Zerumbet speciosum, Jacq. 

Ilachi, . . . 


This very beautiful plant is a native of the 
Eastern Archipelago ; is found on the banks of the 
Salwyn, at Silhet and in Coromandel; is culti- 
vated in gardens, and was brought by Dr. Irvine 
from Tonk to Ajmir. The flowers are beautiful, 
and the whole plant is fragrant like the carda- 
mom ; the seeds do not ripen. Its leaves, etc., 
when bruised, have a strong smell of cardamoms, 
and are sometimes named Ilachi or Punag champa. 
—Roxb. p. 65 ; Voigt, 571 ; Genl. Medl. Top. 171. 

ALPTIGIN. One of the dynasties formed 
after the breaking up of the empire of the 
klialifs was that of the Samani, which terminated 
after a lapse of 120 years. Abdul Malik, the 
fifth prince of his race, had a Turki slave, by 
name Alptigin, a man of good sense, courage, and 
integrity, who rose to be governor of Khorasan. 
Alptigin afterwards assumed the independent 
government of the country about the mountains 
of Suliman to the Indus, making Ghazni his 
citadel. This he held for fourteen years, up to 
the time of his death, a.d. 976, and thence founded 
the house of Ghazni. Alptigin had a slave 
named Sabaktagin, purchased from a merchant 
who brought him from Turkestan, and whom by 
degrees he had raised to so much power and 
trust, that at his death he was the effective head 
of his government, and became his successor. 
He also married a daughter of his benefactor. In 
the action that Sabaktagin had with Jaipal, raja 
of Lahore, at Laghman, at the mouth of the 
valley which extends from Peshawar to Kabal, he 
conquered and made great slaughter among the 
enemy, took possession of the country up to the 
Indus, leaving an officer with 10,000 horse as 
governor of Peshawar. On this occasion the 
Afghans and Khilji of Laghman not only tendered 
their allegiance, but furnished useful recruits to 
the country. Sabaktagin died 997. His eldest 
son, Ismail, succeeded Jiim for a few months, and, 
after him, the second son, the renowned Mahmud 
of Ghazni. — Marshman. 

ALSANDA. Tel. Dc^ichos sinensis, Linn. 

■Weewarana,Raane, Singh. | Yaveme, . . . Singh. 

This large glabrous tree is not uncommon on 

the "Western Ghats of the Madras Presidency, fron 
Canara south down to Cape Comorin, up t( 
5000 feet elevation, and it also occurs in Ceylon 
The wood is valued in Ceylon, and is procurabL 
of very large size. It is of a light yellow colour 
and is said not to warp. It is used for buildin; 
and other purposes, and as it resists the attack 
of the teredo, is much in use in the constructioi 
of boats. It is exported from Trincomalee.- 
Beddome, Fl. Sylv. part xxv. p. 297. 

ALSI. Hind. Linseed. Linum usitatissimun: 

ALSINACE^. Lindl. The Chickweed trib 
of plants. The Indian genera are — Buffonia 
Sagina, Minuartis, Arenaria, Cerastium, Stel 
laria, Alsinella, Cherleria, Brachystemme, Leuco 
stemma, and Larbrea. 

ALSOPHILA, a genus of tree-ferns of Indi 
and the islands of the Southern Ocean. A 
Australis, a tree-fern of New Zealand, attains t 
60 feet in height. A. excelsa, the tree-fern c 
Norfolk Island, measures 40 to 80 feet in heighl 
and has a magnificent crest of fronds fror 
7 to 12 feet long. It usually has its root nea 
the course of some main stream ; and as its to 
does not affect the shade, like many of its cor 
geners, it forms a striking object in the land 
scape. The heart or cabbage at the extrerait 
of the trunk in some species affords a coarse fooc 
It is in substance like a Swedish turnip, but is to 
astringent in taste to be agreeable, and is not muc 
altered by cooking. The black portion of th 
trunk is used for stringing by cabinetmakeri 
A. Cooperi is the tree-fern of Queensland. A 
the Alsophila should be introduced into Indis 
A. gigantea. Wall., is common to the Himalayj 
from Nepal eastward to the Malayan peninsuU 
Java, and Ceylon ; it ascends nearly to 7000 fe( 
in the outer Himalayas. It is far more comrao 
than A. spinulosa. A. spinulosa is the ' Pugjili 
of the Lepchas, who eat the soft, watery pitl 
This tree-fern grows also in Sikkim abundantly 
in East Bengal, and the Peninsula of India.- 
Hooker's Him. Jour. i. 110, 142, ii. 13 5 Vo 
Mueller ; KeppeVs Indian Arch. 

ALSTONIA, a genus of plants belonging to tl 
Apocynacese. A. macrophylla and A. spectabil 
are Penang trees ; of the former, with large whi1 
flowers, nothing is known, and equally little ( 
A. neriifolia, a Nepal shrub, and A. venenata ( 
the Indian Peninsula, the last being Roxburgh 
Echites venenata. A. constricta, F. v. Muelle 
is a small tree of E. Australia ; bark an aromati 
bitter, useful in ague. — Von Mueller. 

A. Oleandrifolia, Lodd. \ Echites scholaris, Linn. 
Book Attene, Ang. -Singh. Septa-pima, . . Sansi 
Lutiana, . . . Assam. 
Chatin, .... Beng. 
Satwin, .... BoM. 
Lit-htuk, . . . Burm. ? 
Hori-kowan, . . Mahk. 
Stawin,. ... ,, 
Pala, Mukanpala, Maleal. 
Ayugma parma, . Sansk. 
,, chadda, . „ 

This considerable - sized tree grows in tl 
Moluccas, Bengal, in the vale of Sawitri, in t) 
hilly parts of the South Konkan, and in tl 
moist valleys of Kamaon. In Ceylon it is comm( 
up to an elevation of 3000 feet. In Canara ai 
Sunda it is not very common, but is found ne 
the ghats above and below of great size. It 


Rukatanna gass, . SlNGi 
Ir-illay-palai, pala, Ta! 
Wodrade, . . 
Eda-kula-ariti, . 

„ „ pala, . 

,, ,, ponna, 





also found in tho Travancoro forests ; it is very 
oomnaon iu tho plains on tho western side of tho 
Madras Proaidency and in Mysore, and is also found 
in Assam, Burma, Africa, and Australia. The excel- 
lent boards or thin planks it afTonls are used by 
their children and by children in Ceylon and in 
the Indian Peninsula to write their lessons on, 
benco its name. The whole plant abounds in a 
milky juice. Its wood is white, light, and close- 
grained, but rather coarse, and in Assam is much 
prized for beams and light work, such as boxes, 
trunks, scabbards, etc. It is valuable for the 
turning-lathe, and in Ceylon is used for coffins 
and packing-cases. It is as bitter as gentian, and 
is possessed, it is said, of similar virtues. The 
bark is a powerful tonic in bowel complaints, and, 
in the form of tincture, Dr. Gibson found it 
useful as a febrifuge. — Iiid. Ann. Med. Sci.^ April 
18G6 ; Mason ; Hogg's Vegetable Kingdom ; Use- 
ful Plants; Dr. Gibson; Voigt; Thwaites] Bed- 
dome; Mr. 2'hompson. 

AL SURA, the Arab name of Bassora, from Be- 
al-Sura, signifying the stonysoil on which itis built. 

ALTA, or Mahawar. Hind. Balls of cotton im- 
pregnated with a lac dye ; a thin red stuff of cotton, 
Uke paper, consecrated to Durga, with which Hindu 
women colour their feet, and is supposed to pro- 
mote happiness and prevent distress. 

ALTAI, a great mountain chain on the west 
of Asia, bistween which and the Himalaya is the 
vast tract of pasture lands on which from time 
immemorial the nomades of high Asia have fed 
their flocks, and multiplied into those hordes 
which from time to time have swept into Europe 
and into southern and eastern Asia. The southern 
mountains of the Altai chain are rich in gold and 
^ver mines (altai, in Mongol, signifies gold). 
And the same may be said of the chain of the 
Kbigan which separates Mongolia from Daouria. 
—Timkoivski's Journey to Pekin, ii. p. 284. 

ALTAMGHA. Turk. Literally red stamp. 
A grant under the seal of the former rulers of 
Hindustan, recognised by the British as conferring 
a title to rent-free land in perpetuity, hereditary 
and transferable from generation to generation. 
In reality, such were never so treated, being in- 
variably resumed as occasion demanded. The im- 
pnial decisions of China are noted in red ink. — 

ALTAMSH. This emperor of India succeeded 

to the throne in a.d. 1210. He completed the 

oonquest of the greatest part of Hindustan proper 

(1226-1232), and appears to have been the first 

Mahomedan that made a conquest of Bengal, the 

government of which was from this time bestowed 

on one of the reigning emperor's sons. It was 

during his reign (1225) that Chengiz Khan, among 

his extensive conquests, accomplished that of the 

empire of Ghazni, putting an end to the dynasty 

of Kharasm, which then occupied that throne, and 

driving before him the unfortunate Jalal, son of 

sultan of Kharasm, who swam the Indus to 

id his fury, and fleet to DehlL Altamsh was 

•eeded for a few months by his son, and his 

or liazzia was then raised to the throne. — 

ii>iiiieii's Memoir, p. xlviii. ; Marshman. 


""•(irab, .... Akab. I Altare, It. 

1 Fb. I 

Ihe altar is a sacred place inside Jewish, Bud- 
jiihist, and Hindu places of worship, and Christian 

churches, and reverenced in the eastern node 
alluded to in Psaha xxvi. 6 : ' So will I compaM 
thine altar,' — comjMiasing being a mark of rever- 
ence, common among Hindus and Buddbicta, 
many of whom may be seen morning and evening 
circumambulating their temples from right to 
left, with their right hands towards the temple. 
Hindus call this Pradachana ; and it is with tfiem 
a reverential act, which they sometimes also per- 
form to men. Mahomedaiis also circumambulate, 
but only the Kuaba at Mecca, into which is built 
the Hajar us Siah, or Black Stone that is believed 
to have fallen with Adam from paradise ; but in 
their religious poetry they often allude to the cus- 
tom, as in the words from the Persian, Tuaf i kaba 
i dil kun agr dili dari, Encompass thou the kaaba 
of thy heart, if thou hast a heart. 


Altem. triandra. 
Illecebrum sessile, Linn. 
Poonagbanti koora, Tel. 
Madana-ghanti, „ 

Aohyranthes triandra, B. 

„ sessilis. 

Poonaghutti bhaji, Due. 
Priasatti, . . . Sansk. 
Poonarkany kirai, Tam. 

In many parts of India this is a common annual, 
but is greatly prized as greens by the natives, and 
sells at a high price. A. campestris and A. ses- 
silis are figured in Wight's Icones. — Jaffrey ; 
Voigt, p. 318. 

Guimauve, . . . Fk. I Gul khyar, . . Hind. 
Althia of Dioscorides, Gr. | 

This is a native of Europe and of Kashmir, and 
used precisely as the marsh-mallow, and at Kan- 
dahar as greens. — 0''Sh. p. 214 ; Bellew; Stewart. 

Fu-Sang, . . . Chin. I Gul Khaira, . . Hind. 
Hollyhock, . . Eng. | Khatmi, . Hind., Pebs. 

This plant, with very large rose-coloured flowers, 
has produced about 20 varieties of splendid 
border flowers. Its leaves are said to yield a 
colouring matter resembling indigo. — Voigt, 112 ; 
Smith, 10. See Dyes ; Hollyhock. 

ALTI MARAM. Tam. Hardwickia binata. 

ALTISHAHR, or the Six Cities, a designation 
of the western part of Eastern Turkestan, and 
embracing the towns of Yarkand, Kashgar, Aksn, 
Khoten, Yanghisar, and Oosh-turfan, with the 
districts dependent on them. See Bokhara, 
Little Chinese Tartary, and Eastern Turkestan. 

ALTUN-SU. The river Caprus of antiquity is 
called the Lesser Zab by Abul Fazl. It joins the 
Tigris below Diarbakr ; but it is wrong to call the 
river Altun, which is an epithet only belonging 
to the bridge, from what it cost, Altun meaning 
gold or money. Both Altun and Altai are 
Turki words for gold. — Rich's Kurdistan, ii, p. 13. 

ALU. Hind., Pers., Pusut., Tel. A term, 
with affixes and suffixes, employed in Persian, 
Afghan, and Indian countries to designate several 
shrubs, pomaceous fruits, edible fruits and roots. 
The Alu of India generally is the common potato, 
the Solauum tuberosum. The Alu-i-Bokhara is 
the prune; the Nathar Alu, Batatas eduHs, the 
sweet potata In Telugu, the Alu-bachchali, is 
the Basella alba. In Bombay, Alu is a name of 
Vanguieria spinosa ; in Persia, of several rosaceous 
plants. Gurd-alu is Prunus Armenaica ; Kir-alu 
is Arum speciosum ; Rat-alu is Dioscorea sativa ; 
Shaft-alu is Amydalus Persica; and Alu-balu is 
the Cerasus caproniania. Alu-cha is a variety of 
prune. Alu Bokhara, prunes, Prunus domestica ; 
also dried plums and apricots. 




ALUBO. Singh. Calyptranthes jambolana. 
ALUGLUTA, and Algochh. Beng. Cymbidium 
ALUKA, Hind. The leech. See Hirudo. 
ALUK ur REMBUT. Arab. Pistacia terebin- 



Shabb, . . . 
Ky-ouk Ky-en, . 
Aluin, . . 
Alun, . . 
Phatakri, . 
Alumen, . 
Tawas, . . 

The first 

BuRM. Arundo, sp. 


Arab. Zaj-balur, 

BuRM. Shab-i- Yemeni, . . „ 

Dan. Pedrahume, . . . Port. 

. . Fr. Kwassze, .... Russ. 

. . Ger. Puttaki, . . . Sansk. 

. . Hind. Chinna karam, . Singh. 

. . It. Allumbre, ... Sp. 

. . Lat. Paddicaram, . . Tam. 
. Malay. | Patticaramu, . . Tel. 

alum works known to Europeans 

were those of Edessa (formerly called Roccha) 
in Syria. The alum of commerce, however, is 
manufactured from alum shale, alum rock, 
bituminous shale, and slate clay. In British 
India, at Dera Ismail Khan, it is manufactured 
from a black shale, principally at Kalabagh, 
on the Indus, and Kutki, where some 900 
tons are annually sold, at the rate of 78 rupees 
per ton. The process of manufacture is almost 
identical with that employed in European alum 
works. Alum occurs native in Nepal and at 
Chownsilla. It is obtained in the Tenasserim 
valley, about 40 miles below Matah, from a red- 
dish slate clay. The shales are roasted, and, after 
being reduced to powder, the alum is obtained by 
washing. Red alum is brought to Ajmir from 
Lahore, and used in medicine as an astringent, 
but chiefly employed in dyeing. One maund sells 
for 10 rupees. The great importation of alum 
is from China. Surgeons apply it variously, 
after depriving it of its water of crystalliza- 
tion ; and in domestic life it is used for pre- 
cipitating vegetable substances suspended in 
potable water. When Chinese fishermen take 
one of those huge rhizostoma which abound on 
the coast, they rub the animal with the pulverized 
styptic to give a degree of coherence to the gela- 
tinous mass. Chinese architects employ it as a 
cement in those airy bridges which span the 
water-courses. It is poured in a molten state 
into the interstices of stones ; and in structures 
not exposed to constant moisture the cohesion is 
perfect, but in damp situations it becomes a hy- 
drate, and crumbles. In the Sung-yan hills bor- 
dering on Foh-kien, in the district of P'ing-yang, 
Wan-chan prefecture, and in close proximity to 
Peh-kwan harbour, several alum-making establish- 
ments occupy about a mile of the side of a lofty 
hill. In the alum district, the typhoon of Sep- 
tember 1855 was preceded by a rising of water in 
wells and ponds many miles inland. When the 
cyclone reached the coast, it submerged about a 
hundred square miles, occasioning a vast destruc- 
tion of life and property. The waters of the sea 
were retained in the country by strong easterly 
winds for several days, leaving a strip of land 
bordering on the sea quite dry. Alum shale, 
Fan-shih of the Chinese, is found very pure in the 
provinces of Cheh-kiang, Hunan, and Ngan-hwui. 
It is deflagrated by throwing the alum shale into 
brushwood, and macerating the residue in vats. 
The liquor is concentrated in large boilers, having 
iron bottoms and wooden sides, then poured into 
reservoirs to crystallize into large solid masses, 

which are broken into smaller pieces for shipment 
to India and the Archipelago, and for sale. 6000 
tons leave the district of P'ing-yang in one year. 
The purified alum, called Ming-fan and Peh-fan, 
is equal to the best Roman alum. Ferruginous 
alum, Tieh-fan, is a friable mineral of a faint red 
colour, brought from Shen-si Province, China. 
This mineral is largely employed by the Chinese 
in dyeing, and to some extent in paper-making, 
as in Europe. — H. Piddington in As. Soc. of Ben- 
gal; Calc. Cat. Exhib. o/1862j Hon. Mr. Morri- 
son's Foreign Commerce with China ; Irvine's Ajmir ^ 
p. 149 ; O'Sh. Beng. Pharmac. p. 366 ; Simmond^^ 
Comm. Prod. ; Faulkner^s Comm. Diet. ; N. China 
Herald, 23d January 1856; PovoeWs Handbook; 
Smith's Ch. Mat. Med. 

ALUMINA is an earth of common occurrence 
in the mineral kingdom, in a state of silicate ; 
as in felspar and its associate minerals, and in 
the various modifications of clay thence derived. 
Native alumina exists in the sapphire ; the oriental 
emerald, ruby and topaz, corundum, and emery 
consist chiefly of alumina, with a small portion 
of oxide of iron and silica. Alumina has a strong 
affinity for various organic compounds, and its 
use in dyeing and calico printing depends on 
its attraction for different colouring principles, 
and for ligneous fibre. If ammonia be added to 
a solution of alum in an infusion of cochineal or 
madder, the aluminous earth falls in combination 
with the red colouring matter, and the liquor is 
left colourless. Colours thus prepared are called 
Lakes. The Ch'ih-Shih-Chi of the Chinese is a 
pale reddish friable aluminous earth. See Dyes ; 
Precious Stones. 

ALUMU KADA. Tel. Ipomcea filiformis. 

ALUMZAI, a branch of the Momund tribe, 
whose headquarters are at Gandao. 

ALUNDY, a place near Poona where Vishnu 
is believed by the Hindus to have become in- 
carnate about the 15th or 16 th century. See 

ALU PUHUL. Singh. Cucurbita hispida. 

ALUTE. Mar. A share in the corn and garden 
produce of a village, given to the Balute or village 
officers. See Balute. 

ALUVA. Tel. Mauis pentadactyla, Linn. 

ALUVAR or Alvar. Tam. Alvaru, Tel. 
Amongst the southern Vaishnava in the Penin- 
sula of India, twelve reputed saints are said 
to have each written a portion of the Dravida 
Prabandha, or Tamil Veda, chiefly designed for 
Sudras and women. Ramanuja, the founder of 
the Sri-vaishnava sect, is sometimes supposed to 
be the same as Yembiru Manaru, the last of the 
Alvar. Their names are — 

Poyalvar ; 
Puthatalvar ; 
Peyalvar ; 
Tirumal peyalvar ; 
Namalvar ; 
Kula Sec'haralvar ; 
Periyalvar ; 

Tirupanalvar ; 
Tirumangalvar ; 
Tondamalvar ; 
Yempramanar, or Yetaraja, 

or Ramanuja chariar ; 



ALUWIHARA. See Sripada. 

ALWAN, Kashm., or Alwan - i - Sadah, undyed 
shawl stuff; plain pashmina. Alwan ek tara, or 
single thread alwan, is a plain woven pashmina, 
or shawl-wool cloth. Alwan-do-tara is shawl- 
wool cloth woven with fine double thread, hence 
richer and heavier than the ek tara fabric. 
Alwan is also a Turkey-red cotton cloth. 



\IiYA SANTANA, or nephew inheritance; in 

irft, the law of descent to sisters' sons; the 

I16U8 ah utero. The management of property 

ortliiwirily in the females. See Polyaimry. 

\LYSlCAliPUS, a genus of small irees or 

iiii'lcr-shrubs of India and Burma, of the natural 

Older FabaceBB. A. bupleurifolius, Heyneanus, 

ityracifulius, monilifer, vaginalis, and nummularia, 

aebala, Hind., are known. — Voigt, p. 224. 

ALYXIA, a genus of plants of the natural 

order Apocyuaceso. The bark of A. stellata, 

Roxb., of tlie Eastern Archipelago, Society and 

FViendly Islands, contains benzoic acid, and is 

ooescssed of properties analogous to those of 

janella and Winter's bark, used in chronic diar- 

hcea and nervous disorders. A. gynopogon of 

>forfolk Island and A. Moonii of Ceylon are also 

mova.—0'Sh. p. 448 ; Roxb. i. 609. 

AM. Hind. The mango ; fruit of Mangifera 
ndica, also Hippophae rhamnoides. 
AMADA. Bkno. Curcuma amada, 
AMADA KADA. Tel. Cyanotis axillaris. 
AMADIYAH, a district in Kurdistan near the 
/an and Taurus, for about 800 years the head- 
{Uarters of the Kurdish family of Behdir, who 
race their descent from one of the early Abbas- 
ide khalifs. After the overthrow of the Mir of 
lowanduz, it passed without a struggle into the 
Lands of liashid Pacha. 
AMADOU, German tinder, 
punk, .... Eno. I Agaric ; Amadouvier, Fb. 
urgeon's Agaric, . ,, | Zunderschwamm, . Gkr. 
A substance similar to agaric is prepared from 
'olyporus fomentarius, parasitical on the oak, 
irch, etc., and P. igniarius, growing on the 
illow, plum, etc. Amadou is prepared by beat- 
ig thin slices of the fungus, and soaking them 
solution of nitre. Black amadou is impreg- 
ated with gunpowder. 
AMAKARUM. Maleal. Pbysalis somnifera. 
AMAL. Arab. Business affairs. Amaldar, 
Q agent, a revenue oflBcer. 
AMAL. Hind. Opium. Amal-lar-khana, 'to 
it opium together,' is the most inviolable pledge 
mongst the Kajputs, and an agreement ratified 
f this ceremony is stronger than any adjuration, 
a Rajput pay a visit, the first question is, 
/Vmal khya? 'Have you had your opiate?' — 
Amal khao;' 'Take your opiate!' On a birth- 
(y, when all the chiefs convene to congratulate 
leir brother on another ' knot to his years,' the 
'ge cup is brought forth, a lump of opium put 
Mrein, upon which water is poured, and by the 
iia of a stick a solution is made, to which each 
6^ his neighbour, not with a glass, but with 
hollow of his hand held to his mouth. — Tod's 
'^xthan, voL i. p. 644. 

AMAL, or Aonla. Hind. Emblica officinalis. 
AMAL. Panj. Sour ; hence Amal-bel, CissuB 
OBUs ; Amal-gach'h, Prunus puddum ; and 
'. Tamarindus Indica. 
AMALAH is a subdivision of the Peshkoh 
of the Luri Kuchak tribe in Khuzistan, 
.irising about 2000 families. Their summer 
Oarters are about Khoramabad and Terhan, and 
printer they go to Saemara and Koh-dasht. — 
tmavard; M'G. p. 22. 
|| AMALARI, a division of the Brahui tribe 

;zangi, on the same hills as the Minghal. 
il AM^lLE ARISI. Tam. a variety of rice. 
AMALGAM. Mercury dissolves most of the 

metals, and forms a cIam of oompouDda tennud 
amalKaniB. They are usually brittle or «of U Tb« 
amalgam of tin is readily formed, hj tritantitig 
the metals together, or by fusion at a gentle beat, 
and is extensively used for lilTering looking- 
g lmw . An amalgam of three part* merourj, one 
part lead, and one part bistnuth, is remarkable for 
Us fluidity, and may be stiueezed through leallber 
without decomposition, ft is used for lilTaiiBg 
the inside of hollow glass spberea, previooaly 
made clean and warm. All the amalgams can M 
decomposed at a moderate heat ; and aidrantage is 
taken of this property in the arte of water giUing 
and water silvering, and the cold tinning of cast 
iron, wrought iron, steel, copper, and many other 
metals. The processes are followed in India. 
The amalgam used in dentistry consists of gold 
of purest kind and tin, each one part, silver two 
parts. Melt, and when required for use reduce to 
a fine powder, and make an amalgam with mercury. 
In China, Yin-kau, Yin-ts'ui, is a mixture of pewter 
and silver leaf with mercury, used internally as 
a medicine, but also employed for stopping teeth 
and for making false teeth. — Tomlinson ; Smith. 

AMALTAS. Hind. Cathartocarpus fistula. 

AMAMA. Hind. A large loose turban of 
shawl, etc., worn by Musalmans ; qu. Imama. 

AM AN. Hind. Low lands yielding one crop a 
year. Also Ar., free ; the soldier's" cry for quarter. 

AMANAKU ARISI. Maleal. Seeds of Ri- 
cinus communis ; lit. lamp-rice. 

AMANAT, also Amani. Hind. Held in trust 
by the State, as an estate. 

AMANJl. Tam. Compulsory labour.— W. 

AMARA KOSHA, by Amara Sinha, also called 
Amara Deva, is the most esteemed of all the San- 
skrit vocabularies. The author was one of the 
nine poets who adorned the court of Vikramaditya, 
who seems to have been a Buddhist. Another of 
this name is supposed to have lived about a.d. 
948. His book was translated into English by 
Colebrooke, and printed in India, and into French 
by A. L. Deslongchamps. and printed in Diglot 
in 1839. The Amara Kosha, Trikanda Sesha, 
HaravaJi, and Medini Kosha, four original voca- 
bularies, were printed at Khidurpur in 1807. The 
poems of Amara Sinha perished during the perse- 
cutions to which the Buddhists were subjected. 

AMARANTUS, a genus of plants of the natural 
order Amaraotaceae ; several which have bright- 
coloured leaves are ornamental. About 26 species 
and varieties are grown. A. anardana, A, fru- 
mentaceus, and A. lappica produce seed in suffi- 
cient abimdance to be ^thered as grain crops ; their 
stems and leaves are used as greens and spinach. 
A. paniculata in three months yielded 8 oz. of 
seed on a square jrard. Under the vernacular 
name of 'nuteyse,' they are used as emollients, 
cataplasms, and for diluent drinks. A. tricolor, 
A. caudatus, or 'Love lies bleeding,' A. hypo- 
chondriacus, or 'Prince's feather,' are flowering 
plants. The last is found wild in the south of 
England. A. Blituin, Linn., of Europe, A. campes- 
tris, Willde, have minute greenish flowers, as also 
has A. polystachys, the Kupei-kird of the Tamils. 

Amarantus anardana. Ham. 

Dartu, . . . POSHT. 

Siril, sandn, aanara, 

batu, ganhar, . Beas. 
Siul, sawal, bhabri, Chen. 
Lai chanlai, . . HiND. 
Ganhar, Jh£LUX., Kanob. 

Kali Buval, Lai siwal, 
siwaliira, . . Ravi. 

Sarcra, dankar, bitha 
cbanlei, tulaia, SCTUU. 




Dr. Stewart gives these as vernacular synonyms 
both of A. anardana and A. Gangeticus. He says 
A. anardana is often in the Panjab grown among 
other crops, up to 9000 feet. A. Gangeticus 
appears to be wild also in the plains. The leaves 
are eaten as a pot herb, but it is grown chiefly 
for the seed, used as a food-grain after parching. 

Amarantus atropurpureus, Roxh. 

Kunka nuti, 


Shegapu thandu-ldrai, 

Yerra totakama kura,TEL. 

This is probably a variety of A. oleraceus, an 
annual with beautiful red foliage and diminutive 
flowers. It gives a good spinach, though seldom 
used by Europeans. 

Amarantus campestris, Willde. 
Churi-ki-bhaji, . DuK. I Sirru kirai, . . Tam. 
Mekanada, Ganna, Sansk. | Sirru kura, . . Tel. 

A. campestris and A. polygonoides ? are com- 
monly cultivated by native gardeners for spinach, 
during the hot months ; require to be used when 
three or four inches high, are of rapid growth, and 
should be sown every third or fourth week. 

Amarantus caudatus, Linn., the Ye-hien-tsai 
of the Chinese, the love lies bleeding of our 
gardens, is commonly cultivated for ornament. 
The Chinese formerly ate it as a vegetable. 

Amarantus cruentus. 
Batu zard, . . . Peks. I Bostan-afroz, . . Pers. 
Taj-i-khurus, . . „ | 

Bread cakes made from its seed are a common 
food with the peasants of the Himalayas. 

Amarantus fasciatus, Roxb. 
Tun-tuni-nuti, . Beng. | Ban-nuti, . , . Beng. 

Has minute greenish flowers. 

Amarantus frumentaceus, Buck. 
Bathu, .... Panj. I Pungh-kirai, . . Tam. 
Kirai, .... Tam. | 

A large luxuriant species, grows in the hills 
between Mysore and Coimbatore, also on the 
Neilgherries. In the Calcutta Botanic Garden, 
forty square yards, sown in June, yielded 21 lbs. of 
clean seed in September. It is cultivated by the 
hill people of S. India for the seeds, which are 
ground into flour, and form one of their principal 
articles of diet. Seeds used by the Hindus as the 
kernel of comfits. The leaves are of a reddish 
brown colour, and the plant averages in height 
from four to six feet. 

Amarantus Gangeticus, Linn. 
Lal-shak, Kanga-shak, I Lal-sag, . . . HiND. 
Beng. | 

Sown broadcast, and always procurable. The 
leaves are very generally used as spinach. There 
are many varieties, with colours from green to 
bright red. They cannot be cut. 

Amarantus lanceolatus. Banspata nuteeya, 
Beng. Bamboo-leaved amaranth. The leaves 
and tender tops are eaten by natives in their 
curries, and used as emollient poultices. 

Amarantus oleraceus, Linn., country greens. 

Var. a. viridis. b. ruber, c. albus. d. giganteus. 
Shedakh-nindi? . Arab. Tota kura, . . . Tel. 

Sadanuti, . , 
Ma-ch'i-hien, . 
Dat-ki-bhaji, . 
Thandu-kire, . 





Var. alba— Telia 
tota kura, . . 

Var. rubra ? — Yerra 
tota kura, . . 

Var. gigantea — 
Mokka, also Peruga, 

This an^aranth is, more than all the others, in 
use with Eiiropeans in India. The peeled stalks 
resemble asparagus in form, and are pleasant to 
eat. The varieiy A. viridis, the common green 

sort, is most cultivated. A. ruber, with its bright 
stems but rusty-coloured leaves, is showy in a 
garden. A. albus, with white shining stems, is 
the sada-nuti of Bengal, and is much cultivated 
there. But the A. giganteus, from five to eight 
feet high, is that which Europeans mostly esteem. 

Amarantus polygamus, L. ; var. ruber. 
Champa nuti, . . Beng. Chumli sag, . . Hind. 

Champa nuteya 

Chulai, .... 


(var. lal.), . . 




Shakini, . . . 


Mulli kirey, . . 


Poorika, . . . 

Dela kura, Doggali 

Ragiri-ki-bhaji, . 


kura, Erra Dog- 

Chulai-gaji, . . 


gali kura, . . 


This is cultivated all over southern Asia, There 
are three or four varieties, with various coloured 
leaves. It is one of the best of the Indian 
spinachs. It is raised from seed during the hot 
months, and requires to be sown thick, and eatea 
when young ; generally used when two feet high. 
The humbler natives are seldom able to purchase 
this vegetable, it being too costly. 

Amarantus polygonoides, Roxb. 
Cliiru nuti, . . Beng. I Ban tanduli, . . Hind. 
Chilu nutiya, . . ,, | Chira-kura, . . Tel. 

Very small and common garden weed, used as 
a pot herb, and deemed by natives wholesome for 

Amarantus spinosus, Linn. 
Kanta nuti, . . Beng. i Mulu kire, . . . Tam, 
Thorny amaranth, Eng. Mulu tota kura, . Tel. 
MuUan-chira, . Maleal, Nalla doggali, . ,, 
Mula-karang-varai- Erra mulu gor- 

Puttai, . . . Tam. ' anta, .... ,, 

This grows as a very troublesome weed all over 
Southern India and Burma, It has sharp spines 
in the axils of its leaves, and it is troublesome to 
pick them, though they make a good spinach and 
pot herb. 

Amarantus tenuifolius, Roxb. 
Ghinti-nuti, . . Beng, I Mulleero, . . . SiND. 
Jeel-chumli, . . ,, | Katoo-sirroo-kirai, Tam. 

A weed with clusters of green flowers proceed- 
ing from the axils of the leaves ; stem much 
branched ; found everywhere spreading in culti- 
vated grounds. 

Amarantus tricolor, Wight. 

Mat-ki-bhaji, , 

. DUK. 

Aray-kirai, . . . 


Jillaka, . . . 

. Sansk. 



Kuppai-kirai, . 

. Tam. 



Remarkable for its variegated leaves ; the centre 
of it is red and pale yellow ; propagated by seed 

Amarantus tristis, Linn. 
Mat-ki-bhaji, Dux., Hind. I Kuppi kire ; Arakire,TAM. 
Jillaka, .... Sansk. | Koya tota kura, . Tel. 

This annual is cultivated and held in great esteem 
by the natives. It may be cut down several times 
without destroying the plants, which are much 
used for food. 

Amarantus viridis, Linn., has minute greenish 
flowers, and its tender tops are eaten, but less 
esteemed than others of this genus. — Ainslie ; Cleg- 
horn, Panj. Report ; Jaffrey^s Hints ; Mason^s 
Burma ; &Sh. Beng. Disp. ; Powell, Handbook ; 
RiddelVs Gardening ; Roxb. F. Ind. ; Smith, Chin. 
M. M. ; J. L. Stewart ; Voigt ; von Mueller. 

AMARAPURA, on the east bank of the Ira- 
wadi river, in lat. 21° 67' N., long. 73° 4' E., a 
former capital of Burma. The name is derived 
from the Pali, and means the immortal city. It 
was re-occupied when Ava was abandoned. The 
Burmese kings vary their capitals, and Amara- 




pura WAS abandoned in 1860. — YtM» Emba$»yy 
p. ISO. 

AMARA SINHA. See Amara Kosha. 

AMAKA VATI, the capital of Indra; alao a 
name given to several towns in pouiusular India, 
frequcutly spelt Oomraoti or Aniraoti. Aniaravati, 
in lat. 20° 66' 46" N., and long. 77" 47' 30" E., a 
largo commercial town in Berar, built on a plain 
vith hills to the west. It is in the Hyderabad 
Assignetl Districts, 928 feet above the sea. The 
district holds the Pola and other fairs. 

AMAKA VATI, a small town on the S. bank of 
the Kishna river, 20 miles W. of Guntoor, in the 
Madras Presidency, in lat. 16° 34' 45" N., and 
lat 80° 24' 21" E., with a population of 2156 
persons. It was one of the c'lief centres of the 
ancient buddhist kingdom of Vengi ; and a 
ruined buddhist tope there has created an interest 
in the place. The town was called Dipaldmua, 
translated by Colonel Mackenzie, the ' Mound of 
Lights,' which resembles the name of a similar 
place of Buddhist celebrity in Ceylon (Damba- 
dinna). He found its outer diameter 195 feet and 
165 feet. Portions of its remains were sent by the 
Editor in 1857 to Great Britain, and they are now in 
the British Museum. .The portions sent were of 
three kinds, viz. — 1. Large and coarse, belonging to 
the central building ; 2. Carvings belonging to the 
inner rail, so delicate as to seem rather to belong 
to ivory than to stone ; 3. A group belonging to 
the outer rail. The quantity of the sculptures was 
amazing. The central discs of the pillars alone 
contained from 6000 to 7000 figures. If we 
add to these the continuous frieze above, and 
the sculptures above and below the discs on the 
pillars, there probably were not less than from 
120 to 140 figures for each intercoluraniation, say 
12,000 to 14,000 in all. The inner rail probably 
contains even a greater number of figures than 
this, and they are so small as more to resemble 
ivory carving. But except perhaps the great frieze 
at Nakhon Vat in Cambodia, there is not, even 
in India, and certainly not in any other part of 
the world, a storied page of sculpture equal in 
extent to what this must have been when com- 
plete. The subjects of these sculptures are 
very various, — animals, bulls, elephants, etc., 
very well depicted ; feasts, concerts of instruments, 
icenes from the life of Buddha. — Jour. Ben. As. 
Soc; E. Balfour in Joum. Madras Lit. Soc, 
1860 ; and Govt. Central Museum Report for 
1867 ; SeweWs Report on the Amraoti 7'ope, 1880 ; 
Darwinism in Morals; Fergusson's Tree and 
Serpent Worship; Fergusson and Burgess's Cave 
Temples; Imp. Gazetteer. 

AMAIi BAURIA. Hind. Cuscuta reflexa, 
literally the undying creeper, used medicinally in 
heumatism, and by alchemists. 

AMARDAD-SAL, a Parsee holiday, held on 
the day following the Khurdad-sal, of which festi- 
val it is merely a continuation. — The Parsees. 

AMAR-DHOB, also Dhoorba. Hind. Cynodon 
dactylon ; amongst the Rajputs, the father binds 
its root around the arm of a new-born son. 

AMARKANTAK, a hill in the Bilaspur dis- 
trict of the Central Provinces, in lat. 22° 40' 16" 
N., and long. 81° 48' 13" E. The mean height 
ibove the sea of the plateau Vishnapuri, is 3590 
feet The tank of Pach Kund, the source of the 
Narbada, is 3504 feet. The top of the hills skirting 
Vishnapuri plateau to the north, 3700 feet, 100 

feet above the Viahnapari plataui. by aneroid. 
Near this. Captain Jenkins of the Madnut Arnjy 
discovered coal. Amarkantak pUteau forma the 
watershed of the Mahanadi, 8oo, Tons, Johiila, 
and Nerbudda. These riven, thooc^ Ijuve aud 
full of water, even hiUf way from their tDoauii, are 
very irregular in the slopes of their beds, and an 
disturbed by frecjuent rapids, so that, owing to 
these impediments, increa^ still furtiier by the 
rocky character of the river beds or their banks, 
navigation is limited for the most part to the 
lower portions of their course. — Madrcu MuMum 

AMARNATH or Ambemath, a temple five 
miles from Kallian, about forty miles from Bom- 
bay ; it means immortal lord. It is now a Saiva 
institution, and in ruins, but has evidently be- 
longed to some prior creed, probably buddhist, and 
re-arranged for the Saiva sect A.s. 782, a.d. 800. 
The lingam, yona, and vahan nandi are still ther& 
It is sacred to Shambha. An inscription found 
in it is dated Saka 982, a.d. 1060. 

AMARYLLIS, a genus of the Amaryllaccaj, 
the narcissus tribe of flowering plants, the species 
being known as Americana, Asiatica, aurea, Bar- 
badoes. Cape, equestrian, frittilaria or snake's 
head lily, golden, Mexican, parrot, tiger lily, 
and Turk's cap, mostly natives of China, Cape of 
Good Hope, and America, but quite acclimated 
in India, and found almost in every flower garden. 
They blossom during the rainy and cold season. 
The colours are of every variety, — red, white, 
pink, etc. The wild flower of frittilaria hangs 
pendulous, and is chequered with pale dark 
purple; specific name from frittillas, a dice 
board. In India, several are known as Sosan, a 
Mahomedan name, the Susan of Christian women. 
A. aurea, golden amaryllis, the Zard Sosan of the 
Persians, is very ornamental. A. Belladonna 
has large veined greenish white and carmine 
coloured flowers. The roots of the Shan-tsze-ku 
or Man-ku of the Chinese, a splendid flowering 
plant, are used medicinally. — Sjnith; Roxb.; Voigt; 
Riddell; Hog, 768 ; Gen. Med. Top. p. 188. 

Suk'h-darsan of India, is cultivated for its flowers ; 
the strained juice of two drams reduced to a pulp 
with water is said to be a good emetic, and is 
dropped into the ear for earache. — Stewart, Panjab 
Plants, p. 232. 

AMARYLLIS RADIATA, Willde, the Yuk-lan 
of the Chinese ; a native of China, blossoming 
during the rainy season. — Roxh. ii. 140. 

AMAS. Sansk. , Tel. Moonless period of the 
month. See Amavasya. 

AMATSJA. Javan. Hydrangea Thunbergii. 

AMATUM. Tel. Spondias mangifera, Pers. ; 
S. dulcis, Fovster. 

AMAVASYA, or Amasi, or Amas. S.\nsk., 
Tel., Tam. The conjunction of the sun and 
moon ; the ides of the month, also called Arcenda 
Sangama (written Area Indu) ; Ama and Darsa 
Tithi are other names given to the lunar day, on 
which the conjunction occurs, which in the 11 indu 
calendar is always reckoned the 30th of the lunar 
month. Amavasya Tithi, the lunar day of the 
moon's change. The Amavasya is observed as 
a fast-day by all Brahmans and strict Hindus, 
during which they perform various religious 
ceremonies for their deceased parents. — Captain 
Edward Warren's Kala Sanhita. 




AMAWATURA, a book of legends in Sin- 

AMAZON STONE, a compact felspar of an 
emerald green colour, opaque, with nacrous re- 
flections. It is hard, and takes a high polish. 

AMBAGARH CHAUKI, a zamindari on the 
N.W. frontier of the Chanda district. Gonds, 
with a sprinkling of GauU, inhabit it ; the lan- 
guages spoken are Gondi and the Ch'hattisgarhi 

AMBAKAPI, the Amakatis of Ptolemy, a town 
in the Eastern Panjab. 

AMBA KURB. Mahr. Cupania canescens. 

AMBALA, a large military station in the 
Panjab, in lat. 30° 21' 4" N., and long. 76° 48' 88" 
E., and 1026 feet above the sea. — See Umballa. 

AMBALA CHETTU. Tel. Spondias mangi- 

AMBALAKAREN, the tribal titular appellation 
of the KoUari tribes of Madura and the Tondaman 

AMBALAM. Maleal. Spondias mangifera. 

AMB ALAM. Tam. A public hall in Malabar ; 
a Hindu temple. Ambala Vasi, a caste in Travan- 
core who make garlands ; they are attendants in 
temples, and rank between Brahmans and Nairs. 

AMBALAY. Maleal. Carica papaya. 

AMBALIKA, mentioned in the Mahabharata 
was the younger widow of Vichitra Virya, and 
mother of Pandu by Vyasa. Ambi or Ambika, 
her sister, was the elder widow, and was mother 
of Dhrita-rashtra. — Doivson. 

AMBALITA, a small tree of Ganjam. The juice 
of the leaves is mixed with mercury, and taken 
internally for rheumatism and other diseases. 

AMBALU. Maleal. Lac. 

AMBARA. Tel. Spondias mangifera. 

AMBAR-BATTL Hind. A perfumed pastille, 
made from frankincense, used in India. 

AMBARI. Hind. A howdah with a canopy 
or umbrella cover ; a canopied seat on an elephant ; 
a litter borne by a camel. 

AMBARL DuK., Mahr. 

Dekhani hemp, Bombay. 
Brown hemp of Bombay. 
PaUangu hemp of Madras. 
Pulchi fibre, ,, 

Kudrum . . ofBEHAE. 
Pat Beng. 

Maesta pat, . . Beng. 
Puli numaji, CoiMBATORE. 
Valaiti sunn of Mdttea. 
Ambaya pata in Purneta. 
Sunni . of Sahaeunpur. 
Gong kura, . . . Tel. 

This fibre is manufactured from the Hibiscus 
cannabinus, largely used in India, and exported as 
one of the hemps. Ambari ki bhaji, DuK., greens 
of Hibiscus cannabinus. — Linn. ; Riddell ; Royle. 

AMBASHTHA, or Ambhashta, a Hindu of the 
medical profession. They are numerous- in Behar, 
and are said to be Sudras in caste. 

Baliyus, . . . Arab. | Elchi, . . Hind., Pebs. 

In Mahomedan traditions, it is mentioned that 
An-Rafia was sent as an ambassador to Mahomed 
by the unbelievers of Mecca. But when he 
heard Mahomed preach, he embraced Islam, and 
refused to return to Mecca ; whereupon the 
Prophet spoke of the sacred character of ambas- 
sadors, declined to sanction Au-Rafia's breach of 
duty, and persuaded him to go back. On another 
occasion, an ambassador who claimed to be a 
prophet, and was an enemy of the new faith, 
expressed his contempt for Islam in the presence 
of Mahomed ; but the Prophet merely replied 
that but for the respect with which Islam re- 

garded ambassadors, his presumptuous language 
might have cost him his life. Respect for the 
representatives of other nations was enjoined 
upon his followers by Mahomed in the last 
moments of his life. 

AMBATCH, a wood seldom larger than a man's 
waist, and, as it tapers naturally to a point, canoe 
rafts are quickly formed by lashing the branches 
parallel to each other, and tying the narrow ends 
together. It is a curious combination of raft and 
canoe ; the Ambatch wood is so light, that the 
whole affair is portable. 

AMBATI MADDU. Tel. Trianthema ob- 
cordatum, Roxh. 

AMBATTAN. Tam. Barber. 

AMBATTEEYO, an outcast race in Uvah in 
Ceylon, deemed so degraded that even the Rodiya 
prevent their dogs from eating the fragments of 
food cooked by them. — Tennent. 

AMBAYA-PATA. Beng. Crotalaria juncea. 

AMBEL. Maleal. Nymphoea pubescens. 

AMBER, or Dundhwar, in lat. 26° 68' 45" N., 
and long. 75° 52' 50" E., the early capital of 
Jeypore, built by Jey Singh, and a city of great 
architectural beauty, situated in a rocky mountain 
gorge, where there are several Hindu temples, 
and the palace is stiU kept up. According to Tod, 
Amber gave its name to a Rajput dynasty, of the 
Surya Vansa race, a scion of Nirwar, and, accord- 
ing to Prinsep, the ranas of Amber are of the Cuch- 
waha race of Rajputs, who claim descent from 
Gush, second son of Rama, king of Ayodhya, who 
migrated, and built the fort of Rotas on the Sone. 
Authentic history commences in a.d. 294, with 
Raja Nola, who founded Narwaz or Nishidr. The 
political power of this family dates from Hamayun, 
the son of Baber. — Thomas^ Prinsep' s Antiquities^ 
p. 259 ; TocTs Rajasthan, pp. 299-331 ; Imp. Gaz. 


Ambre Fb. 

Bernstein, .... Geb. 

rMxTpov, .... GR. 

Chashmal, .... Heb. 

Ambra, .... It. 

Ambar, succino, . Sp. 

Anibar Tam. 

Amber is first mentioned in Ezekiel i. 4, 27, 
and viii. 2. Thales noticed it B.C. 600, and 
Theophrastus B.C. 300. It has always been held 
in estimation by eastern nations for medicinal use 
and for ornament. It is found on the shores of 
the Baltic and the Adriatic, on the eastern coast 
of England, and on that of Sicily ; and in Prussia 
it is obtained by sinking shafts to the depth of 
100 feet, to a stratum of fossil wood, in which 
the amber is found in rounded pieces from a few 
grains to five pounds in weight. It is also ob- 
tained along the coasts of America, Africa, and 
the Archipelago islands. Dr. Smith mentions 
that the Chinese market is supplied from Annam, 
the Indian Archipelago, and, according to Dr. 
Williams, from Africa; but Corea, Cambodia, 
and Japan are also said to yield it ; small pieces 
of an indifferent colour are brought from Li- 
kiang-fu and Yung-chang-fu in Yunnan. A 
dark jade-like amber comes from Tangut. The 
best pieces are all made into court-beads and 
ornaments. The Chinese name Hu-peh is from 
a legend that the soul (peh) of the tiger (hu) is 
changed into this substance after death. The 
Burmese, perhaps more than any other nations, 
use it. In every bazaar of India, medicine vendors 

Inkitriun, . . . 

. Arab. 

Kuru-ul-Bahr ? 

• 99 

Ambeng, . . 


Hu-peh, . . 

; Chin. 

Kiang-chu, . 


Kahruba, . . 

. DUK. 


. . DUT. 



retail what tboy call amber, though tho bulk of 
this is a Bcurcliud gum or copal <lried by artificial 
heat, or fosail copal. Amber is of a yellow colour, 
varying from a bright golden yellow to yellowish 
white ; it is semi-transparent, and shining with a 
resinous lustre. It is now generally believed to 
be tlio gum of some coniferous plants, and often 
baa ants, flies, or other insects embedded in it, 
indicating its once softer condition. It is electric 
when rubbed, hence its Latin and Greek names. 
Roman ladies highly prized it. Japanese parti- 
cularly value the transparent yellow kinds. Dr. 
Hooker tells us (Jouriml, ii. 194) that the lumps 
of amber forming the necklaces of the women of 
Sikkim (called Poshea) are procured in East 
Tibet, but he surmises that they are brought 
from Burma, where Dr. Bayfield first, and since 
his time Yule, tells us (Embassy, p. 147) that it 
is found in the valley of Hukong (which takes 
its Burmese name of Phyendwen from the amber 
mines), near the sources of the Kyendwen, in lat. 
26° 20' N., and long. 96° E., and close to the Assam 
border. It is found with small masses of lignite 
(which furnish the indication in seeking for it) in 
a dark carbonaceous earth covered with red clay. 
It is extracted from square pits, reaching some- 
times to a depth of forty feet, and so narrow that 
the workmen ascend and descend by placing their 
feet in holes made on two sides of the pit, no 
sheeting being used. Mr. Walton mentions that 
the Hukong valley, occupied by the Singpho, is a 
tract of small hillocks, the highest not exceeding 
fifty feet Pits, he says, about three feet square 
are dug to a depth of six to fifteen feet, in a reddish 
and yellow clayey soil, which when first broken 
has a fine aromatic smell, but afterwards acquires 
that of coal tar. In 1837, only about a dozen 
people found employment at these mines. The 
valley of Hukong produces salt, gold, and ivory 
in addition to amber. The common mixed amber 
is sold at Ava at 2^ tikals a viss, or 4 rupees for 
H seers ; the price varies according to colour and 
transparency. For mouth-pieces of pipes it varies 
in price from lOs. to £15 the pound, according to 
its colour and size. — Ainslie's Mat. Ind. ; Mason^s 
Buiina ; Yule's Embassy, p. 147 ; Thunherg's 
Japan, ii. 61 ; Hooker's Him. Journ. ii. 194 ; 
Walton's Stat. p. 38-9 ; Bingley, i. 162. 

AMBERBOA, a genus of E. Indian flowering 
plants of the natural order Matricariaceae. There 
tte A. Indica, with large purplish rose-coloured 
flowers; A. odorata, and its variety ambracea, 
with bright-scented sweet-smelling flowers ; and 
A. moschata, the shah-pasand of India, and sweet 
saltan of England. — Roxburgh, iii. 417 ; Voigt, p. 


Amber, Arab., Fk., Dtrr. 

Payen-anbhat, . . Bukm. 

^mbragrigia, . . It. 

.un-8ura-no-fun, . Jap. 

This opaque, solid substance is generally found 
n the intestines or stomach of the Physeter 
iiacroceplialus, the blunt-headed cachelot, or sper- 
naceti whale, though every species of cachelot is 

"1 to yield it. It is usually of a bright grey 
Miour, or white, or yellow, or black, or ash colour, 
nottled with yellow and black, and is generally 
mppoaed to be a morbid product, analogous to 
lihary calculi, and not to be foimd in the healthy 
animal 362 oz. liave been taken from the body 

Ambra, . . . 



. Singh. 




. Tam. 

of a email whole. It occurs in Imnpa from three 
to twelve inches thick, weighing from 4 oi. to 18S 
lbs., and mixed with vegetable and animal remains. 
It is softened by beat, in which state it has a 
powerful smell, which to some persons is very 
disagreeable. Indeed, when first taken from the 
intestines, its fetid smell is disgusting. It ia often 
found floating in the lied 8ea, on the east sbona 
of Africa, on the ocean south of Asia, and the coun- 
tries it surrounds export it largely to China. Some 
sorts met with in Japan resemble coarse bitumen, 
or asphalte, or black naphtha dried, conscnucntly 
more or less black and heavy, and all differing 
in consistence. Other sorts are whiter in various 
degrees ; and some sorts are exceedingly light, and 
not unlike a mushroom, which induced ocaliger 
to concur with Serapion, that it might well be a 
sort of a fungus marinus, or sea mushroom. The 
Chinese test its goodness by throwing some of it, 
scraped very fine, into boiling hot tea, when, if 
pure, it will diffuse itself equally through the fluid. 
It swims on water. A factitious article appears in 
the Chinese market, pure white, and apparently 
smooth and homogeneous. Garcias-ab-Orta tells 
(A. H. I. i. c. t.) of very large pieces; and when 
Thunberg was in Japan, a very good piece of a fine 
greyish ambergris was found upon the coasts of 
Kijnokuni, which weighed upwards of a hundred 
catti Japanese, that is, 130 lbs. Dutch weight, and, 
being by much too large to be purchased by one 
person, it was divided into four parts, in form of 
a cross, and one of the four parts was tendered to 
him. In 1693, after he had left Japan, a tortoise- 
shaped piece, weighing 186 lbs. Dutch, was sold by 
the king of Tidore to the Dutch East India Com- 
pany for 11,000 rixdollars, or upwards of £2000 
sterling. It was sent to Amsterdam the year after, 
and was kept in the Company's museum. It was 
of a greyish colour, and of a very good sort. It 
was bought on condition tlmt if it should be dis- 
covered to have been in any way adulterated, 
the money shoidd be restored. Dr. Valentine, 
professor at Gissen, figured it in his Afuseum 
Museorum, lib. 3. c 28, as did also Rumph in his 
Amboinsche Raritertkammer, t. liii. and liv., from 
which, it seems, Valentine took it. Lane tells 
of a piece weighing about 12^ lbs. — Bingley; 
Thunberg' s History of Japan, ii. p. 48; Pennant's 
Hindoostan, i. p. 148 ; Low's Sarawak, p. 90 ; 
I'avemier's Travels, p. 162 ; Bennet, WhaUng 
Voyage, ii. p. 226 ; Lane. 

AMBER, LIQUID; Liquidamber. 
Mia-Sailah, . . Arab. I Liquidamber, . Eno. 
Nan-tu-yok, . . Burm. | Basa-Malay, . . Malay. 

A resinous fluid, obtained from trees that grow 
in North America, Mexico, the Levant, in the 
Tenasserim Provinces, and Java, and used to mix 
with balsam of Peru. The bark of Liquidamber 
altingia is bitter, hot, and aromatic, and when 
wounded affords this balsam. A similar substance 
is obtained from L. orientalc of the I^evant islands, 
and L. styraciflua of Mexico. — Mason's Tenas- 
serim ; O'Sh. pp. 255, 610. See Liquidamber. 

AMBHA, a goddess worshipped by the Kathi 
race. Ambha-mat'ha, a goddess of the Jaina 
sect, worshipped in many parts of India. 

AMBHOTA. Uria. Bauhinia, species. 

AMBI-HALDI. Hind. Curcuma zedoaria. 

AMBI JOGHI, a town in the Dekban, in long. 
76° 30' E., and lat. 18° 61' N. It is generally 
called Mominabad, a military station of the 




Hyderabad contingent. It has some ancient 
Brahmanical temples. 

AMBIKA, a name of Parvati ; also the patron 
goddess of Neminath. Ambika is one of the Girnar 
guardian deities. Her temple occupies a prominent 
position. See Girnar. 

AMBISACES, king of the Indian mountaineers, 
who sent ambassadors with presents to Alexander, 
on his crossing over to Taxiles. Rennell supposes 
his tribe to have been the ancestors of the Ghikar. 

AMBLYCEPHIDJE, the family of blunt-headed 
innocuous snakes. See Reptiles. 

shore lizard of the Galapagos, from 3 to 4 feet 
long, with a crest on its head, which is short and 
obtusely truncated, and broader than long. The 
mouth can be opened to a very small extent. It 
is common on all the islands on that archipelago, 
on rocky sea-beaches, is never found ten yards in 
shore, and lives on sea-weed. It is a hideous- 
looking creature, of a dirty black colour, stupid 
and sluggish in its movements. 

AMBONG, in Borneo, a small town in lat. 6° 
18' 26" N., long. 116° 16' 33" E. The famous 
mountain Kina Balu lies in an E.S.E. direction 
from the head of the harbour, distant 27 miles, and 
adds much to the beauty of the neighbouring 
scenery. The Orang Dusun aborigines reside close 
to the coast. Bullocks of a good breed are obtain- 
able. — Jour. Ind. Arch, iv., 1850. 

AMBOORESA. Tam.,Tel. Women's coloured 
cotton cloths. See Cloths. 

AMBOYNA, the name of a high island in the 
Eastern Archipelago, 33 to 36 miles long, and the 
largest of the Moluccas group, and also its chief 
town. In this island, on 16th February 1623, the 
Dutch put eighteen Englishmen to the rack, and 
afterwards beheaded nine of them. One Portu- 
guese and nine Japanese were put to death at the 
same time, as accomplices with the English, a deed 
known in English history as the Massacre of Am- 
boyna. Amboyna was captured by the British, 
16th February 1796. The Amboynese are of the 
Malayan race, short, squat, and darker in com- 
plexion than the Javanese. They are gentle, 
brave, easily managed, and make good mounted 
and foot soldiers ; a considerable number of them 
have embraced Christianity. They are good- 
tempered, though impetuous, and generally very 
sober. Amboyna, like the other spice islands, is 
volcanic ; and with Banda, Ternate, Tidore, and 
smaller islands in their neighbourhood, are fer- 
tile in fine spices. But the Djitgh nation, to 
secure a monopoly of this class of products, for 
years rooted up and destroyed, at a ^eat cost, 
often by force of arms, every nutmeg or clove tree 
not required for the production of that quantity 
of spices which they calculated they could dispose 
of. Rosingain, near Banda, was almost abandoned 
after the extirpation of its spice trees, its people 
emigrating to the neighbouring islands in search 
of a livelihood. The volcanic soil of Amboyna 
is rich in the finer woods ; and a Dutch botanist 
presented to a Duke of Tuscany a cabinet 
inlaid with 400 specimens, all obtained in the 

On the 17th February 1674, according to Valen- 
tyn, Amboyna suffered from a heavy earthquake, 
and Mount Ateti or Wawanu on Hitu, west of the 
village of Zyt, poured out a great quantity of hot 
mud, which flowed down to the sea. The west 

side of the island is called Hitu, and the east side 

In 1815, during the eruption of Tomboro, on 
Sumbawa, an earthquake was felt at several parts 
of Amboyna. 

On the 1st November 1835, earthquake shocks 
of great violence began, and continued for three 
weeks, during which the whole population left 
their houses. The island, previously healthy, then 
began to be subject to a gastric fever, which 
continued till 1845. 

On the 20th July 1845, another heavy earth- 
quake occurred, when the gastric fever gained 
fresh strength, and, after other shocks on the 18th 
and 20th March 1850, the disease again reappeared. 

Amboyna and Banda are supposed to have been 
discovered by Antonio d'Abreu, a Portuguese 
captain, who left Malacca in 1511, but Ludovica 
Barthema (Vartoma) of Bologna claimed to have 
been there in 1506. — TFa^/. ii. pp. 79-90 ; Hogen- 
drop, Coup d'ceil sur Java ; St. JohrCs Indian 
Archipelago; Crawfurd's Malay Grammar and 
Dictionary^ i. p. 131; Horshurgh; M^Farlane, 
Japan, p. 44 ; Bikmore, pp. 129, 169. See India. 

AMBOYNA WOOD, or Lingoa. or Kayu-boka, 
a fragrant and very beautiful wood of various 
colours, used in cabinet work in Great Britain, sup- 
posed to be from the Pterospermum Indicum. 
It is beautifully mottled and curled, of various 
tints from light red to dark yellow, and is always 
in lumps, evidently excrescences or burrs cut 
from trees. The several varieties of this wood 
are principally used for inlaying, and by the 
makers of ornamental snuff-boxes. It is brought 
from Ceram and Amboyna, and at the Great 
Exhibition of 1851 it was sent from Singapore. 
— Archer; Faulkner; Lond. Ex. Juries^ Reports. 

AMBUJ. Hind. Lotus; Nelumbium specio- 

AMBUL-BEL. Beng. Pythonium bulbiferum. 

AMBUNG. Malay. Basket, a measure. 

AMBUPRASA-DANA. Singh. Strychnos 
potatorum, clearing nut, for purifying water. 

AMBUR, in lat. 12° 50' 25" N., and long. 78° 
44' 30" E., a town in the Karnatic, on the right 
bank of the Palar river, elevated above the sea 
1053 feet. A battle was fought here, 23d April 
1749, the British supporting Anwar-u-Din on 
one side, the French supporting Muzaffar Jung 
on the other, in which Ajiwar-u-Din was slain. 
It was the first pitched battle in India in which 
Europeans were engaged. — Schl. ; Imp. Gaz. 

AMBUSI. Hind. 
Dried Mango, . . Eng. Manga-vattal, . . Tam. 
Amurya, .... Guj. Mamidi varagu, . Tel. 
Kucherian, . . . Hind. 

Green mangoes sliced lengthways, salted, and 
sun-dried, and used in curries. — Faulkner. 

AMBUVACHI. Sansk. In Hindu belief, four 
days in Asharh (June-July) when the earth is 
unclean, and agriculture is prohibited. — W. 

AMDHUKA. Hind. Vitis Indica, Linn. 

AMDOAN, a Tibetan nomade race who dwell in 
tents of linen, hexagonal, and without frames. — 

AMERI. Maleal. Indigofera tinctoria, Linn. 

AMERICA has been supposed to have been 
peopled from Phoenicia, Asia, Africa, and Iceland, 
and to have been the haunt of Northmen centuries 
before Columbus. There are physiological resem- 
blances amongst some of the tribes, but differences 




guagc, physiognomy, and modes of existence. 
Mr. Ix>gHii, in Uiu Journal of the Indian Archi- 
pelago, mentions that the prevailing typos of physi- 
cal structure amongst the Chinese have relation to 
the Mongolian and Tibetan and American forms, 
tnd adds that the American heads in plates 80 to 87 
of Prichard's Natural History of Man, are Chinese. 
Abbd Doraenech supposes their origin to have 
been from Scythians, Hebrews, Tartars, Scandi- 
navians, and Welsh. M. de Guignes, in his Re- 
oherchessur les Navigations des Chinois du Cote de 
I'Amerique, states tliat, under the name Fu-Sang, 
America is accurately described in a Chinese 
work of the 5th century as a land in the far east. 
According to M. Paravey, the Fu-Sang of the 
Chinese is Mexico, which, he says, was known to 
the Chinese as early as the 6th century of the 
Christian era ; and carved figures, representing 
Buddha of Java seated on a Siva's head, were 
found in Uxmal in Yucatan, According to 
Sandoval, a succession of emigrations went from 
Deylon, and from the south of India, to America 
nany centuries before Columbus. Marco Polo 
*ud John Banking state that Manco Kopac, the 
irst Inka of Peru, was the son of the great Kablai 
IChan, and Montezuma the grandson of Askam, a 
loble Moghul of Tangut. Humboldt was of 
•pinion that the Taltec derive their origin from 
he Huns. The American practices of raising 
umuli or mounds over the dead, of scalping, and 
}( circumcision, were common throughout Scythia 
:)r Tartary. Herodotus mentioned the scalping 
:if Scythia as common in his time. — Kennedy^s 
Ethnological Essays, pp. 23-25 ; PriesCs American 
intiquities, Albany, 1838 ; Abbe Domenech; 
Prichard; Jour. Ind. Arch., Dec. 1852, p. 663. 

AME-SA. BuRM. Anona squamosa. 

AMETHI DUNGAR, a town and district in 
)udh, held by the Bandhalgoti, who claim to be 
ICshatriya, but are said to be descendants of a 
lemale bamboo-splitter, and that they periodically 
iforship the banka, or splitting-knife. 

AMETHIYA, a tribe of Chohan Rajputs in 
[jorakhpur, originally from Amethi in Oudn. — W. 


Cartas, .... Arab. 

Hmethyste, . . Fk. 

Sang-i-Sulimaiii, . Hind. 

(Vmatista, ... It. 

Amethystus, , 
Ametisto, . , 
Skuandi, . . 
Sugandi kallu, 


Port., Sp. 

. Singh. 

. Tam. 

Under this term two diflPerent minerals are 
now known, viz. occidental or common amethyst, 
i quartzose mineral found in amygdaloid trap 
rocks in all countries, but in quantities amongst 
the volcanic rocks of the Dekhan. Beautiful 
ethyst crystals occur in dykes of quartz near 
towenpilly, at Secunderabad. Its colour is of 
STery shade of purple violet ; some of these are 
iralued, for it is almost the only stone that can 
>e worn with mournings. When the colour of 

specimen has to be equalized, it is placed in 

mixture of sand and iron filings, and exposed 
a moderate heat. The oriental amethyst is 
Jbo of a purple colour, but is an extremely rare 
cious stone, and belongs to the corundums. 
to colour can be destroyed by heat, and its purity 
resembles that of the diamond. 

AMGOOLEE. Hind. Elseagnus conferta. 

AMHARA, a Semitic race in Africa. See 
^.bys8inia ; Africa. 

AMHERST, a small town and pilot station in 

peninsula on the left bank at the mouth of the 


Moulmein river, in lat 16° 4' 40* N., and long, 
97° 85' 80* E. It gives iU name to a revenuo 
district of British Burma, lying between long, 
97° 80' and 98" 58' E., and lat. 14° 69' and 17* 
51' N. In the roads, the greatest rise and fall 
occurs in two days after full and change, is 21 to 
23 feet. The velocity of tide at springs ■ 6^ 
knots per hour. It was proposed to be formed 
into a sanatorium for the European soldiers 
in Burma, but the ailments there are of a kind 
needing a cool or a dry climate. A dangerous 
reef of rocks runs across the mouth of the .Moul- 
mein river, from Amherst lighthouse, which tho 
British Government has tried to remove. Tho 
district has many Buddhist pagodas. Up till 
British annexation, it was a theatre of con- 
tinuous-wars between the Siamese and the Peguar. 
Its population in 1872 was 289,940, Talain, 
Karen, Toung-thu, Arakanese, Shan, Burmese, 
Chinese, Malay, Hindus, and Mahomedans. Its 
towns are Amherst and Moulmein ; its rivers, 
Salwin, Gyaing (Gwyn), and Ataran, and it baa 
valuable teak forests. 

AMHERST, Lord, left England on the 8th 
February 1816 as ambassador to China. Ho 
disembarked in the Gulf of Pe Chi Li, and 
marched to the capital ; but as he refused to 
follow the Chinese ka-tou or ko-tou mode of 
reverence, his visit was refused. Lord Macartney, 
and the Russian ambassador, Count Galowkin, 
had acted similarly ; but the Dutch ambassador, 
in 1795, had performed the ko-tou. In 1817, he 
re-embarked on the ' Alceste,' which was wrecked 
on the 18th February in the Straits of Caspar. 
On the 1st August 1823, Earl Amherst became 
Governor-General of India, and held that office 
until he re-erabarked on the 10th March 1828. 
During his administration, the British waged a 
successful war with Burma, the army being led 
by Sir Archibald Campbell in 1824-25 ; Bhurtpur 
fell, in 1826, to the assaults of the army under 
Lord Combermere, and the fortress of Deeg was 
stormed and taken. 

AMHERSTIA NOBILIS, Wall, the finest in- 
digenous flowering tree in Chin-India, has very 
large pea-blossora-shaped flowers of brilliant red 
and yellow, which hang down in tassels more 
than a yard long. It was discovered by Dr. Wal- 
lich on the Salwen near Trockla, and named by 
him after Lady Amherst. There is scarcely a 
Bunnese monastery near which one or more of 
these trees is not found planted. The tree is nob 
known to grow wild. Even the finest trees, which 
attain a height of 30 or 40 feet, and in girth of 
perhaps four feet, produce seed very sparingly 
indeed. It flowers in March. — Mason ; Voigt. 

AMIDAM. Tel. Ricinus communis. 

AMIL. Panj. Cuscuta reflexa. 

AM IN, a revenue officer of government ; a con- 
fidential agent. Under the Oudh Government, 
the Amin was a judicial officer presiding over a 
court of first instance, called Murafa-i-Awala, 
for the hearing of cases in all departments that 
might be made over to him from the royal office. 
They usually held their courts at Lucknow. 

AMIN RAZA, uncle of Nur Jahan, was the 
author of the Haft Aklim, a.h. 1002 (a.d. 1594), 

AMIR. Arab., Hind., Pers, A noble; also 
a title of nobility equivalent in some Asiatic 
countries to king, like the Amir of Kabal. Also 
an official designation, as Amir-ul-Bahr, admiral, 




or in some places harbour-master ; Amir-us-Sooq, 
chief of the markets, equivalent to the Indian 
Kotwal. Amirzadah, literally a born chief or 
prince. This word reappears abbreviated as 
' Mirza,' which is always suffixed to the individual 
name in designating a prince of the blood, as Abbas 
Mirza, who was the king of Persia's son, but is 
a prefix when honorific, like the English Mr., 
as Mirza Abdul Baki Khan. Amir-ul-Muminin, 
literally prince of the faithful, is a title adopted 
by the khalif Omar, and retained by his succes- 
sors. Amir-ul-Umra, a Mahomedan honorary 
title or title of the commander-in-chief of an 
army. PI. Umra. 

AMIRANTE ISLANDS, the S.W. group of the 
Seychelles, consisting of several detached small 
islands, coral reefs, and banks. — Horsburgh. 

AMIR AZAN DELEMI, in the tenth century, 
constructed the Band- Amir over the Araxes, and 
from whence the river Kum Firoz, after its 
junction with the Murghab, derived its name. 
See Bendameer. 

AMIR KHAN, a leader in the campaign of 
1817-18 against Jeswunt Rao Holkar. A treaty, 
dated 6th January 1818, confirmed him in the 
territories granted to him by the E. I. Company. 

AMIRKOT, a town on the border of the desert 
of the Gharra. Babar was born here whilst his 
father Humayun was flying from India. 

AMIRTA KAVIRAYAR was the court poet 
of Reghunata Setu Pati, who reigned at Ramnad 
between a.d. 1649 and 1685. He composed an 
erotic poem, the Oruturai-Khovai, in honour of 
bis patron. 

AMIRTASA KARAR, a Jaina who was famed 
as a Sanskrit and Tamil scholar. He wrote a 
grammar in Tamil verse. 

AMIR YAHIA, a native of Kasvin, hence his 
patronymic Kasvini ; died there a.d. 1552. He 
wrote the Lubb-ut-Tuarikh. See Abdul Latif 

AM-KALANG. Tam. Physalis somnifera, var. 
P. flexuosa, Nees, 

AMKUDU, Wrightia tinctoria, R. Br. 

AML. Arab. An act, a reign, a rule, carry- 
ing into effect; hence Amil and Amildar, a re- 
venue officer. PI. Amla. Amli, in Bengal, the 
revenue year, the same as Fasli ; also assessment 
or land rent paid in kind. 

AMLA, also Amlaki, Sansk., pronounced Aonla. 
Emblica officinalis, emblic myrobalan. 

AMLAI, of Sutlej. Zizyphus vulgaris. 

AMLAK. PuSHT. A tree of Afghanistan, 
producing a small edible berry. 

AMLANCH. Panj. Ribes grossularia. 

AMLA VETASAMU. Sansk. Calamus fasci- 
culatus, Rozb. The compound signifies 'sour- 

AMLEEA PAT. Beng. Corchorus, sp. 

AMLI or Imli. Hind. Amlika, Tintili. Sansk. 
Tamarind, Tamarindus indica. 

AMLI-KAR. Hind. — In the shawl manufac- 
ture, needle- or hand-worked, as opposed to 
Kanikar or loom-woven ; of shawls. 

AMLOK. Panj. Diospyros lotus. 

AMMA, in almost all languages, mother; in 
TamU and Telugu, it is added to the names of 
Hindu women, as Sitamma, Vangamma. It is 
also a title of non- Aryan goddesses, as Mari-amma, 
Yagath-amma, supposed by some to be the Virgin 
Mary and Sta. Agatha. Ammai is a name of 

Parvati, and more especially of lier image in the 
pagodas. Ai, Em, Amma, Ma, Mamma, Amman, 
are the natural terms amongst many races for 
mother, as in the 'Em of the Hebrews, the Ma 
of the Egyptians. The most high god, Eliun, or 
Helyun, the creator of man, seems to have been 
worshipped under various names, all meaning 
Lord ; and a wife was given to him, also known 
under various names — Baaltis, i.e. mistress, queen; 
Hastoreth, i.e. in the Greek form, Astarte, who as 
Baltis was worshipped at Byblus with her husband 
Adonis. But the secret worship of the mother of 
God, also called Amma, was especially celebrated 
in the shrine of Aphaka at Byblus, near the river 
of Adonis. The Amman of the southern Tamil 
Hindus may therefore be a cosmogonic term indi- 
cative of the great Creator's power, the most high 
God's will. In the Tamil part of the Peninsula 
of India, the Amman is an idol worshipped by 
the lion-Aryan races in every village, is identical 
with Amma, and in some places with Ammani 
Amma. It is one of the many village deities of 
which neither the Vedas nor Puranas make any 
mention. Every hamlet has its own, always sup- 
posed to be a goddess, and it is usually a stone 
turned black by oil offerings and time. The 
word is understood by the villagers to mean 
mother. The Tamil villagers style their deity by 
many affixed names: — Aukal- Amman, Mang- 
Kali-Amma, Poni Amma or golden mother, Kani- 
Amma, Mutial-Amma or pearl mother, Paleii 
Amma or great goddess, and other local affixed 
names, the meanings of which are not apparent. 
The Mahratta villagers have the same female 
village deity, whom they name Ai, or mother. 
The villagers offer sacrifices of sheep, goats, fowls, 
cocoa-nuts, dhal, palm wine, and fruits ; and 
frankincense, camphor, and ghi are burned. Tlie 
villagers believe that the village goddesses protect 
them from sicknesses and from losses, or mitigate 
these. A pujali or pujari, a worshipping priest, of 
the sudra caste, is appointed for the daily 
worship. He anoints it with ashes on its head, 
or rather on the top of the stone, for it is no 
image, but a mere shapeless stone. In a small 
pot he cooks the rice, which he collects from the 
hamlet people in rotation, presents it to the idol, 
and then takes it to his own house. He breaks a 
cocoa-nut in front of the idol, and offers it also, 
but the one-half he keeps to himself, and gives 
the other to the family from whom he obtained 
the fruit. The village offerings are in fulfilment 
of vows, or offerings, are made of fowls and sheep, 
praying the goddess will grant their desires ; and 
once a year the villagers collect money by sub- 
scription, and celebrate a festival in honour of 
their deity, during which sheep and fowls are 
largely sacrificed. The sudra Hindus, and the 
entire non-Aryan tribes in the south of India, 
have the fullest faith in their respective village 
goddesses. When they or their children are over- 
taken by sickness, they seek the idol, and consult 
the pujari, who sings songs, affects to hear the 
Amman's voice, and then announces to the wor- 
shipper the offering that must be presented. If 
cholera break out, it is not unusual for some 
neighbouring village deity suddenly to rise into 
great importance, and the sacrificial rite is then 
almost unceasingly performed. The Hindus have 
even personified that pestilence into a goddess, 
whom they have named Maha-Kali, and believe 



mf i 


if thpy neglect her worship Bhe destroyn 

. by tlie (iiMt>»»e. Indeed, eods are still in 

xs uf cBtiibiifihinent, and smallpox and cholera 

thus been personified, Maha-Kali of Ujjain 

: tlie goddess of cholera, and Mari-Aminjin of 

I amils a smallpox deity. In South Indiii, the 

i! deity is iuviiriably lemalc. The Amman is 

jht out from time to time, and carried around 

\ iUage or town. The protecting goddess of 

Mudnis town is one of these Amman, and her 

temple is in the middle of Black Town. Once 

V :ir it is carried around the city bounds, and 

the fortress, halting for a week or two at 

r tain recognised resting-places. See Ammavaru ; 

Hindu ; Snoritice. 

AMMA KODAGA, a high class of the Coorg 
or Kodaga race, who do not intermarry nor asso- 
ciate with the other Coorgs, 

tVMMiVNI AMMA, the TaraU term for the 
imago of the Virgin Mary. See Hindu ; Amman. 

Ban marach, 
Agin buti, . 
Dad marl ? . 




Kallar vanchi, MALEAt. 
Miumel-nerupa, . Tam. 
Agni vendrapaku, Tel. 

An annual found in India in wet land during 
the rains, 6 to 86 inches high. It has a strong 
;mell like muriatic acid ; leaves exceedingly acrid, 
imployed by the natives aa blisters in rheumatism. 
Dr. O'Shaughnessy tried them in eight cases, 
rhe bruised leaves had been removed from all 
^fter half an hour ; blisters were not produced in 
less than 12 hours in any, and in three individuals 
lot for 24 hours, and the pain occasioned was 
agonizing until the blister rose. These leaves 
[sause more pain than cantharides, and are far 
nferior to the plimibago (lal chitra) in celerity 
md certainty of action. The Telugu name, indeed, 
neans fire-leaf. Dr. Stewart says that in the 
IPanjab the leaves of A. aiuiculata, Willde, are 
dmilarly employed and similarly named; both 
>lants grow iu the hills up to 5000 feet. Other 
ndian species mentioned by Roxburgh, Wight, 
md Voigt are A. Indica, multiflora, nana, 
wtandra, pentandra, rotundifiora, and vesicatoria. 
-O'Sh.; Voigt; Roxb. i. 427; W. Ic. 

AMMA VARU. Tkl. Literally, honoured 
nother ; a cruel sacrificial rite, practised among 
[ihe Hindu sudras and low-caste non - Aryan 
«ces of the southern part of peninsular India, on 
Kicasions of a cholera, epidemic, or other calamity ; 
I bullock was impaled alive to appease the angry 
goddess Devi. 

AMMON, an oasis in Egypt on which stood 
tlie temple of Amun-Ra, whose figure was that 
jf a man having the head and horns of a ram 
'Sharpens Egypt, i. p. 222). He was displaced 
afterwards in favour of another idol, in the reign 
)f Tuthmosis iii. He is the hidden god of the 
Phebaid, supposed to be the Zeus of the Greeks, 
ind was styled Aran or Amraon, Amn-ra or 
Ammonra. He originally corresponded with the 
Jon-god, and was the highest of the first order of 
50ds, and was the ruler deity. He was styled the 
ion of Isis, and his son was Khunsu. The origin 
)f this worship is supposed to have been Semitic, 
kod amongst northern people was directed to the 
nrm sun, and to the earth in the sunny south. — 
Bknaen, iv. 232. 

AMMONIA, liquid ammonia, volatile alkali. 
Jh'i-sha, . . . Chin. | Spirita of Hartshorn, Eno. 
This is a limpid colourless fluid, exceedingly 


volatile ; has a pungent smell and a canstie tUUf 
and in mc<licine is a aseful stimulant. It« name 
is derived from the oasis of Aromon in Upper 
Egypt, where the hydro-chlorate was gathered 
as the product of animal remains. It is now 
obtained in Europe from coal in the process of 
gas-making, and converted into several oompoonds 
by other processes. 

Carbonate of ammonia was known to the Hindus, 
who obtained it by mixing one part of sal-ammoniao 
with two parts of clialk. It ia now obtained in 
Europe by a subsequent process after the manu- 
facture of coal gas. 

Hydrochlorate of ammonia, sal-ammoniac. 
Armina, . . . Arab. Ammon. Hydroch., Lat. 
Dza-wet-tha, . . Burm. Sadar, .... Malat. 
Soha^a ; Noshadr, HiMD. Navaaaram, . Tam., Tku 
Salmiak, . . . Ger. 

This is met with in great abundance in every 
bazaar of India, obtained from brick kilns. It is, 
however, also a volcanic product. It is the 
Nashadar of Avicenna and Serapion. It was 
obtained in Egypt by sublimation from the soot 
of the dung of pigeons, cows, camels, and other 
animals, mixed with chopped straw and made into 
cakes as firewood. It is now manufactured largely 
in Europe, from the aramoniacal salts contained 
in the liquor resulting from the distillation of 
coal in the gas-works. During its solution in 
water, the temperature falls several degrees. It ia 
used by tinmen to clean the surface of their metals, 
and to facilitate the soldering of iron and copper, 
also prevent the oxydation of the copper ; it ia 
also sometimes employed by dyers to brighten 
their colours. Dissolved in nitric acid, it forms 
the aqua regia of commerce, used for dissolving 
gold, instead of nitro-hydrochloric acid. It ia 
also used in small quantities in steam boilers, to 
prevent the formation of calcareous deposits ; and 
IS likewise used to adulterate tobacco. — Tomlinson ; 
A inslie ; Beng. Pharma. ; Bingley ; Royle ; Nie- 
buhr's Travels, i. p. 90 ; Peacock's Description 
of ihe East, i. p. 259. 

AMMONIAC, GUM, Gum ammoniac. 

Feshuk ? Ushak ? . Arab. 
Gomme Ammoniaque, Fk. 
Ammonik, . , . Ger, 
Ammoniack, . . „ 

Astrak, . . Go J., HlND. 

Samagh. Hamama? Hind. 
Gomma Ammoniaco, It. 
Animoniacuni, . Lat. 
Samagh b'us Shirin ? Pkbs. 
Goma Ammoniaco, Sp. 

The Dorema ammoniacum of Don (Linn. Trans, 
xvi. 601) yields this product from its stem and 
fruits. According to Lindley, the plant grows in 
Persia on the plains of Yezde Kaust and Kumisha, 
in the province of Irak, growing in very dry 
plains, and gravelly soil exposed to the sun. It 
was imported into ancient Greece from the desert 
of Egypt, from near the temple of Jupiter Ammon, 
hence its name, as well as from the confines of 
Cyrene. The gum resin is now imported into 
India vi& Bombay from the Persian Gulf, and re- 
exported to different countries. It is obtained by 
incisions in the plant, and occurs in masses of 

fellowish colour, enclosing white almond-like tears. 
t is principally employed as an expectorant in the 
chronic catarrhs and asthmas of old persons. It 
is also applied externally as a warm and stimulat- 
ing plaster. — O^Sh.; taulhier; De Bode's Tr. p. 
63 ; St. John's Ancient Greece, p. 888. 

AMMONITE, Shih-shie of the Chinese, a genus 
of fossil molluscs, which seem to have existed 
extensively in all parts of the world during 
the period that the chalk formations were being 




deposited. They occur in great abundance and 
of great size, some three feet across, in the supra- 
cretaceous strata between Trichinopoly and Pon- 
dicherry, and were described by Mr. Brooke Cun- 
liffe. Captain Newbold, and Mr. Kayes. Dr. Gerard 
found them in the Himalaya, at an elevation of 
16,000 feet. Amongst those discovered in India 
are A. Madrasianus, Kandi, Kali, ^railianus, 
Bhima, Bhawani, planulatus, Denisonianus, Beu- 
danti, Vaju, peramplus, Durga, Gala, revelatus, 
garuda. The Hindu specific names so frequently 
applied were so in consequence of Hindu sects wor- 
shipping several species of ammonites under the 
name of Saligrama. See Saligramma. 

AMMONITES, the children of Ben-Ammi, the 
son of Lot, by his younger daughter. They were 
dispossessed by the Hebrews, and afterwards, for 
18 years, strove to reconquer their lands, greatly 
oppressing all the Israelites who dwelt beyond 
the Jordan river. They were ultimately driven 
back by Jephthah the Gileadite. See Judges x. 
8, 9, xi. 1, 4, 27. 

AMMU INGUEOO. Singh. Zingiber officinale. 

AMNA. Beng. Spondias mangifera. 

AMNAK, a general term for a large class of high- 
caste Hindus, — Brahmans, Kshatriyas, and Kay- 
asths, — cultivators in Oudh and in Sind. Numbers 
of them were until recently liege men or military 
retainers; all had a sword ready at their land- 
lord's call. They employed a working ploughman 
or Halwaha, because to plough with their own 
hands would have been to the Amnak indelible 
disgrace. They held their lands at a remission 
(Kur) to meet the pay of the ploughman. 

AMOGHVERSHA, king of Tonda Mundalam, 
in the south of India, in whose reign, in the 9th 
or 10th centuries, the Jain faith was introduced. 

AMOK, also Amuck, Malay. A furious reck- 
less onset, the muck or the ' run-a-muck ' of the 
English. It occurs amongst men of Malay race 
and with Bugis men, and is often followed with- 
out any apparent provocation, or to be relieved 
of the feeling of indebtedness, but the usual cause 
is some personal affront. The person generally 
rushes through the streets, krising or cutting down 
all whom he meets, till he is overpowered and 
slain. The Singapore Free Press relates a case 
which took place at Salatiga, on the island of Java. 
The regent of Salatiga, Raden Tumengong Pra- 
wiro Kusumo, had been celebrating the mar- 
riages of two of his daughters, and everything 
had passed off smoothly, when, on the morning 
of the 23d September, about half-past six o'clock, 
the brother-in-law of the regent, named Raden 
Prawiro Direjo, who was coffee mantri of Tengaran, 
suddenly began to stab every person he met in 
the palace. The regent, being disturbed by the 
uproar, came from his sleeping place to see what 
was the matter, when he was at once stabbed in 
the heart by the amoker, and fell down dead. The 
brother of the regent then ran the amoker through 
the back with a spear, and he was soon despatched. 
Besides the regent, nine of his relations and 
followers were killed, and six were more or less 
severely wounded. The amoker was much given 
to the use of opium, and had at one time lost 
a valuable employment imder government on 
account of his indolence and carelessness. Through 
the intercession of the regent he had received 
another appointment, but he was not satisfied 
with this, and appears to have conceived an Ul-will 

towards his relation for not supporting his claims 
more strongly. See Bugis. 

AMOMUM, a genus of plants of the natural 
order Zingiberaceae. The paradise grains, or Mala- 
guetta pepper, the A. grana-paradisi, is not of 
India, but of the Guinea coast, as is likewise the 
A. grandiflora. Several plants formerly classed 
in this genus have been removed to the genera 
Elettaria, Alpinia, Costus, and Curcuma. A 
species brought from the Chinese provinces of Nan- 
tan-chau and Kwang-si has thin tapering rhizomes 
called san-tsih (threes and sevens), also kwang- 
san-tsih. It has an extraordinary reputation 
amongst military and fighting men, from which 
its root sells there at about 12s. 6d. an ounce, and 
is on this account often called jin-san-san-tsih, 
also kin-puh-hwan. It is deemed by the Chinese 
to possess powerful medicinal properties, vulnerary, 
styptic, astringent, and discutient. A. aculeatum, 
Roxh., of the Malay Archipelago, has crimson 
spots on deep orange flowers. A. corynostachyum, 
Wall.^ a plant of the teak forests of Martaban, 
with large white flowers. A. dealbatum is the 
Barra ilachi of Silhet, according to O'Shaughnessy, 
but Roxburgh says that the seeds are insipid. It 
grows in Chittagong and Silhet. A. maximum, 
according to Pereira, yields the great winged car- 
damoms referred by Lindley to Elettaria. It is a 
plant of the Malay islands. Its seeds are warm 
and pungent, with an aromatic taste, not unlike 
that of cardamoms, but less grateful. A. sericeum, 
Roxh., a plant of the Khassya mountains, with 
large white flowers, lip yellow with pink veins in 
its centre. — Roxb. ; Voiqt ; O^Sh. ; Smith. 

AMOMUM AMARUM, Smith, Yih-chi-tsze of 
the Chinese, a bitter-seeded cardamom growing in 
Cochin-China, and in China in Qwan-lun-kwoh and 
Kau-chau-fu. The Chinese believe that it increases 
knowledge, as it benefits the stomach, with which 
the Chinese connect the disposition and the wits of 
an individual. The seeds are very bitter, aromatic, 
with a flavour like myrrh, and are said to be used 
like a condiment in pastry. — Smith, p. 13, 14. 

native of Madagascar, cultivated in the Mauritius 
and India ; the fruit is the greater cardamoms of 
the old writers. Its flowers are pretty large, 
blood-red, yellow, spicy and fragrant ; and every 
part of the plant, when bruised or wounded, diffuses 
a strong pleasant aromatic smell. — O'Sh. p. 650 ; 
Roxb. i. 39 ; Voigt, 567. 

ilachi. Hind. Has middle-sized flowers, with lip 
tinged with red down the middle. It is a native 
of Chittagong and the valleys of the eastern 
frontiers of Bengal ; the fruit has similar properties 
to those of the true cardamoms, for which they 
are often sold to the druggists of India. — O'Sh 
650 ; Voigt, 568. 

Cardamomum minus, Eumph. 

Ben, BuBM. Kapa laga, . 

Peh-tau-k'au, . . Chin. Yelarsi, . . 
Tung-po-tau, To kuh, ,, Yelakulu, . 
Elachi, . . DuK., Hind. 

Su-tung-po, of the Sung dynasty, a celebratec 
poet, gave his name to this plant. This seems tht 
round and clustered cardamom of the shops. Ii 
grows in China, Java, the Atteran forests, Suma- 
tra, and the Moluccas, and is cultivated in India 
It has middle-sized pellucid flowers, with a yellcw 





middle line on the lip. Its seeds are agreeably 
aromatic, and are used by the Malays for the true 
Malal>ar cardamoms, from the Elettaria carcLinjo- 
mnm.—Aiii.'ilie ; Jioxb. ; O'Sh. ; Voujt; Smith. 

Tku-k'au, . . . Chin. | Tsau-tHU-k'au, . Chin. 
A native of the provinces of Foh-kien and 
Canton, also of Cochm-China. It resembles the 
Alpinia p^alanga in appearance, and bears a magni- 
ficent red flower in the axils of the leaves, which 
are compared to those of the wild ginger. The 
large capsules are oval, roundish pointed, and 
usually pedicellated. The three-looed mass of 
seed has a pleasant smell. It is chewed to correct 
offensive breath, and, like the flowers of the plant, 
is said to counteract the fumes of wine. The 
unripe capsules are the small round China carda- 
mom of Guibourt, devoid of much flavour, and 
used by the Chinese as a salted condiment ; and 
the large globular capsules furnish the large round 
cardamom of English druggists. — Smith, p. 14. 

R'au-kwo, . . . Chin. | Ovoid cardamom, . Eno. 

Grows in Cochin-China and in the Kwang-si 
md Yunnan Provinces. The seeds are in a 
reddish mass, large, hard, angular, with a warm 
turpentine flavour, and are used similarly to those 
ot A. globosum. 

lachi, Beng. — A large-flowered species of the 
Khassya hills. 

AMOMUM VILLOSUM, Smith, Yang-ch'un- 
»ha of the Chinese, grows in the western part of 
Dhina. The seeds are used like cardamoms. — Smith. 

AMOMUM XANTHOIDES. Wall., Schomburgh. 
Jhuh-sha-mih, . Chin. | Si-sha-jin, . . . Chin. 
Jha-jin-kuh, . . „ | Shu-sha-jin, . . „ 

A plant of the province of Canton or Kwang- 

mg of Burma and Siam. Its seeds are said by 

anbury to be substituted in the London market 
tor those of the offlcinal Elettaria or cardamom of 
Malabar. — Smith, p. 16. 

AMOOKANAM VAYR. Tam. Root of Phy- 
adis somnifera. 

Andersonia cucullata, B. | Amoora, Beno. 

A timber tree of the Sunderbuus, with small 
mellow flowers. — Voigt. 

!I^iinmonia Lawii, Wight. | Nemedra Nimmonii, Dalz. 
Boorumb, . . Mahr. 

A middling-sized tree of the Bombay and Canara 
jhat {orestB.—BedJome, Fl. Sylv. p. 133. 

^laia polystachia. Wall., is a tree of the Khassya 
mis, with pale yellowish fragrant flowers. — Voigt. 


HeleaceaWightiana, WcM. 
iphaerosacme rohituka, „ 
Hkta-raj, . . . Benj. 
3hayau-ka-yoe, . Burh. 
iarrin-bara, . . Hind. 
9>em-inai-a, . . Maleal. 

Andersonia rohituka, B, 

Hingulgass, . 
Sbem maram, 

. Tam. 
. Tkl. 

This small, or middling-sized, tree is met with 
glaringly throughout the Western Ghat forests, 
«d is rather common in the Animally hills of 
ihe Madras Presidency up to 3600 feet eleva- 
MH. It grows in the central province of Ceylon, 
rhere it is called Hingoot, in Moulmeiu, and 

the Tounghoo forests. The wood is white- 
iobored, and adapted to every purpose of house- 


building. The seeds yield an oil, which is nsed 
for vanous economic T>virj)cmen.—Itozb. ; Voitit - 
ArCUUand, Cat. Cat. Ex., 18G2; UtefulPlanu) 
yAtt?«./e*, Zeyl. L 60; Beddome, Ft. Syle. part 

AMOQUID. BicoL. Musa textilis. 
. .-A^MORITES, an ancient mounUin race who 
joined with the Hittitcs to oppose the Hebrews, 
but were driven by Joshua from their positions 
near Hebron, and their kingdom and country to 
the south of Jabbok captured. 

Arum campanulatum B. I A. Zeylahicum. Conmd. ' 
A. Kumphu, Oaudtch. \ Candarum lioxb., HchoU. 
Wa, .... BOBM. Soorun, .... Mahb ♦ 

Sbina, Mulen Shina, Can. 
Telinga Potato, . Eno. 
01, Jamkund, . Hind. 

Karuna, Maleau, Tam. 
Kanda, Kalla, . Sanbk? 
Mancbi kandagadda, Tel 


This species of the Araceae is much cultivated in 
the Northern Circars, being highly esteemed for the 
wholesomeness and nourishingquality of the roots. 
The usual time of cultivation ia immediately after 
the first rains in June. A very rich loose soil 
suits It best, where the swelling of the root meets 
with httle obstruction, and where they draw the 
greatest nourishment, for which reason'it requires 
to be very well and repeatedly ploughed The 
smaU tuberosities that are found in the larger 
roots, are what they employ for sets, and are 
planted m the manner as potatoes are in England 
and about the same distance from one another' 
In twelve months they are reckoned fit to be 
taken up for use. The larger roota will then 
weigh, if the soil has been good and the season 
favourable, from four to eight or more pounds 
each ; they keep well if they are kept dry, and are 
boiled or roasted. It is very acrid when raw — 
Roxb.; Wight's Iconet; Voigt; Hogg's Veg. King. 
796 ; Irvine's Ajmir, 207 ; Honigb. ^^ ^ ^ 

AMOY, called by the fishermen Haenun, also 
Hia-men-seu, is an island on the S.E. of China, 
about 22 miles in circumference. The town of 
Amoy is situated on the S.W. part of the island 
opposite the small island of Ku-Iung-su, which 
affords protection to the town anchorage or inner 
harbour. On the western side of Amoy island is 
that of Woo-seu-shan, also that of Woo-an 
Amoy was taken 26th August 1841, and 9th June 
1842, and delivered over to the British after the 
first Chinese war of 1841-42, and forms one of 
the consulates with Shanghai, Hong-Kong, and 
others. Amoy means Summer gate. — Horsburqh 

AMPANA. Maleal. Borassus flabelliformia! 

AMPHIBIA. See Reptiles. 


Incemodi, IteyU. I Incarvillea emodi. Bovle 

A. arvillea arguta, „ | > * • 

These names are supposed by Dr. Stewart to 
be applied to the same plant, the Chali of the 
Sutlej, where it grows up to 8000 feet It has 
perhaps the finest flowers of all the Panjab herbs 
and generally occupies striking habitats, hanging 
with its handsome green leaves and pinkish 
trumpet flowers from the face of perpendicular 
cliffs.— J. L. Stewart. 

AMPHIDESMA, a genus of marine bivalve 
shells, which are found in the sand on the sea- 
coast of tropical climates. The sheila are oval or 
rounded, sometimes rather twisted and slightly 
gaping behind. They have two hinge teeth in 



each valve, and often distinct compressed lateral 
ones. The elastic cartilage is placed in a small 
triangular cavity just behind the hinge teeth. 
The cartilage has opaline reflections; and those 
of some large shells, as the mother-of-pearl shells, 
are sold by the jewellers under the name of 
Peacock-stone, or Black Opals. They are much 
sought after in Europe, especially in Portugal. — 
Eng. Cyc. p. 185. 

Arundo karka, Retz, Eoxb. I Trichoon karka, Roth. 

„ Roxburghii Kunth. \ Calamagrostis karka, Gm. 
Nal, Nul ; Darma, Beng. I Kikkasa gaddi, . Tel. 
Munia fibre, . . SiND. | Puvvu-gutti gadda, ,, 

This plant is one of the Panicacese. It grows in 
Bengal and Sind, and from its split stalks are made 
the common Durma mats of Bengal, used there as 
ships' dunnage ; the fibres also are made into ropes. 
A. bifaria and A. Bengalensis are also known. — 
Voigt, 714 ; Roxh. 

AMPULLARIA, a genus of molluscs with 
globular-formed shells, many of which are found 
in the moist meadows, rivers, and tanks of India. 
Their colours are usually tame. 

AMRA. Sansk. Spondias mangif era. On the 
Sutlej , Zizyphus vulgaris. Am-rai, a mango grove. 
AMRAH SUNN. Beng. Corchorus olitorius. 
AMRAI, in Kashmir. Ulmus erosa. 
AMRAN, a hill, so named by Mr. Rich in his 
Memoir oh the Ruins of Babylon, and who 
designated it by that appellation, from its sup- 
porting a small tomb erected to the memory of 
a son of the khalif Ali, who fell at the battle of 

AMRANI, a Beluch tribe. The Amran moun- 
tains of Beluchistan bound the table-land of Shal 
and Peshin on the west, as the Hala range does 
to the east. The highest part, in lat. 30° 50' N., 
and long. 66° 30' E., is about 9000 feet. The 
Kojak pass, 1451 feet. 

AMR-ibn-ul-AAS, who joined Mahomed in 
the 8th year of the Hijira, conquered Egypt. 

AMRITA. Sansk. From a, priv., and mrita, 
death, in Hindu mythology, the beverage of im- 
mortality which, by churning the ocean, was pro- 
duced along with fourteen other precious gifts to 
man. The Vishnu Purana relates that the gods 
(Sura), on being discomfited by the Daitya, fled 
to Vishnu, who advised them to make a temporary 
peace with the Daitya, and with their aid to 
churn the ocean, using Mount Mandara as a churn- 
ing rod, the serpent Vasuki as a thong, and the 
tortoise Vishnu as a prop. Hindu legends relate 
that this advice was followed. Chitra-Ratha 
describes, in song, how — 
' "Whilom from the troubled main 

The sov'reign elephant Airavan sprang ; 

The breathing shell, that peals of conquest rang ; 

The patient cow, whom none implores in vain ; 

The milk-white steed ; the bow with deaf'ning clang ; 

The goddesses of beauty, wealth, and wine ; 

Flow'rs, that unfading shine ; 

Narayan's gem ; the moonlight's tender languish ; 

Blue venom, source of anguish ; 

The solemn leech, slow moving o'er the strand, 

A vase of long-sought Amrit in his hand. — 

To soften human ills, dread Siva drank 

The pois'nous food that stain'd his azure neck ; 

The rest, thy mansions deck, 

High Swerga, stored in many a blazing rank.' 

The word Amrita has been carried into the 
Teutonic ; and the Immurt'hal, or ' vale of im- 
mortality,' at Neufchatel, is as good Sanskrit as 

German. According to another legend, the Amrita 
was the occasion of the war between the Sura 
and Asura, in which the gods took a part. This 
indicates the occurrence of the first solar eclipse 
on Indian record. Modern European commen- 
tators conjecture that it fell on the 25th October, 
B.C. 945. — Sir W. Jones' Hymn to Jndra, vol. xiii. 
273 ; Tod^s Rajasthan, i. 71 ; Warren\<i Kala 
Sanhita; Coleman's Hindu Mythology ; Williams^ 

AMRITSAR, a town of the Panjab, in lat. 31° 
37' 15" N., and long. 74° 55' E., nearly half-way 
between the Beas and the Ravi, and 32 miles E. 
from Lahore. Ram Das, the fourth Sikh Guru, 
formed a reservoir here in 1581 (the Imperial 
Gazeteer says 1761), to which he gave the name 
of Amrata Saras, or fount of immortality, from 
amrita, the water of life, and saras, a pool. This 
became the name of the town, which was also 
called Ram Das Pur, and in the midst of the 
piece of water stands the chief temple of the 
Sikhs. It is their principal place of worship, and 
the to^vn is the chief commercial emporium of 
Northern India. The reservoir is a square of 150 
paces, containing a great body of pure water, and 
multitudes bathe in it. On the edge is a small 
structure, in which Ram Das is said to have passed 
his life in a sitting posture. In the centre is a 
small island with a temple of Hari or Vishnu, 
richly adorned with gold and other ornaments. 
In it the Sikh guru sits, and 500 or 600 acoli arc 
attached to the temple. The temple is reached 
by a bridge ; and, when visited by Baron Hugel, 
two large banners were waving before the entrance 
of the bridge, on one of which were the words, 
' Wah ! Guru-ji ka fattah,' and on the other the 
name of Ram Das. In the 18th century (1761), 
Ahmad Shah blew up the shrine with gunpowder, 
and desecrated the spot by slaughtering kine ir 
it. On his return to Kabal, the Sikhs repairec 
it, and commenced the struggle which ended in 
the overthrow of the Moghul rule. The town is 
strongly built and fortified, but could not stanc 
a siege with guns of a large calibre. The annua' 
value of the imports is 2 millions, and of the ex- 
ports 1^ millions. Its chief manufacture is, bj 
Kashmir men, of shawls, to the value of £200,000 
from the fine Tibet wool, which occupy about 400( 
looms. Its population is about 133,925 Hindus 
Mahomedans, and Sikhs. The area of the divisior 
is 5335 square miles, with a population of 2,743, 88( 
souls. The Baba Atal is a lofty column erectec 
over the tomb of a son of Har Govind. — Baroi 
HugeVs Panjab, i. pp. 125-6; Thomas' Prinscp'. 
Antiquities, p. 130 ; M'' Gregorys History of th 
Sikhs, i. p. 19 ; Imp. Gaz. See Panjab ; Sikh 

AMRU, a son of Saba or Abd-u-Shamsh, anc 
a grandson of Joktan. He first imposed a khira 
tax on Egypt. See Joktan. 

AMRU, also Amrita? a tree alluded to n 
the mythic tales of Krishna and Radha, whosi 
dalliance was in groves where ' the Amrita trei 
with blooming tresses is embraced by the ga; 
creeper atimucta ; ' again, ' delightful are th 
flowers of the Amru trees on the mountain-tops 
while the murmuring bees pursue their volup 
tuous toil ; ' it has not been identified. — Coleman 
p. 39. 

AMRU-bin-LAIS, one of the Arab governor 
of Khorasan whilst the capitals were Merv, Nasha 




pur, and Bokhara. In a.d. 900, 287, be WM 
defeated by iBiuail-bin-Ahinod, thu Suinaiii. 

AMRUD. Keno. The pear; Pjrus conimuniB, 
also PHidium pyriferum. 

AMKUDDHA. Sansk. In the doctrines 
tau^dit by lianmnuja Acharya, one of the forms 
of Indra's innnifeHtatioiis. See Sri Sampradaya. 

AMUUL. Hkn(i. Oxnlis coniiculata, /-in?*. 

AMSIN, a parpana in the Fyzabad district of 
Oudh, formerly hel«i by the Bhar race, who have 
Ifft many ruins, and the Barwar and Kaikwar 
Kshatriyiw still occupy it. 

AMU, the Oxus or Bactrus of the Greeks, the 
Jaihun or Ab-i-Balkh of Turkish and Persian 
writers, and the Amu Darya of moderns. The 
Amu rises in the Pamir from two small lakes, 
Mie of which is the Sar-i-Kul, 14 miles by 1. 
it then flows through Wakkan, encloses in an 
ui^le Badakhshan, of which it forms the natural 
frontier, and passes alongside the desert within 40 
niles of the city of Balkh. Eighty miles below 
this Afghan outpost is Khojak ferry, to which 
mine the Russian war steamer Samarcand. Sir 
\loxander Burnes describes the channel as being 
straight and singularly devoid of rocks, rapids, 
md whirlpools, and rarely impeded even by 
fiandbanks. The depth varies from 6 feet to 20 
Feet, with an average current of three and a 
lalf miles an hour.' In the spring the river is 
iable to be flooded with the snows of the Hindu 
ICush, and in the winter the ice collects on the sur- 
face near the Aral sufficiently thick to permit of 
:aravans crossing over it. The absence of towns 
md villages along its course is to be ascribed to 
he merciless rapacity of the Turkomans on the one 
side, and the Kirghiz nomades on the other, both 
A whom unite in their hatred of settled life and 
heir insatiable desire for plunder. The Tekki 
rurkomans alone boast of 15,000 horsemen. The 
imu Darya has slightly diminished in volume 
luring the present century, through the drying 
ip of some of its affluents, due to the oasis being 
aid waste and the villages destroyed by the 
lomades. The fruitful oasis of Khiva, with its 
anals fifty feet broad, its rows of stately elms, 
ts orchards of mulberry trees, apples, apricots, 
md cherries, and its lovely gardens, is simply a 
lice of the desert irrigated by the Oxus. Ac- 
ording to Sir Henry Rawlinson, the Amu 
)arya, from B.C. 600 to a.d. 500, with the Jax- 
rtcs, the Syr Darya, emptied itself into the 
Jaspian, and the Aral as an inland sea did not 
hen exist. Even in a.d. 570 the Aral was only a 
eedy marsh ; and it was not till quite thirty years 
ater that the influx of the Oxus caused it to swell 
>ut in the hollow in which it now lies. In 1224 
he Oxus again forced its way into the Caspian, 
nd the Aral dried up once more, exposing the 
■uins of cities which had been swallowed up during 
ts previous expansion. In 1330 the river was 
lescribed by an Eastern traveller as flowing into the 
Caspian close to the mouth of the Atrek ; and the 
kocuracy of this is attested by the remains of the 
)ed which General Abbott saw in 1840. During 
whole of the 14th century the Oxus poured 
tself into the Caspian, while its fellow -stream, 
ibe Jaxartes, was swallowed up in the sands. 
n the 15th century, Ruy Gonzalez de Clavigo 
ieacribes it as being a noble river, ' three miles in 
veadth, very deep, and traversing with wonderful 
)ONe a flat country before falling into the Caspian.' 

In 1720 a Dutch geofn^pber tijpealu of tbo river 
M having two braocbes, one flowing into Um 
Caspian, and tbo other into tbe And. Anibony 
Jenkinson, and Englisb officers em|^ed in tins 
18tb century in Persia, and Russian explorers of 
recent date, all agree tJiat the Amu EHu^a up to 
very recent times flowed into tbe Caspuw Sea. 
Like to other great rivers, the Indus, Ganges, 
Yang-tse-Kiang, and Pei-ho, this river never 
confined itself to any particukr outlet, but during 
a series of centuries scored one oneuiug and then 
another in the soft, sandy cliffs that stretch 
between Persia and Krasnovodsk. Efforts baro 
been made by the Russians to confine the river 
to a former bed. Both Strabo and Pliny mention 
that in the early days of the Christian era the 
merchandise of India used to come down thu 
Oxus to the Caspian, whence it was conveyed up 
the river Kurr on the one side of the Caucasus, 
and down the river Rion on the other, till the 
Black Sea and Europe were finally reached. — 
Trotter, Central Asia. 

AMUDAPU CHETTU. Ricinua communis, L. 


Tawiz, . . Arab. Hind. 
Amulette, Preservatif, Fr. 
Nadoli, .... Hind. 

Brieve It. 

Mustika, . . . >Lalay. 
Amuleto, .... Sp. 

Amulets are worn by almost all eastern nations. 
They are specially prized by Mahomedans, of 
whom both young and old wear them. They are 
usually put on the young to ward off disease and 
to guard from the evil eye, and consist of figures 
with numbers on pieces of paper, or Arabic words 
engraved on potstone, or silver, or gold, and worn 
from the neck, — often extracts from the Koran. 
They are also put over the door porch or on the 
house wall. Amongst the Malays of Java, the 
amulet is always some very scarce product. The 
Mustika Kerbo, or Buffalo amulet of the Malays, 
is quite white, and round like marble, nearly 
an inch in diameter, and semi-transparent ; it 
is stated to be found at Panggul. The Mustika 
Waringin, a calcareous concretion, found at Ngadi 
Rejo ; it is quite black, and a little smaller than 
the Mustika Kerbo. Waringin is the name of 
the Ficus Benjamina tree, which always adorns 
the open plain in front of the houses of Javanese 
chiefs. The Burmese formerly used to insert pellets 
of gold under the skin in order to render them 
invulnerable. And Marco Polo, in a story about 
Japan, specifically speaks of these 'consecrated 
stones in the arm between the skin and the flesh,' 
and Conti mentions the amulet, so used in Java 
Major, as a piece of an iron rod which is found 
in the middle of certain rare trees. — Journ. Ind. 
Archipelago, 1853, p. 274; Missdon to Ava, 1855, 
p. 208; Polo, iii. 2; Conti {Hak. Soc), p. 82; 
in Yule, Cathay, i. p. 94. 

AMULGUCH. Panj. Cerasus puddum. 

AMUL KUCHI. Beno, Csesalpiuia digyna. 

AMUMILLA. Singh. Berrya ammonilla, 

AMUR, a river in Manchuria ; the Manchu 
call it Sagalin, also Sagalinoula, or Black Dragon 
river. The Russians under the treaty of Aigun 
annexed great tracts of little peopled country on 
the north banks of this river, and arranged tliem 
into the Amur Province, 164,000 square miles, 
Usuri, Sofyevsk, Nikoloyvesk, 179,000 square 
miles, and Russian Sakalin, 18,000 square miles. 
In 1858, Count Mouravieff Amoorsky, and again 
in 1859 Count Ignatieff, obtained further cessions. 




and by the second convention Russia secured the 
lower Ussuri region and the bay on which Vladi- 
vostock is now situated, and thus obtained a 
magnificent naval station in the Pacific. The 
river rises in lat. 60° N. and long. 110° E., by two 
sources, and flows from the centre of Northern Asia 
into the Pacific Ocean not far north of Japan. 
The length, including its many windings, is com- 
puted at 2800 miles. Its basin contains a surface 
of 900,000 square miles ; the mouth is obstructed by 
a great bar over which there is not more than two 
fathoms of water at high tide, and by numerous 
sandbanks, which are yearly increasing in number 
and extent. Mongolia, Manchuria, Northern 
China, all the Tartaries, Tibet, and Siberia, with a 
population of 20 to 30 millions, are approached by 
this river. Irkutsk, the capital of Eastern Siberia, 
can be approached with only about 300 miles of 
land carriage. The Tungus races of the Lower 
Amur are the Yeniseisk, Nerchinsk, Manyarg, 
Manchu,and Orochi, small nomade or fishing tribes. 
At its mouth members of the Aino are settled ; 
and due north of Pekin is a Mongol tract which 
nearly separates the true Tungus part of Manchuria. 
Other small nomade tribes on the Lower Amur 
include the Goldi and Gilyak. Further north to 
Behring Straits are Tunguz, Lamooti, Noryak, 
and Kamtschatdales, in all about 44,189 souls. 
They are all shamanists and polygamists, and pur- 
chase their wives. — Staunton's Narrative, p. 15 ; 
Latham's Nationalities of Europe, i. 269 ; Atkin- 
son^s Travels; Atkinson'' s Siberia. 

AMURKALEE. Beng. Ardisia colorata. 

AMURNATH, a place of Hindu pilgrimage in 
the Kashmir state. It is a cave among the moun- 
tains, in lat. 34° 15' N., and long. 75° 49' E., in a 
rock of gypsum, and is about thirty yards high 
and twenty deep. It is held to be the dweUing- 
place of Siva. Qu. Amamath ? 

AMURTA GUDUOHI. Sansk. Tinospora 
cordifolia, Miers. 

AMURYA. Guj. Slices of mangoes. 

AMUS. Arab. A j wain seed. 

AMUSADA NELLI. Singh. EmbUca offici- 

AMUTHOO. Malay. Cocculus cordifolius. 


Louz (sweet), . . Arab. 

Louzan, . . . 


„ ul muer (bitter), „ 


. Pers. 

Kataping, . Bali, Jav. 

talq (bitter) 


Badamsi? . . . BuRM. 

Amende, . . . 

. Port. 

Badammitha, . . Hind. 

Mandel, . . . 

. Bus. 

,, karwa, . . „ 

Inghurdi, . . 


Amandelin, . . . DuT. 

Walu-luway, . 


Amandes, . . , Fb. 

Almendra, . . 

. . Sp. 

Mandeln, . . . Ger. 

Parsi vadam, . 

. Tam. 

Mandorli, ... It. 

Parsi badama, . 

. Tel. 

The almond tree is cultivated for its fruit, 
and for the oil expressed from it. Botanically, 
there is but one species, though there are many 
varieties and sub- varieties ; the most important of 
them are the sweet and the bitter almonds of com- 
merce, — ^the latter the talkh or karwa badam of 
India. The sweet almond contains 24 per cent, of 
albumen and 54 per cent, of fixed oil, the latter 
forming the principal product of the tree. The 
bitter almond trees are smaller than those of the 
sweet almond, but in every other respect the 
structure and appearance of the trees and fruits 
seem to correspond. The taste, composition, and 
properties of the fruits are, however, totally dif- 
ferent. It has been asserted that the sweet and 

bitter fruits have been gathered from the sarti 
tree, and that culture will change the bitter to tli 
sweet, as it has changed the sour crab to th 
sweet apple, and the bitter, half poisonous, wil 
potato to its present state. The sweet an 
bitter kinds are imported into the northern pari 
of India from Ghorbund, and into the souther 
parts from the Persian Gulf. 

The oil is colourless, very slightly yellow, wit 
difficulty congealed ; taste sweet, smell light, agre< 
able, and resembling that of the seeds. In all ii 
properties and uses it is nearly identical with oli\ 
oil. It is obtained for native use in India, bi 
does not form an article of export. The frui 
are imported into England at from £2, 10s. to £ 
the cwt.— 0'Sh. pp. 319-322; Hog, 298; Voig 
200 ; Faulkner, St. of Com. ; Bingley ; Riddell 
Gardening, p. 97 ; Cleghorn''s Panjab Report. S( 

of China, and, in Roxburgh's time, common i 
gardens about Calcutta, where it grew to be 
large, very ramous tree. He says that it was cu 
tivated for its small yellow succulent acid fruit, ( 
which tarts were often made. Flowering-time i 
Bengal, the cool season ; the fruit ripens in tl 
hot season. — Roxb. ii. p. 600. 

Persica vulgaris, MiU. 

Khook? . . . Arab.? 
Chinannu, Arui, Chenab. 
Sunnu, Tsunnu, Kangra. 
Aru, . Jhelum, Panj. 
Shaft-alu, . . . Pebs. 

Kalloo, Kardi-aru, Per 
Moondla-aru, . . „ 
Bun, .... SuTLE 
Ghargashtai, . Tr. Inj 
Ghwareshtai, . ,, 

A native of the Himalayas, abundant in Kasl 
mir, the Hindu Kush, Persia, Taurus, and tl 
Caucasus, also in Barbary, whence it has sprea 
into all the countries of the south of Europi 
Several varieties are extensively cultivated i 
China, also in several parts of India, as in Ahmac 
naggur and Poona in the Dekhan, also in Mysori 
at Bangalore. Three varieties of this fruit ai 
met with in the Dekhan, — a large round whi1 
sort, of a delicious flavour ; the flat China ; and 
small thin-skinned description, more resemblin 
an apricot in appearance, and much harder tha 
the others. The peach is easUy cultivated b 
seeds or layers. A seedling will throw out bios 
som in the second year, and be ten or twelve fee 
in height; it requires to be carefully prunec 
wintered, and watered. No branches should I: 
allowed to grow on the stem closer than three fee 
from the ground ; all spurious and misplace 
shoots should be rubbed off before gaining strengt 
to exhaust unnecessarily the juices of the tree ; an 
all distorted leaves, the work of insects, of parj 
sitic plants, mildew, etc., should be picked off an 
destroyed. The kernels of the peach should 1 
carefully removed from the shell, and in no waj 
injured, if required for planting ; they should \ 
sown in small beds at the commencement of tl 
rains, about eighteen inches apart, and, as soon i 
the trees are fit for removal, a good-sized ball < 
earth must be taken up with the roots, to prevei 
the root fibres from receiving injury. The tin 
for opening the roots of the peach tree is after tl 
close of the rains ; remove the earth with care, so 
not to injure the roots, for the space of three fe 
round the stem ; pull off all the leaves, and cea 
to water the tree until the blossom buds appea 
then cover up the roots with good loam mix( 




with old rotten manure ; water freely erory third 
i)r fourth day, until the fruit iK'gins to ripen, 
liter which bu guided by circumBtancea. It is 
iieoeesary suinutimes to thin the fruit, and also to 
Mt the peaches in bags, as they begin to ripen, 
itherwise the birds destroy them. In the Dekhan 
iMftohes first come in about February, and with 
isare may be continued until the rains commence, 
iter which the excess of moisture received by the 
eftvea and roots causes the fruit to swell and 
Durst. 'i'ho flowers are purgative, but also nar- 
wtic. 1'he leaves and kernels, on distillation, 
.field abundance of prussic acid. The fermented 
ruit gives an excellent brandy, chiefly manufac- 
ored in the United States of America. The bark 
flves a large quantity of gum during the hot 
e«son. In Persia there is a kind of peach tree 
aterniediate between the almond and the peach. 
D Europe also there are varieties of peach almonds. 
L'he nectarine, the downy peach variety, is much 
'oltivated in part« of India and in Afghanistan, 
["he natives of the Panjab believe the fruit useful 
worms, Ascaris lumbricoides. — Smith, p. 8 ; 
65; J. L. Stewart, 

7legho7'n^s Panjab Report, p 
^^ujab Platits; Riddell on 6( 


AN, in Mewar, the oath of allegiance. Three 
hings in Mewar were royalties : a subject cannot 
leddle with the An, or oath of allegiance ; the Dan 
r transit dues on commerce ; and the Kan, or mines 
I the precious metals. — Rajasthnn, L p. 172. 

AN, also Jan and Kal of Beas. Urtica hetero- 
hylla, Roxh. ; also Morus serrata. 

ANA. Sansk. Food. See Ana-ch'hatra ; Ana- 
uta; Ana-devi; Ana-prasanam ; Ana-purna. 

ANAB. Arab. Grapes. 

ANABAS SCANDENS. Palmyra climber, 
mthias testudineus, Block. | Perca scandens, Daldorf. 
[ode Hind. | Panei-eri, Telli, . Tam. 

This little fish, of the family Anabadse, is very 
<numon in tlie marine lagoons and near the 
lonths of the rivers of southern and south-eastern 
Ijsia. It is about five inches in length, mottled 
town and yellow. They may be seen hanging 
Q to the mangrove stems in Ceylon, by spines 
rranged along the margin of the gills, three and 
i)ur feet above the level of the receding tide, from 

hich elevated position they drop into the water 

hen disturbed by a boat or a steamer passing. 

» oligolepis, Bleeker, occurs in Ceylon. — Tenneni's 
.'eylon, p. 364. 

ANAB-us-SALEB. Arab. Solanum nigrum. 

ANACARDIACEiE, a natural order of plants, 
tees, or shrubs, which abound in a resinous, acrid, 

K" Tven poisonous juice. Its genera in S. E. Asia are 
anacardium, Buchanania, Cambessedia, conio- 
eton, gluta, holigarna, mangifera, odina, melanor- 
Iwea, pegia, pistacia, phlebochiton, rhus, rumphia, 
amecarpus, solenocarpus, stagmaria, syndesmis, 
liysanus, and triceros. 

Acajuba occidentalia, Ocertn. 
Caasuvium pomiferum, Lam., Bheede. 

Tijlibadam, Bkn., Hind. 

'he-ho-thayet, . Bdrh, 

liuw nut tree, Eno. 

!, . Hind., Malay. 

u-monat, . Malay, 

:iki-mavali, Maleal. 

I mavakum, „ 

r.i sala, . . Sansk, 

lis is a small tree, sixteen feet high, very oma- 

> uLal when in leaf. It was introduced into the 

Wattu-kaju, . . SiNOH. 
Jambo-iring ? Sumatra. 
Kola mavah, . . . Tam. 
Mundiri inar&m, . „ 
Thab-ainbu, . . Tavoy. 
Jidi mamedi, . . Tel. 
Mimta mamidi ohettu, „ 

East Indies from the West IjuUm, where, m abo 
in Mexico and the two AmericM, it grows ; but 
it is now cultivated in Ceylon, all over India, 
Burma, Pegu, and the TeMSserim Provinces esst- 
wards to the Moluccas. In Pegu it is much ettltivtthsd 
about Phoungyo houses, and in groves near towns. 
The wood is dark brown, and is not gtnenUj 
deemed of value in carpentry, but, in Taroy, 
Captain Dance says it is U8e<i in Ixwt-building, 
and it forms a charcoal, which the iron-smiths 
there consider the best for their trade. It bean 
sweet - smelling flowers, succeeded by a pea- 
shaped fruit of a yellow or of a rod colour, very 
acrid, and with an astringent juice. The cashew 
nut hangs at the end of the fruit outside, and is 
about an inch long, of a kidney shape, edible and 
wholesome when roasted. It is found in every 
bazar in India. The nuts are used for imparting a 
flavour to Madeira wine. Also, ground up and 
mixed with cocoa, they make a good chocolate, 
are said to yield a spirit by distillation, superior 
to rum or arrack, and are described as poesess- 
ing powerful diuretic properties. They are also 
said to yield, by expression, an edible oil, equal to 
olive or almond oil. The cashew nut has two 
shells, between which there is a thick inflammable 
oil, called cardole or cashew apple oil. It is a 
powerful vesicating agent, and, owing to its caustic 
properties, is sometimes applied to ringworm, warts, 
corns, cancerous ulcers, etc., and to floors or 
wooden rafters of houses to prevent the attacks 
of white ants. It is a very dangerous drug, and 
ought never to be used. Exposure to the vapour 
of the oil, when imder preparation, will produce 
violent swelling and inflammation. An astringent 
gum is exuded from the trunk of the tree to the 
extent of 5 to 12 lbs. weight annually, which 
should be collected when the sap is rising. It 
makes a fair substitute for gum arable, forms a 
good varnish, and is particularly useful where the 
depredations of insects require to be guarded 
against. The milky juice which flows from in- 
cisions in the trunk of the tree imparts an in- 
delible stain to linen. — Drs. Ainslie, Roxh., Voigt, 
M'Clelland, Riddell, Mason; Mr. Jaffrty, Useful 
Plants; Hogg's Vegetable Kingdom; M. E. Jut, 
Report ; Captain Dance. 

ANACHANDRA. Tel. Acacia ferruginea. 

ANA-CH'HATRA. Hind. A charitable insti- 
tution frorii which food is distributed. 

ANA-CHUNIDA. Male., Tam. Solanum ferox. 

lofty tree in the moist forests of the Anamallnis, 
at 2000 feet elevation ; it flowers in November 
and December, when the boughs are a perfect 
mass of very fragrant flowers. — Beddome, FL 
Sylv.p. 138. 

ANA-DEVI, a Hindu goddess, the nourishing 
deity to whom the Rajputs offer tiie first portion 
of a repast. 

ANAGALLIS. Linn. A genus of plants of 
the natural order Primulace«. A. arveusis, var. 
/3 cserulea, with light blue flowers, is a native of 
Kamaon, Nepal, and Khassya, and is cultivated as 
a flowering plant in India. It is the Giah surkh 
gul of the Persians, and Auasu kala bhangra of 
Kashmir, is said to be poisonous to dogs, producing 
inflammation of the stomach. It is used by native 
doctors in epilepsy, mania, and hydrophobia, also 
occasionally in dropsy. Wight figures, also, A. 
hUdiohA.— Riddell; Voigt; Powell, i. p. 368 ; W. Ic. 




ANAGAMI PALI, in Buddhism, the third of 
the four paths leading to nirwana. — Hardy, p. 433. 

ANAL Malay. Termites ; white ants. 

ANAI PULIA MARAM. Tam. Adansonia 

ANAITIS, an Assyrian deity introduced into 
Egypt. See Ken. 

ANAJ. Hind., Pers. Com; grain. 

ANAK. Arab. Lead. 

ANAKALA BHRITA. Sansk. One of the 
15 kinds of slaves in Hindu law ; a man who has 
become a slave voluntarily, for food during famine. 

ANAKAN. Maleal. A low person. 

ANAK BIRI KULIT. Malay. Lamb-skins. 

ANAKONDA of Ceylon, is the Python reticu- 
latus, Gray. It is occasionally of great size, but 
perhaps rarely exceeding 20 feet, though Mr. Sirr 
mentions that when full grown it is said to 
measure from 17 to 25 feet long, with a circum- 
ference of 2\ feet. — Sirfs Ceylon. 

ANAKURU. Tam. A tree of Western India, 
about 30 feet long and 18 inches in diameter ; 
the natives make small canoes of it, and use it in 
house-building. — Edye, M. and Can. 

ANA-KUTA-YATRA, a Hindu festival on the 
9th of November, in which they make a pile of boiled 
rice to represent Govardhan. In Rajputana, this 
festival was held annually in honour of Krishna, at 
which the seven statues were wont to be assembled 
from the different capitals, and food in great quan- 
tities (Ana food, Kuta mountains) prepared for 
the multitudes who collected. On one occasion, 
about A.D. 1740, most of the Rajput princes were 
present, — Rana Ursi of Mewar, Ilajas Beejy Singh 
of Marwar, Guj Singh of Bikanir, and Bahadur 
Singh of Kishengarh. Rana Ursi presented to the 
god a tora or massive golden anklet, Beejy Singh 
gave a diamond necklace of value Rs. 25,000 ; 
and an aged woman from Surat placed at the foot 
of the god Heri, a bill of exchange for Rs. 70,000. — 
Wilson; Tod, Rajasthan, i. p. 547. 

ANAL. Beng. a reed ; Amphidonax bifaria. 


Coccvilus suberosus. 

W. and A. 
„ lacunosus, D. C, 
„ orbiculatus, D. C. 

Gaarla Phalla, Maleal. 
PoUa, Kakandaka- 

conuveh, . , Maleal. 
Kaka-mari, . . Sansk. 
Kaka-caUi maram ? Tam. 
Pen-kottai maram, ,, 
Kaki-champa, . . Tel. 

A. paniculata, Coleh. 
Menispermum cocculus, L. 
M. heteroclitum, Roxh. 
M. monadelphum, Roxh. 

Khanak-ul-kalb ? Abab. 
Bakain-ka-phal ? Beno. ? 
Cocculus indicus, Eng. 

,, Levanticus, ,, 
Coques de Levant, Fr. 
Kakmari, . . . HiND. 
Bacca orientalis, . Lat. 
Tuba bidji, , Malay. 

This one of the Menispermacese is a strong 
climbing shrub, with the bark corky, ash-coloured, 
and deeply cracked into fissures ; leaves roundish, 
hard, and leathery. It grows throughout S.E. 
Asia, in Ceylon, in Malabar, the Konkans, the 
Circar mountains, Orissa, Assam, Burma, the 
Moluccas, and Timor. The seeds are about the 
size of a cherry ; the kernel is oily. They are 
devoid of smell, of extremely bitter taste, and 
poisonous in moderate doses to animals, and to 
vegetables. Twelve grains of the seeds given to 
a dog killed it in five minutes ; a solution pre- 
pared from an extract made with the seeds killed 
a bean plant in twenty-four hours. Cocculus 
indicus was largely employed in Australia in de- 
stroying the parasitic animals which attack the 
skins of sheep. It is also used for stupefying fish ; 

mixed with crumbs of bread and thrown int 
ponds, the fish which eat the crumbs become it 
toxicated, float on the surface, and are easil 
taken. Fish thus caught are exceedingly dange 
ous. The only use of the Cocculus indicus i 
medicine is as an external application, as a powdi 
or ointment, to destroy vermin in the hair, and i 
the treatment of some cutaneous diseases. I 
imports into England largely and rapidly ir 
creased. — Drs. Ainslie, Materia Indica ; Roxh 
Voigt, O'Sh., Mason; Hook, et T. 185; Pook 
Statistics of Commerce ; Simmonds; Hogg, 31 ; U& 
ful Plants. 

ANA MULU. Tel. Lablab vulgaris. 

ANAN (BuRM.) is the Fagrsea fragrans, ( 
Cyrtophyllum fragrans, Falconar, of Burm 
and stands pre-eminent in its characteristics i 
a forest tree of the largest dimensions, for i 
straightness and freedom from internal deca; 
and in its indestructibility under all circumstance 
of useful appliance. A specimen of this woe 
was brought to Mr. O'Riley's notice, which f( 
60 years had formed the supports of a nati) 
bridge over a creek in his vicinity ; embedded i 
mud, and exposed to the alternations of wet an 
dry during each tide, it had undergone no chanj 
beyond the decay of the sap parts immediate] 
below the bark ; the posts of the bridge consiste 
of young trees cut on the spot and so applied i 
once. The supplies to be obtained from thes 
forests are unlimited. It would be found to answt 
admirably for such ship- building purposes i 
require extra strength and durability, and woul 
afford the finest keel-pieces in the world. 

ANA-NARINGI. Tam. PedaUum murex. 

ANANAS SATIVUS. Schult. Pine-a,pple. 
Bromella ananas, i., iZ. 

sativa, R. Fl. Ind. 
Ananas, Abab., Dekh., 
. . . Bali. 
BuBM., Malay. 
. . . Celeb. 
, . . Lamp. 



Karda cheeka, Maleal. 

Ananassa sativa, Lindley. 

Purithi, . . Maleai 
Pina, . . Philippini 
Anassi, .... Singi 
Anasa maram, . Taj 
Ananas, . . . Tei 
Anasa chettu, . „ 

Ananas Pandu chettu, ,, 
The pine-apple is a West Indian plant, whic 
has been domesticated in hothouses in the coldt 
places of Europe, but in the moist warm localitie 
of the Indian Peninsula, of Bengal, Ceylon, th 
Tenasserim Provinces, the Straits, Molucca? 
Philippines, and China, it grows in great abun 
dance, is even wild, forming hedges ; but th 
flavour of the fruit, which is a general favouritt 
is greatly improved by cultivation in rich soi 
The native women of Bombay believe that eatin 
the pine-apple injures their fertility. The leave 
yield a very valuable fibre, from which, in th 
Straits and in Java, a much-prized delicate fabric 
the pina silk of commerce, is manufacturet 
The leaves are gathered, and, in the same wa 
as the aloe, are placed on a board and scrape 
with a blunt knife. The fibres that are loosene 
are drawn out, the leaves turned over, and froi 
four to six inches of the stem end scraped s 
before, and as soon as the fibres are loosened b 
the removal of the pulp in that part of the lea; 
the fibres are taken hold of by the fingers an 
drawn out. These fibres are again laid on tb 
board, and any remaining portion of the pul 
gently scraped out with the aid of water, whe 
they are gathered and dried in the sun. B 
another mode of treatment, the leaves are laid 1 




tin, BO AB to dry up a portion of tho sap, 
I, un being tAken up and bruised by thu hand, 
: litres boconto looseuiHl, and may be taken 
' if and drawn out. But a great loss of fibre 
> that tiiis mctho<l cannotr bo rccom- 
Aiiislie; Voiijt; Iloffy, 7G4 ; Mad. Ex. 

\ AN DA, the nephew or cousin and favourite 
...^^.lo of Gautama; ho was a thero (presbyter) 
ir bhikshu (niendiamt), and did not attain the 
•anctity of the rahathood, or qualification for 
llnal cniancipfttion without birth, till the synod 
Held at liajagriha, in Magadlm, soon after the 
leath of Buddija. He was Sakya Muni's personal 
ittendant. At Ananda's intercession, female devo- 
ecs (Bikshuni) were admitted into tho ranks of 
Buddliist community, and permitted to embrace 
n ascetic life, and those at Mathura paid their 
levotions chiefly to the stupa of Ananda because 
>f this intercession. — Yule's Embassy, p. 26 ; 
'lardy's Eastern Monachisni, p. 433. See Buddha. 
ANANDA in Sanskrit means joy, and hence 
^anda-nat'ha, from ananda, joy, and nat'ba, a 
i)rd, the lord of joy. Ananda is an appellation of 
iva, also of Bala Rama. Ananda, a cowherd, 
usband of Yasuda, a couple who fostered the 
ifant Krishna. 

ANANDA BHIMA DEVA, a Hindu author of 
i5pute, who wrote the polemic work Sankara Dig- 
ijaya, on the modifications of religion, cele- 
rating the victory of Sankaracharia over his 
pponenta. He is said to have introduced the 
>bakti worship into Puri. 
ANANDA TIRTHA. About the early part 
f the 13th century, Madhavacharya, called also 
Lnanda Tirtha, established a new subdivision 
f the vaishnava sect 

ANANDRAVER. Maleal. In N. Malabar, 
mongst the polyandric races who follow the 
CBcent of Marumaka tayam, or descensus ah utero. 
m is a term for the more distant relatives of 
Tarwada, or united family. See Aka Podwal ; 
(dyandry ; Nair. 
-AN AN I. Sansk. Earth, worshipped amongst 
lie Kol under the designation Isani (Isa, goddess ; 
iMDi, earth). See Kol. 

A-NAN-PHO. BuRM. Gordonia floribunda. 
ANANTA. Sansk. Infinity, eternity, time, 
tdless. In Hindu mythology, a name of Sesha, 
16 king of the serpents. Sesha means duration, 
id Ananta, endless ; in Hindu theogony, Ananta 
the serpent on which the deity reposes in the 
ktervals of creation. See Kalpa; Lakshmi; Sesha; 

ANANTA, author of the Vira Charita, a book 
I tales of the wars of the descendants of Vikra- 
iditya and Salivahana. — Dowson. 
ANANTA - CHATURDASI, a Hindu festival 
honour of Vishnu, held on the 14th of Bhadra- 
id (about the beginning of September), when 
figure of Anant Dora is made of silk and gold 

ANANTA-MUL. Beno. Indian sarsaparilla ; 

entidesmus indicus. 


vjore, a.d. 1786. After remaining for a few 
- as temple accountant, he retired to Tiruva- 
arutur, and devoted the remainder of his life 

tl>e composition of poetry, chiefly in honour of 

iv;i shrines. He diea a.d. 1846. 

ANANTA VARMA, a prince mentioned in the 


iriBcription on the Bud<lhA-gnya Taultcd caTern or 
Nagarjuni cave, of about the 'Jth or lOlh ooo- 

ANANTI, Anati, or Anti chotto. Tbl. Mum 
paradifiiaca, L. 

ANANTI, a name of tho town of Ujain. 

vulgaris, .Sat>i. Anapa kaya, Lagcuaria TtUgaria, 

ANA-PRASANAM, amount the Hindua, b a 
social and sacred rite, of givmg rice for the first 
time to an infant when six months old, at which, 
as also at the Choula rite, relatives and friends 
are entertained. On the first occurrence of tlio 
birthday, the child is anointed and decorat«<l with 
jewels ; relatives and friends are entertained ; and 
in the evening the child is carried to a temple, 
and presented to the deity of their sect. As the 
second anniversary draws near, or about that 
time, the boy's head is shaved on a propitious 
day, which affords another opportunity for feast- 
ing friends. 

ANAR. Hind. Punica granatum, pomegranate. 

ANARADHAKA MUNDA, one of the parricidal 
Bhattiya family ; reigned 8 years from B.C. 478. 
See Bhattiya. 

ANARADHAPURA, an ancient city in Ceylon, 
now in ruins. It is the Anurogrammum of 
Ptolemy. This seems to be described by Baker 
as Anaraj or Anarajpoora, with several Buddhist 
dahgopas, the heights of which vary. They were 
built at from B.C. 307 to a.d. 376. The ruins aro 
16 miles square, comprising a surface of 256 square 
miles. Those of Pollanarua are much smaller, 
but they are nevertheless of great extent. — Hardy a 
Eastern Monachism, p. 433 ; Baker's Rifle, p. 99. 

ANARKALLI. See Lahore. 

ANAS, a genus of birds, teal, ducks, many of 
which are widely distributed in the world. A. 
strepera, the Gadwall of northern regions, in Bar- 
bary, and tolerably common in India. A. acuta, 
the Pintail Duck • northern regions, Barbary ; 
very common in India. A. boschas, the Mal- 
lard ; northern regions, Barbary to Sind, Panjab, 
and the Himalaya and its vicinity ; replaced 
southward by A. Paecilorhyncha. A. querque- 
dula, the Gargany; Europe, Asia, N. Africa; 
very common in India. A. crecoa, Teal ; Europe, 
Asia, Barbary ; common in India. A. Penelope, 
the Widgeon ; Europe, Asia, N. Africa ; common 
in India. Cygnus atratus is the black swan of 
Australia. A. cygnoides is domesticated in China. 
A. cinereus, common in India, and A. braohy- 
rhynchus in the Panjab. — Blyth. See Birds. 

ANAS or Anome. Malay. Arenga sacchari- 

ANASANDRA or Chandra. Tel. Aoaciaferru- 
ginea, D. C. 

ANA SHORIGENAM. Maleal. Girardinia 
Leschenaultiaua, Urtica heterophylla, Roxb. 

ANASHOVADI. Mal., Tam. Elephantopus 
scaber, Linn. 

ANA-SHUNDA. Maleal. Solanum ferox. 

ANASI. Tam. Ananas sativus. Pine-apple. 

ANAS PHOOL. Hind. Anasi-pu, Tam. 
lUicium anisatum. Star anise. 

ANASUYA, wife of the rishi Atri, and mother 
of the Hindu sage Durvasas. She dwelt with her 
husband in a hermitage in the forest south of 
Chitra Kuta, and befriended Sita. — Dowson. 

ANATIDiE, a family of water birds. See Birds. 




ANAU ANANDAT, a name of Lake Manasa- 

ANAVALOBHANA, a domestic ceremony 
amongst the Mahrattas, to ward off miscarriage. 

ANA-VINGA. Maleal. Casearia canziala. 

ANAXAGORAS, a Grecian whose two reputed 
followers were Damon and Pythias, supposed by 
Major Cunningham to be the words dharma, 
virtue or practical morality, and buddha, wisdom. 
See Damon and Pythias. 

ANAYAN. Tam. A cowherd or shepherd. 

ANAY VAL MYR. Tam. Hair of elephant's 

ANCHA or Anche. Tam., Tel., Karn. A 
letter post, or for travelling. — W. 

ANCHAL. Hind. Very broad gold or silver 
ribbon, or edging. 

ANCHAR. Maleal. Antiaris toxicaria, Upas 

Langar, . Beng., Hind. 
Ly-ouk-su, . . . BUKM. 
Anore, .... Fr. 
Anker, .... Ger. 
Ankura, .... Gk. 

Of this article of 

Lubi, .... 
Ancora, . . . 
Sawuh, Jangkar, 
Ancla, . . . 
Langaru, . . 

ship's furniture there are 






many kinds, — sheet, bower, stream, kedge, and 
grapnel. Those for smaller vessels are manufac- 
tured in India of wrought iron, but many are of 
rude construction, and every coast has its own 
form, and a particular mode of using it. The Indian 
fisherman's mooring anchor is generally of stone, 
from four to five feet in length, four-sided and pyra- 
midal, the apex cut off. At base it is from six to 
eight inches square, and from four to six at top. 
At the top is a hole, through which a cable or 
hawser is passed. Near the base are two holes at 
right angles to each other ; through these, pieces 
of wood are thrust corresponding to the prongs or 
flukes of the anchor. The whole weighs from 80 
to 150 lbs., according to the size of the vessel, and 
answers very well the purposes intended. These 
anchors are most commonly made of limestone, 
and are on the whole suitable. 

Anchois, . , . Fr. I Acciughe, Anchione, It. 
Anchove, Anschove, Gek. | Anchova, . . Port., Sp. 

The anchovies met with in the commerce of 
India are wholly imported. The true anchovy is 
the Engraulis encrasicholus Cuv., a small fish 
about four inches long, with bluish-brown back 
and silvery white on the belly. It is very abim- 
dant in the Mediterranean, where, though occur- 
ring in other seas, they are chiefly caught at 
night by nets, their heads immediately taken off, 
and gutted. Another Mediterranean species, E. 
meletta, is largely substituted for and mixed with 
the true anchovy, but they are from four to seven 
inches long; and other fish, Dutch and Sicilian, 
are also employed to adulterate anchovy paste 
and sauce. The Madras coast has three species 
of Engraulis; the Netteli or Teran Goonie, E. 
albus, is caught in great nets in immense numbers, 
and by Europeans is highly esteemed for the 
breakfast table ; and one about six inches long is 
very delicate eating. The Tamil names of the 
others are Pota Netteli and Maper Netteli. The 
Gna-ping-nai-say of the Burmese coast and Ten- 
asserim Provinces was considered by Dr. Mason to 
be the E. meletta. — Faulkner; Mason; Hassall; 
Eng. Cyc; Poole, p. 9 ; Bingley, iii. 221. 

ANCHUSA, a genus of plants belonging to th 
Boraginaceae. A. italica is mentioned by Nicandei 
V. 38, and is called Bugloss, from the supposed re 
semblance of its leaves to a cow's tongue (/3ot 
yXofffra). In India, the Greek synonyms bugloozu 
and fooghulus are assigned to Onosma bracteatun 
Royle. In the Bombay bazars, the Cacalia Klein: 
is similarly termed Gao zaban, or cow's tongu 
Anchusa tinctoria (Alkanet) is a native of Europe 
for which root those of the Onosma echioides an 
0. tinctoria have been substituted. The Onosn 
emodi, Wall.^ of the Himalaya is closely allied l 
this, and is called Maharanga, from the intensity « 
its colour. The alkanet of Constantinople is pr( 
duced by the root of the Alcanna vera. It is in 
ported into England in very small quantities as 
dye.— Poole, St. of Com. ; Voigt; 0'>SA. p. 496-( 
Hog, 541. 

Tsz-ts'au, Ti-hiueh, Chin. | Tsz-tan, .... Chi 

Its root is brought from Hu-peh, Honan, Pel 
chih-li, Kwei-chau, and Shan-si. It is cultivat< 
by the Yau or T'ung tribes of Miau-tsze, who ]v 
in Li-po-hien, in Kwei-chau, and Lien-chau, 
Canton province. The red root is employed I 
the Chinese in smallpox. — Smith, 16. 

Kurdal, .... Mahr. | Valli Modigam, . Ma 

Grows at the Parr Ghat ravines at Khandall 
but not common. The Modira valli, usually quott 
for Artabotrys odoratissima, has a great resen 
blance to this plant. This is a very pretty shru 
A. Vahlii, Arn., the Gona wel, or Gona patte 
wel, of the Singhalese ; grows in the central ar 
southern parts of Ceylon, up to 2000 feet.- 
Thwaites, p. 188 ; Gr. Cat. 

Hypericum carneum, Wall., Cat. 
Zin-ga-lae, . . . Tavoy. | Zoung-ga-la«, . . Bub; 

This tree attains a maximum height of 30 fee' 
it rarely exceeds 3 feet in girth, and its maxima 
is 3 cubits. It is plentiful in the Pegu ar 
Tounghoo forests, and is widely scattered all ovi 
the Amherst, Tavoy, and Mergui Provinces, bi 
in none abundant. It is also a native of Chin 
Its dark-brown wood, when seasoned, floats 
water. It has a long fibre, tenacity, durabilit 
and suflScient lightness, and is very free fro 
knots. It is used by the Burmese for buildin 
for ploughs, and for utensils of all kinds, and 
recommended for handles of chisels, hammers, ai 
tools generally.^ CajjtoJK Dance; Drs. jypCh 
land; Mason; Voigt. 

Yin-bya of the Burmese, is a tree plentiful in tl 
Pegu and Tounghoo forests. The timber groA 
very tall, but seldom exceeds three feet in girt 
Wood dark brown. — McClelland. 

ANCORUTTAY. Tam. Trichosanthes palmal 

ANDAGU KYOUK, Burm., or image stone,_ 
Long Island in the Bassein river, is a peculii 
very fine, white or greenish, argillaceous san 
stone, which the Burmese carve into images 

ANDAL. Panj. Cuscuta reflexa. 

ANDAMAN RED -WOOD, Pterocarpus d 
bergioides, Roxb. 

ANDAMANS, a cluster of four larger islan( 
with several islets, in about long. 92° 15' to 93° '. 
E., and extending from lat. 10° 32' to 13° 45' 




The islands are mentioned by Marco Polo as tlie 
IJnj^'iiniaii. They arc iudonted by numerous bays 
iind inlets, and are covered with forests of lofty 
Irees. Those ifilands were surveyed in 1789 and 

1790 by Lieutenant Archibald Blair, and from 

1791 to 1796 sottlementa were formed by the 

Ifndian Government, but, proving unhealthy, they 

urere abandoned from 1796 until 1857, when the 

ll)ast India Company again re-occupied them. 

They are inhabited by a race the least civilised 

[lerhaps in the world. Professor Flower has men- 

lionca that the largest skulls he had measured 

wrere those of the flat-headed Indians of North 

(Vmerica, and the smallest those of the Andamancse 

md the Veda of Ceylon. Marco Polo mentioned 

them as savages who killed and ate all strangers. 

iVt present their colour is of the darkest hue, 

i.nd their aspect uncouth. Their limbs are ill- 

'ormed and slender, their bellies prominent ; and 

;hey have woolly hair, thick lips, and flat noses. 

They go quite naked, the women wearing only 

it times a kind of tassel or fringe round the 

niddlo, which is intended merely as ornament, 

18 they do not betray any signs of bashfulness 

vhen seen without it. The men are 5 ft. 2 in. 

ind 5 ft. 3 in. in height. The Andamaner has 

he appearance of a small-sized Negro race, like 

)thers in the south of the Peninsulas of India 

ind Malacca, in the Great Nicobar, as the Kadar, 

he Seniaug, the Negritos and Negroes of the 

Philippines and New Guinea. Some have become 

amiliarized to Europeans, and in 1875-76, 79 of 

hem had settled in Viper Island ; but formerly 

hey would affect to enter into a friendly con- 

erence, and, after receiving articles presented to 

hem, they would set up a shout and discharge 

heir arrows at the donors. They were cunning, 

raf ty, and revengeful ; frequently expressed their 

version to strangers in a loud and threatening 

oice, exhibiting various signs of defiance, and 

ipressing their contempt by indecent gestures. 

n skirmishes they displayed much resolution, and 

rould plunge into the water to seize a boat, and 

ischarge their arrows while in the act of swimming. 

'he women bear the greatest part of the drudgery 

[I collecting food, repairing to the reefs at the 

ocess of the tide to pick up shell-fish, while the 

sen are hunting in the woods, or wading in the 

rater to shoot fish with their bows and arrows. 

'hey arc very dexterous at this, which they 

allow also at night by the light of a torch. In 

lieir excursions through the woods, a wild hog 

»metimes rewards their toil, and affords them a 

iore ample repast. They broil their meat or fish 

▼er a kind of girdle made of bamboos, but use 

o salt or other seasoning. A canoe, a moderately- 

iaed one, capable of accommodating about 20 per- 

ans, is used for the purpose of obtaining food for 

bout 80. ■ It is scooped out of a tree by the men, 

'ho take their turn, working with a sort of adze. 

'he canoe is very fragile, and rarely lasts above 

year, for they are constantly making its sides 
miner, by ornamenting and scooping out its 
iterior. It is ballasted by stones, and has a prow 
rojecting about two feet, on which the fisherman 
ands. They are more especially useful for turtle 
diing, and the spearing of skates and rays. The 
unboo pole has a sharp moveable spear which 
oships at one end, and to this is attached a long 
ne. When the bamboo is thrown, and the spear 
BOomes imbedded in the prey, it slips away from 

the bamboo, but remaini attached to the line. 
Should the flbh be lur(;e, soroe of tbem dive down 
under wat«r, attacking the victim with knives and 
speara, whilst uthurs endeavour to paM a line over 
the captive. For their small neta Umj use a fibre 
as thread, which they neatly work up, employing 
their fingers as a mesh, gradually enlarging it as 
required. When turtles are scarce, a large net is 
used. Just before the tide begins to ebb, this is 
attached to stakes which encircle the whole of 
a reef where turtle resort for food. As the tide 
recedes, they are penned in, but they fight most 
desperately to break through the net. The 
Andamanese now use spears, and but few, as a 
rule, escape. Their bows and arrows are used 
principally for shooting fish in shallow water. 
The upper two-thirds of the arrow is a hollow 
reed, the lower a piece of heavier wood, armed 
with a piece of iron or a nail. They throw stones 
with considerable accuracy. The Andamaners 
display much colloquial vivacity, and are fond of 
singing and dancing, in which amusements the 
women also participate. Their language is smooth, 
and their melodies are in the nature of recitation 
and chorus, not unpleasing. Their language ia 
very limited as to the number of words ; but by 
a marvellous power to imitate which these people 
possess, every vocal sound was repeated instantly, 
and with a wonderful precision. Andaman and 
Fuegian widows wear the skull of their deceased 
husbands hanging from their neck by a cord. — 
Andaman, Adm.Rep.; Horsburgh; Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng.; Records, Government of India; Rangoon 
Times; Asiatic Researches, iv. p. 389; Personal 

ANDARU, a mobed or priest of the Parsees. 
— W. 

ANDEH KOH, about a mile east of the village 
of Mohtur in the Mahadeo hills, running to the 
Denwa valley, is a ravine, with steep, precipitous 
sides, believed by the inhabitants to harbour a 
great snake. Opposite it is the Jambo-Dwip, 
another great ravine. 

ANDERE. Singh. Acacia arabica. 

ANDGERI, Can., the Ind Yeru or Yeru of 
the Mahrattas, is supposed to be a species of 
Sapindus or Nephelium. It is found in the Canara 
and Sunda forests, above the ghat, chiefly at Nil- 
coond and in the southern jungles. The wood is 
serviceable in house-building. — Dr. Gibson, 

ANDH, a hill tribe, formerly predatory, who, 
with the Gond, Kurku, and Kolamb, inhabit the 
Mailghat and the southern skirts of its hills. 
These four tribes resemble each other in physical 
appearance, but they each speak a different tongue, 
and they are quite distinct in features from the 
inhabitants of the villages. 

ANDHER, a little village 10^ miles south-west 
of Bhilsa and 5 miles west of Bhojpur. It con- 
tains remains of Buddhist topes. 

ANDHI. Hind, A tempest ; a circular storm. 

ANDHRA, the ancient name of the country in 
which Telugu was spoken, now called Telingana ; 
also the Telugu language itself, and likewise a 
man of that coimtry. Sanskrit writers call the 
Telugu language Andhra; and there is a divi- 
sion or race of Brahmans called the Andhra or 
Dravida. The Andhra dynasty ruled from B.c. 31 to 
A.D. 429 or 436. Pliny speaks of the Rex Andrarum 
as a powerful Indian prince. They were known 
as the Andrse to classical authors. The Puranas 




designate them Andrabhritya, and the inscriptions 
style them Satakarni and Satavahana. The Peutin- 
gerian Tables speak of Andrse Indi. They are 
mentioned in the Vishnu, Vayu, Matsya, and 
Bhagavata Puranas. Pliny and Hiwen Thsang 
(a.d. 630) mention them and the Kalinga king- 
dom ; and at the latter date Andhra was one of 
the six great Dravidian divisions. Wilson, Tod, 
Jones, and Fergusson have each calculated their 
eras, but doubts still surromid their history. An 
Andhra dynasty ruled at Magadha about B.C. 18. 
The first was Sipraka (B.C. 21), a powerful 
servant of Suserman, and whom he killed, and 
then founded the Andhra Bhritya dynasty. 
Their last powerful sovereign was Gautamiputra 
(a.d. 312-333). Professor Wilson arrived at 
the conclusion that the race of Andhra kings 
should not commence till about 20 years B.C., 
which would agree with Pliny's notice of them. 
They established their authority in Magadha only 
in the first centuries of the Christian era, and 
ended in a.d. 436. Warangal, Chicacole, and 
Rajahmundry were the capitals of the territory 
which is now known as Telingana, and also the 
Northern Circars. 

Sipraka, . . 
Krishna, . . 
Satakarni i., . 
Purnotsanga, . 
Srivaswami, . 
Satakarni il., 
Lambodara, . 
Apitaka, . . 
Saugha, . . 
Satakarni in., 
Swatikarna, . 

—Ferg. 717, 718 

B.C. 31 

A.D. 8 















Hala, . . . 
Sindara, . . 
Rajadaswati, , 
Sivaswati, . . 
Pulomat, • . 
Sivasri, . . 
Skandaswati, . 
Yajnasri, . . 
Vijaya, . . . 
Pulomat, . . 
„ died 


„ 271 
, 276 
,, 281 
6 mos. 
, 284 
, 312 
, 333 
, 335 
, 363 
, 370 
„ 377 
, 406 
„ 412 
„ 422 
429 or 436 

Thomas' Prinsep's Indian Anti- 
quities, p. 241; Wilson'' s Glossary; Cunninghani's 
Ancient Geography of India, p. 528 ; Imp. Gaz. 
See Chalukya ; India. 

by which the Tamil and Telugu languages are 
designated by the learned natives of the south of 
India. Shen Tamil (Sen Damir) is the ancient 
classical Tamil language, and is usually called 
High Tamil. 

ANDI, a religious mendicant of the saiva sect 
of Hindus in the south of India. 

ANDI. Panj. Caesalpinia sepiaria. 

ANDIJAN, a town of Ferghana. It has 20,000 
inhabitants, and is the chief place in the khanate 
of Khokand. Khokand is an Uzbak chiefship, 
situated on the Syr Darya or Jaxartes. 

ANDI-PANDU. Tel. Banana. 

ANDI PULAVAR was born near Gingee. He 
wrote verses on the Asiriya metre; a commen- 
tary on the Nannul called Uraiyari Nannul ; and 
Asiriya Nikandu, a dictionary of Tamil synonyms. 

AND-KHARBUZA. Panj. Carica papaya. 

ANDKHO or Andkhui, in lat. 36° 54' N., 
and 35° 23' E., in Afghan Turkestan, 100 miles 
west of Balkh, has a population of 15,000, of 
Turkman, Uzbak, Tajak. In Balkh and near 
Andkhui, the harvest is at the beginning of June ; 
in the oasis countries, in July ; in Kungrat and in 
the north of Khokand, not till the beginning of 
August. Of the rivers in that central region, 
the Oxus is the most important, and the Zaraf- 

shan, Shahr-Sabz, and Jaxartes follow. See 

Stylodiscus tri., Bennett. \ Psychodendron tri., Wall. 

This tree of quick growth, the Uriam of Assam, 
is found in Java, Ava, Peninsula of India, at 
Hurdwar, Chittagong, Nepal, and Assam. Wood 
and bark red ; employed for masts and spars of 
small vessels. — Voigt; Cal. Cat. Ex., 1862. 

ANDRAD A. Anthony Andrada, a Jesuit, passed 
through Kumaon to the Manasarawara lake, and 
thence went on to Rudak, on the western confines 
of Tibet. His journey was made in 1624, and is 
discredited by commentators and geographers 
because of his mentioning this lake as the source 
of the Ganges and Indus, instead of the Sutlej, 
There is no doubt, however, that the voyage is 
genuine, though we have no details of it.— 
Prinsep^s Tibet, p. 12. See Rudok. 

Justicia echioides, Roxh. 
Chavalapuri Kada, Tel. | Gorre Chimidi, , . Tel. 

This plant grows in Ceylon, in the Peninsulas 
of India and Malacca, and in the Himalaya. It 
has two varieties, a. Lamarckiana and h. Linnaeana, 
— Voigt; W. Ic. 

Justicia paniculata, Burm, 

Ufar? . . . . Arab.? 
Kalo megha, . . Beng. 
Maha tita, ... ,, 
Kriat, Can., Duk., Hind. 
Hwanglien, , . . Chin. 
Kalupnath, . . . Hind. 
Kiriatha, . . . Maleal. 

Kara-Kaniram, . Maleal. 
Kairata, . . . Sansk. 
Hin-bin-komba, Singh. 
Kalpa, ... ,, 

Kiriat, NelaVembu, Tam. 
Nela Vemu, Kari 
Vemu Tel. 

This valuable annual grows in dry ground, 
under the shade of trees, and it flowers in the 
cold season. The roots have long been a popular 
febrifuge and stomachic. It is the basis of the 
' Drogue amere,' or a compound of mastic, frank- 
incense, resin, myrrh, aloes, and kriat root, 
steeped in brandy for a month, and the tincture 
strained and bottled. According to Ainslie, it 
was originally brought from the Isle of France ; 
but it is cultivated in Tinnevelly and other dis- 
tricts, and is now found wild in Bengal, Ceylon, 
the Peninsula, and Java. It is the true Chiretta, 
but it is only one of the plants from which the 
Chiretta of the bazars is obtained. — Roxh. ; Voigt, 
p. 493 ; O'Sh. p. 482 ; Beng. Ph. p. 210 ; Indian 
Annals, No. 6. 

A, Kotagherrensis, Hook. | Gualtherialeschen., D. C. 

The Indian winter-green grows abundantly on 
the Neilgherries. The oil procured from it if 
identical with the Canadian oil of winter-green.— | 
Drury^s Useful Plants, p. 37. 


Eran, EUal, . . . Beas. 
Arur, Rattankat, Chenab. 
Ayar, Eliyun, . . Panj. 

Elian, Eilaur, . . RAVI 
Erana, .... SuTLBJ. 
Sar-lakhtei, . . Tr. IND 

A small tree abundant in many parts of th« 
outer Panjab Himalaya, often growing along witl 
Rhododendron arboreum, at from 4000 to 700( 
feet. The seeds and young leaves are poisonoui 
to cattle, goats, etc., in the spring months only 
Rattankat means blood-cutter. Madden statei 
that the honey got from the flower is poisonous 
The wood is soft and weak, and used for fue 
and charcoal only. A. fastigiata, Hook., gronf 





■iVniilantly on Mon Lepcha at 13,000 feot.— /. L. 
■ irt, M.D.; Hook: i. 343. 

Ywig-Uhih-Chuh, Chin. | Nau-yang-hwa, . Chin. 

In China, its flowers, and those of the Azalea, are 
mixed with other substances to fonn benumbing 
toplications, which, in Chinese surgery, take the 
■mm of chloroform, ice-bags, and ether spray. — 

ANDROPOGON. Eighteen species have been 
brought under this genus from the genera ana- 
theruni, phalaris, anthisteria, cymbopogon, cala- 
mus, holcus, and saccharum. A. arundinaceus, 
punctatus, Bladhii, trispicatus, pertusus, glaber, 
texburghianus, conjugatus, and binatus, are of 
k'ugal ; A. Cymbarius is of the Coromandel 
mountains ; A. prostratus and A. scandens, of the 
Intlian Peninsula and Bengal ; and A. milliformis, 
of Lucknow. A. contortus, as also A. aciculatus, 
jre spear grasses. A. Annuatus, Forsk., the 
Pnlwan and Minyar of the Panjab, is abundant 
in many parts of the Panjab plains. It is con- 
nidered excellent fodder for cattle and for horses, 
when green. — /. L. Stewart's Panjab Plants, 248 ; 
Roxburgh; AP Clelland ; Jaffrey; Mason. See 

l3undha-goorana, . Bkno. | Tambut Deo. 

Grows in the higher parts of Bengal. — Roxh. 

Munji, . Beas., Sutlkj. | Baggar, . . . Jhklum. 

Common in many parts of the Siwalik tract 
and outer Himalaya, at from 2300 to 4000 feet, 
up to and beyond the Indus. — Panj. PI. 

twarancusba, . . Bkng. Gaocha, Guch'cha, Sansk. 
Jhat Yari, . . . HiND. Allapu kommuvella 
likar, Panj. vantigadda, . . Tel. 

This fragrant grass is a native of the low hills 
tdong the base of the Himalaya, at Hardwar 
md the Kheeree pass, and is also found at Asir- 
[(urh and in Malwa generally. The roots are 
ised by the natives in northern India in inter- 
nittent fevers. In habit and taste it comes re- 
narkably near A. schoenanthus. The oil is used 
tis a stimulant, internally and externally, much 
n the same manner as cajaput oil. — Roxb. i. 275. 


Nardoides, Nee». \ A. Calamus aromaticus, R. 

Jrass oil of Nemaur, Eno. 
Kubel ; Ganjni, . Hind. 
Kamaksha-pillu, . Tam. 

Chor-pillu, . 
Kamaksbi, . 


This plant grows in the Balaghat, in Central 
India, and northwards to Lucknow and Dehli. 
It has a strong aromatic and pungent taste, and 
he milk and butter and flesh of animals which feed 
in it become impregnated with it. It yields the 
grass oil of Nemaur, known in southern India 
iS the roosa grass oil, which differs but little 
lither in appearance or quality from the lemon 
jrass oil ; they are used for the same purposes, and 
orm a good substitute for the more expensive 
»japut oil, and are sold in England under the 
lame, oil of rose-scented geranium. The oil is 
dso called ginger grass oil, and is ako errone- 
Busly termed oil of spikenard. The plant is 
pposed by Dr. Royle to be the Calamus aro- 
Eiticus of the ancients. The true spikenard of 
the ancients is supposed to have been obtained 
from the Nardostachys jatamansi, a plant of the 

Valerian family. Grasa oil \n never taken inter- 
nally by natives; but they have a great faith in 
it as a stimulant to the functions of the several 
organs, when rubbed on externally. They alio 
use it as a liniment in chronic rheumatism and 
neiuralgic pains, and place great reliance on 
its virtues, but its cost prevents it being used 
generally. It has a fragrant aromatic smell, 
persistent, and very agreeable at first, but after 
a time the odour becomes unpleasant, and gives 
many people a feeling of nausea with headache. 
The natives use it for slight colds, also to excite 
perspiration, by rubbing in a couple of drachma 
on the chest before the fire or in the heat of the 
sun. At Sanger, twenty seers of the grass, which 
grows wild over the station and district, are mixed 
with two seers of sesamum oil, and then slowly dis- 
tilled. The oil thus becomes highly impregnate<l 
with the peculiar roosa flavour, and this spurious 
article is sold as such at four rupees a seer. It has 
an odour distinct from that of lemon grass and 
citronelle. For the 1862 Exhibition, every en- 
deavour to obtain unadulterated oil failed, The 
best is said to be pressed at Ajmir. — Voigt, p. 
707 ; Roxb. i. 277 ; Cal Cat. for Ex. of 1862 ; 
Gen. Med. Topography, p. 176 ; M. Ex. J. Rep. 
Anatherum mvuicatum, B. \ Phalaris zizania, Linn. 

Khor? Kror? . Assam. 

Pan-yen Burh. 

Bina, Bala, Usir, . Hind. 


Akar-wangi, . , Malay. 
Kamicham, . . Maleal. 
Jalasayah? . . Sansk. 
Lamajjakamu, . ,, 

Viratara, . . . Sansk, 
Vatte- ver, Vizhal-vcr, Tam. 
na-mitchamver, . ,, 


Kuru-veru, Kassuvu, Tel, 
Avuru gaddi veru, . ,, 
Vatti-vera, ... 

Grows in most parts of India and in Burma ; 
its roots, the Khas-khas, are used for making the 
fragrant fans and tatties in general use. Tho 
grass is used for thatch. It seeks a low, rich, 
moist soil, especially on the banks of water- 
courses. It covers large tracts of waste land in 
the province of Cuttack, and plentifully in all the 
jungles of Oudh. It is locally used for much the 
same purposes as sarsaparilla, and its roots and 
oil are used in native medicine for other purposes. 
Khas-khas attar, an essential oil extracted from 
the roots, sells in the bazar at two rupees per 
tola. It is probably merely a perfumed sesamum 
oil. — Roxb. i. p. 265; roigt; Mason; Ainslie; 
Madr. Exh. 

Gand be! ? . . . Hind. Waasana-pillu, . . Tam. 
Bbustrina ? Allapu komrou-vella- 

Gucbcha, . . . Sansk. vanti-gadda, . . Tel. 

There seem to be grave doubts as to the right 
of this plant to be separated from A. iwarancusa, 
Blane, and the A. nardoides of Riddell seems 
identical. It makes a very pleasant-tasted tea 
and valuable diet drink. In infusion it is a 
stomachic, and it yields an essential oil. — Ainslie^ 
Mat. Ind. p. 268 ; Voigt. 

ANDROPOGON NIGER. Kunth. In 1853, 
this was introduced into France from China; 
and, under the term sorgho, its many varieties are 
now extensively cultivated iu the United States. 
It produces an abundant crop of grain. The 
husk or rind yields a superb dye of a violet 
red, — a colour which, combined with acids and 
alkalies, gives a variety of tints, such as deep 
red, orange red, brown red, etc. This dye has been 
recently applied to cotton wool and to silk. A 




rich saccharine juice in the stalk yields 14 per 
cent, of sweet extract, of which 10^ per cent, is 
fit for crystallized, and d^ per cent, for uncrystal- 
lized sugar, and all can be made, if wanted, into 
alcohol. In 1859, the editor received a few seeds 
from China, supplies of other varieties were 
obtained from the Cape Colony, and the Madras 
Board of Revenue made great efforts to extend 
their cultivation ; but the ryots have not taken 
to it. In the United States, however, thirty- 
two varieties of sugar-producing sorghums and 
millets have been profitably cultivated for fodder 
and for sugar. A. niger, in temperate regions, 
takes four or five months to arrive at its full 
perfection, but at the utmost not more than three 
months in the hot regions of India ; but the 
plant requires irrigation. The deodhan of North 
India, known as the Shaloo (qu. Siahlu) in the 
Dekhan, described as the A. saccharatus, Roxb., 
may be this species. See Sorghum. 


A. citratum, De Cand. | Cymbopogon schoen., Spr. 

Sirri, . . . Ambroyna. | Mala-trinakang, Sansk. 


. . Bkng. 

Pengiri Mana, . 


Tsa-ba-len? . 

. . BUBM. 

Wassana-pillu, . 

. Tam 

Mik-ko-thu, . 

• ■> 

Kamachi-pillu, . 

• s> 

Sweet-rush, . 

. . Eng. 

Kavatam-pillu, . 

• >> 

Lemon grass, 



. Tel 


. . Hind. 

Chippa-gaddi, . 

• 5> 

Sireku, . . 

. Maleal. 

Kartiachi gaddi, 

• JJ 

Gour-gia, . . 

. . Pers. 

Nimma gaddi, . 

• >5 

Bhustrina, . 


Vasana gaddi, . 

• >J 

This plant is a native of Arabia, but is now 
cultivated in the West Indies, Ceylon, in the 
north of India, all over Burma, and in the Mo- 
luccas. It grows to a height of three or four 
feet. The active principle of the leaves seems to 
reside in the essential oil which they contain, and 
which is obtained by distillation. This is known 
in commerce as lemon grass oil, and forms an 
important article of export from Ceylon, amount- 
ing in value to nearly £7000 annually. It may 
be seen covering all the Kandian hills ; and so 
long as it is young, it is the best possible pasture 
for cattle. It has a strong but extremely pleasant 
acid taste. It derives its name from having, when 
crushed, an odour like that of the lemon, so strong, 
that after a time it becomes quite heavy and 
sickening, although grateful and refreshing at 
first. A decoction of the leaves is deemed by the 
people efficacious in colic. An infusion of the 
leaves is used in India as tea, and deemed tonic 
and slightly stimulant, and is given to children as 
a stomachic. It is also diaphoretic. Mixed with 
butter-milk, the leaves are used in. cases of ring- 
worm; and the white centre of the succulent 
leaf-culms is used to impart a flavour to curries. 
The oil is of a light straw colour, but becomes 
red if kept long. It is much used in perfumery, 
as the oil of verbena. In Ceylon it grows abund- 
antly on the Ambulawe mountain, which over- 
hangs Gampula on the road to Nawera Elia. 
Almost annually in the dry season, the plant is 
burned down ; but the roots are uninjured, and 
after a few days' rain young shoots burst forth. — 
Sirr^s Ceylon ; Roxb. ; Voigt; G'Sh. ; Hog; Ainslie; 
Dr. Mason, Useful PI. ; Bird., Born. Pro. ; Sim. 

ANDU, a system of dates in use on the Dra- 
vidian inscriptions. The term has not received 
any probable explanation. — Dr. Burnell, 

ANDUGA. Tel. Boswellia glabra, R. 

ANDUSI. Panj. Prichodesma Indicum., 

ANE or Ani. Karn. Anai, Tam. A dam, 
a dyke, a bridge, a bank. Kall-ane, a stone 
embankment. Anekattu or Auekatte, an anient, 
a dam, or dyke ; also a channel to direct irriga- 
tion.— TF. 

the Chi-mu of the Chinese, is a plant of the pro- 
vinces of Honan, Shan-si, Shen-si, Ngan-hwui, 
and Kiang-su. Its rhizome is used as a substitute 
for squills. — Smith. 

ANEMONE CERNUA, according to Siebold, ia 
in repute among the Chinese as a tonic bitter, under 
the name of Hak-too-woo, and many species which 
F'ortune imported from China found their way to 
the principal gardens in Europe. Drs. Hooker and 
Thomson name A. albana of Central Asia ; A. 
biflora of Beluchistan, Kashmir, and Afghanistan ; 
A. rubicola of the inner Himalayas and Sikkim, 
and A. vitifolia of the Himalaya generally. At 
Lahore is a species known to the people as Brami, 
which has a much divided leaf. The plants are 
acrid and irritating, and are used as sialogogues, 
and for gout and rheumatism. — PowelVs Hand- 
hook, i. p. 323 ; Fortune's Wanderings, p. 405 ; 
O'Sh. p. 160; Riddell; Hogg's Vegetable Kingdom^ 
p. 14 ; Hook. f. and Thorn. 


Sowa, Sui chuka, . Hind. 
Jemuju? . . , Malay. 
Adas-manis ? Anisi, ,, 
Sada kuppe, , . Tam. 

Shabit, .... Arab. 
Tsa-mon-h'pyu ? . BuRM. 
Tsa-muot? ... ,, 
Anise of Matthew, . Eng. 
Anethon, . Gr. of Diosc. I 

This plant grows in the south of Europe, in 
Egypt, Astracan, and India. Dill water is a 
commonly used carminative for the relief of 
flatulence, flatulent colic, and the hiccough of 
infants, and may be advantageously combined 
with a few grains of magnesia or aromatic con- 
fection. In Pegu, dill seeds are constantly for 
sale in the bazars. The Burmese do not dis- 
tinguish it from carraway. The Hakims of 
Northern India believe the use of dill seed pro- 
motes the secretion of milk. — Drs. Honig., O'Sh., 
Mason, Roxb., Voiqt, p. 22 ; Birdwood. 

Fceniculum panmori, D. C. \ Sonf, Panmhori, . Hind. 

A native of various parts of India, root white, 
nearly fusiform, and almost simple. Used in 
India as an aromatic, in food, and in medicine. — 
O'Sh. p. 360. 

ANETHUM SOWA, Roxb., Bishop's weed. 
Shabit, .... Arab. Shaleya, .... SansKi 
Sulpha, Sowa, . . Beng. Hinendura, . . . Singh, 
Tsa Myeik, . . . Burm. Satha-kuppa, . . Tam. 
Sowa Dill ; Dill, . Eng. Saddapa, . . . Tel. 
Soya, Sowa, . . . Hind. Sopu ; Sompa, 
Shuta puspha, . . ,, Shatha-kuppa, 
SitaSiva, Missreya, Sansk. 

This plant is cultivated in the cold season iu 
Bengal, in the Peninsula, Burma, etc. Its seeds 
are aromatic and carminative, and are used by 
the natives in their curries, and medicinally to 
relieve flatulence ; the green parts also are used 
as a vegetable both by Musalmans and Hindus. 
The seeds are the Shubit of Avicenna, which is 
usually translated Anethum ; by the Arabs it 
seems to have been considered the Anethon of 
Dioscorides. By distillation, the fruits yield a 
pale yellow volatile oil, sp. gr. '881, soluble in 
alcohol, ether, and in 144 parts of water. — Eng. 
Cyc. ; O'Sh. ; Birdwood, Bom. Pro. ; Roxb. ii. 96 ; 




ANGA. Sansk, a section, a portion. For 
example, there are six Anga of the Vetla, viz. 
Siksha, rules for reciting the prayers, the accents 
•nd tones to be observed ; Kalpa, ritual ; Vya 
Varana, grammar ; Nirukta, glossarial comment ; 
Chbandos, metre ; Jyotish, astronomy. The four 
Veda, the six Anga, with Mimansa, theology, 
Nyaya, logic, and Dbarma, the institutes of law, 
and the ruranas, with the Hindus, constitute 
the fourteen principal branches of knowledge. — 
Garret ; Williams' Story. See Veda ; Vidya. 

ANGA. Hind. In dress, it is the body part of 
the Angarkha without the skirt and tails. The 
Angi is the same article of clothing as the choli, 
sinabandhi, and kanchali. Also a limb of the 
body, of which Hindus reckon eight, the asht- 

ANGADA, the son of Bali, a fierce monkey 
chief, one of Rama's confederates. 

ANGAHARAWA, also Angaharuwada. Singh. 
The planet Mars ; Tuesday. 

ANGAKARA GADDA. Tel. Momordica 

ANGAMI, a rude pagan tribe on the range of 
hills in Upper Assam, on the eastern frontier of 
the Mikir and Cachar. They speak one of the 
Naga dialects. See India ; Mozome ; Naga. 

ANGAN. DuKH. The open enclosure of a 
Mahomedan or Hindu house in British India ; a 
small courtyard, called compound from the Malay 

ANGARI. SiND. Smut, a blackness in ripen- 
ing com. 

ANGARKHA. Hind. A long ooat or tunic, 
fitting tight to the body, and hanging down below 
the knee. It is worn by Hindus and Mahomedans. 

ANGAUNGA. Hind. Perquisites from the 
threshing-floor to the brahman, purohit, guru, 
grazier, and village god. From the time of dis- 
tributing to the time of weighing, profound 
silence is maintained, and many ceremonials 

ANGDES, Ongdes, or Ondes, adjoins Tibet. 
The inhabitants call themselves Hungia, and 
appear to be the Hong-niu of Chinese authors, 
the Hun (Hoon) of Eiu-ope and India. — Tod's 
Jlajasthan, p. 186. 

ANGEL is a term which, in the Hebrew and 
Greek languages, relates to a messenger. Angels 
are noticed in the Jewish, Christian, and Ma- 
homedan religions. Mahomedans say the angels 
were commanded to prostrate themselves before 
Adam. Mahomedans believe that every particle 
of matter in the universe is entrusted to the care 
of an angel (Malak, ferishtah). They believe also 
in a hierarchy of angels. The four of highest rank 
support God's throne, as in the Apocalypse, in the 
likeness of a man, a bull, an eagle, and a lion, 
to whom, on the day of judgment, four other 
angels will be added. After these come Ruh 
(spirit), Israfil, the messenger, Jabril (Gabriel), 
and Mikail (Michael). — Lane; Koran. 

ANGELICA GLAUCA, the Chura of the Pan- 
•jab, growing at 8000 to 10,000 feet ; on Hattio, 
etc., near the Sutlej ; is found also in the Dhaula 
Dhar range above the Kangra valley. — Stewart. 
- ANGELY WOOD, Artocarpus hirsutus. 

ANG-GAYTHEE. Hind. A chafing dish. 
Ang-Gaythee Shah, a Mohurrum fakir. 

ANGHRIPARNIKA. Sansk. Uvaria lagopo- 
dioides. — D. C. 

ANGIA CHINENSIS, a troe of China and 
Siam ; produces a Tarnish. 

ANGIRA. Sansk. Chari^. See Brahmadiea. 

ANGI RASA, a gotra or family of brabmans 
derived from the rishi or sage Angiraaa, to whom 
many hymns of the Rig VocU are attributed. Ho 
was one of the seven Maha Rishi, also one of the 
ten Prajapati. A later Angirasa was an inspired 
lawgiver. — Dowson. 

ANGLER FISH, Lophius, »p. 

ANGOLAM. Mal. Alangiiun decapetalum ; A, 

ANGOLA WEED, Ramalina furf uracea. 

ANGOORER-GACH. Beno. Vitis vinifera. 

ANGRIA is a name applied to the more 
elevated part of a great bank off the west coast 
of the Peninsula of India. Surveys have shown 
that the bank is a great submerged table-land, 
perfectly flat, its greatest breadth, about 100 miles, 
being a little west of Bombay. 

ANGRIA. About the middle of the 17th cen- 
tury, Kanhoji Angria, who had been a Mahratta 
soldier, was made governor of Sevemdrug. He 
soon assumed independence, obtained possession 
of nearly all the Mahratta fleet, and conquered 
territory on the mainland. In 1722, the British 
and Portuguese made an unsuccessful attack on 
his strong fort of Colabah ; in 1724, an attack 
on Viziadrug or Gheriah failed, and when he died 
at the close of 1728, his sway extended over a 
hundred miles of the coast line. He was succeeded 
by his illegitimate son, Tullaji Angria. In 1755, 
the E. I. Company's marine, under Commodore 
James, in concert with a Mahratta army, captured 
Sevemdrug and Bancoote ; and in 1756, Admiral 
Wat-son destroyed Angria's fleet (11th February), 
and the following day Gheriah surrendered to 
Colonel Clive. The last descendant died about 
the middle of the 19th century, and the territory 
was annexed. — Orme. 

ANGU. Malay. Anguza, Pers. Asafoetida. 

ANGUL, in Orissa, is a hilly district, which was 
confiscated in 1847, l3ecause its raja attempted to 
make war against the British. The population 
of 63,505 souls is chiefly Brahman, Rajput, and 
Khasa Hindus, with the aboriginal Kandh (5423), 
Taala (3358), Pan (10,341), and Kharia (2743). 
The Talcher coal-field embraces a considerable 
portion of Angul. — Imp. Gaz. 

ANGULA. Hind. A long measure, a finger's 
breadth ; the standard measure for carpenter's 
work, 8 barley corns =1 angula, 12 angula= 
1 span. 

ANGULI - TORANA. Sansk. Three semi- 
circular lines drawn across the forehead by saiva 
Hindus. They are made of sandal-wood powder 
or the ashes of bumed cow-dung ; and are usu- 
ally called tri-pundra. — W. 

ANGUR. Pers. Grapes. 

ANGUSHTRlorAnguti. Hind. A finger-ring. 

ANHENTA. Singh. Datura fastuosa. 

ANHILWARA, the dynastic name of three 
races who ruled in Guzerat from a.d. 696, till, 
in a.d. 1309, Guzerat was annexed to Dehli by 
Ala-ud-Din Mahomed Shah. The title was taken 
from the town Anhilpur, which rose to great 
distinction as a commercial site, and with Cambay 
as its seaport was the Tyre of India. At its 
height, Anhilpur was 12 coss (or 15 miles) in 
circuit, within which were many temples and 
colleges, 84 chaok or squares, 84 bazars or 




market-places, with a mint for gold and silver 
coin. Col. Tod thinks it not unlikely that the 
Chaora, the name of the tribe of the first dynasty 
of Anhilwara, is a mere corruption of Saura, as 
the ch and s are perpetually interchanging. — Tod^s 
Tr., pp. 147, 152, 156; Rajasthan, i. p. 31. See 
Balhara ; Guzerat ; Katty war. 

ANHONI, in the Hushangabad district, has 
a hot spring nearly due north of the Mahadeo 
hills, at the edge of the outer range which divides 
the Denwa from the Nerbudda valley. It is said 
to be good for boils and skin diseases, and is 
much visited. 

ANI. Tam. Elephant. 

ANI-ANI. Malay. White ants. 

ANICUT. Anglo-Tam. Literally dam-built ; a 
dam or weir thrown across a river to dam up the 
water. The grandest is that across the Godavery 
river, about 7 miles long ; but others dam up the 
waters of the Kistna, the Palar, the Colerun, 
the Tumbudra, and the Pennar. See Ane. 

ANI-GUNDAMANI. Tam. Adenanthera pa- 
vonina. Its seeds are the muni or bead seeds. 

ANI'KAT'HALAY. Tam. Agave Americana. 

ANIL-KA-KHAND, a sacred weU in the bed 
of the Aghor river, under the temple of Hinglaj, in 
Beluchistan. The people believe it has never been 

ANIMAL CHARCOAL, prepared from bones, 
is used as a filtering material for clarifying oils, 
and in the processes of sugar-refining. 

ANIMAL FOOD is not absolutely forbidden 
to the priests of Buddha, and Burmese followers 
of this faith eat quantities of fish, reptiles, and 
Crustacea. Even the more strict of them, though 
they may refuse to take life for food, eagerly use 
meat when they can get animals killed for them, 
or find them dead from accident or disease ; and 
the cow, buffalo, tiger, and horse are all partaken 
of in Burma, tiger flesh selling for five annas a 
pound. Many Hindus of the Brahman, Rajput, 
and Vaisya castes, as a rule, will not eat animal 
food, and no Hindu can eat the cow without 
ceasing to be a Hindu ; but all sudra Hindus eat 
goats, fowls, mutton, fish, and the aboriginal races 
eat nearly all quadrupeds. — Hardy ^ E. Monach. 

ANIMAL KINGDOM, a scientific term, com- 
prising all living animals. Many commercial 
products are obtained, — horns, skins, furs, bristles, 
wool, hair, bones, teeth and tusks, fins, shells, 
air-bladders, quills, feathers, oils, etc. The 
animal oils are in frequent use as medicinal sub- 
stances amongst the people of India for external 
application, such as that from the pea-fowl's 
fat, from the newt's foot, the crocodile and the 

ANIMALLY, literally Elephant hills, a moun- 
tain range in the coUectorate of Coimbatore, in 
the southern part of the Peninsula of India, and 
in the Travancore dominions, extending from lat. 
10° 18' 45" to 10° 31' 30" N., long. 76° 52' 30" to 
77° 23' E., with peaks up to 8850 feet high. There 
are small scattered colonies of the Kader, the 
Malai Arasar, Pulyar, and the Maravar races. The 
Kader are open, independent, straightforward 
men, simple, and obeying their Mopens or chiefs 
implicitly. They are of small stature, strong 
built, active, with woolly hair, an ^>?omething 
of the African features, and file the?/. ^ "it teeth 
to a point. The women wear enor •^t"* ircles 
of pith in the lobes of their ears, which^i* '^^'"•oend 



down to their shoulders. A black monkey is their 
greatest dainty. The Malai Arasar are taking to 
agriculture. The Pulyar are demon-worshippers. 
The mountains are covered by valuable forest trees, 
and at one time were worked with an annual 
profit of about 50,000 rupees a year, and there 
are many beautiful woods suited for turnery. 
The wild animals are the elephant, tiger, leopard, 
bear, hyaena, wild dog, bison, sambur, spotted and 
barking and hog deer ; also the wild goat. — LL-' 
Col. Hamilton, in Uteris ; Imp. Gaz. 

ANIMISHA. Sansk. Hindu gods are sup- 
posed by the Hindus to be exempt from the 
momentary elevation and depression of the upper 
eyelid, to which mortals are subject, and to be 
able to look with a firm imintermitted gaze. 
Hence a deity is termed Animisha and Animesha, 
one whose eyes do not wink. Various allusions 
to this attribute occur in poetry. When Indra 
visits Sita, to encourage her, he assumes at her 
request the marks of divinity, — he treads the air, 
and suspends the motion of the eyelids ; when 
Agni, Varuna, and Indra all assume the form of 
Nala at the marriage of Damayanti, she distin- 
guishes her mortal lover by the twinkling of his 
eyes, whilst the gods are stabdha lochana, fixed- 
eyed. And when the Aswini Kumara practise 
tlie same trick upon the bride of Chyavana, she 
recognises her husband by this amongst other 
indications. The notion is the more deserving of 
attention, as it is one of those coincidences with 
classical mythology which can scarcely be ac- 
cidental. Heliodorus says : ' The gods may be 
known by the eyes looking with a fixed regard, 
and never closing the eyelids ; ' and he cites 
Homer in proof of it. An instance from the 
Iliad may be cited perhaps as an additional con- 
firmation ; and the marble eyes of Venus, by 
which Helen knew the goddess, are probably the 
stabdha lochana, the fixed eyes of the Hindus, 
full, unveiled even for an instant, like the eyes 
of a marble statue. Other marks distinguish divine 
from mortal bodies ; they cast no shadow, they 
are exempt from perspiration, they remain unsoUed 
by dust, they float on the earth without touching 
it, and the garlands they wear stand erect, the 
flowers remaining unwithered. — Hindu Theatre, 
i. 137 ; Williams' Story of Nala, p. 248. 

ANIMUS. The interpretations of the ruh 
and nafs of the Arabs, of the nefesh and ranch 
of the Hebrews, of the pneuma of the Greeks, 
and animus of the Romans, applied to the breath, 
the life, the soul of man, are philosophical points. 
Mahomedans style Jesus the Messiah, Ruh- Allah, 
the Spirit of God. This view identifies the 
everlasting soul with the Holy Spirit and the 
breath of life. In the English tongue there is 
no settled mode of speaking of these, for a man is 
said to die ; in a shipwreck, every soul is said to 
perish, and a person ceasing to live is described 
both as dying and as departing, the latter equiva- 
lent to the Mahomedan rahlat or intiqal, passing 
away and departure. 

ANI-PARITI. Maleal. Hibiscus rosa sinensis. 

ANI-PIPUL. DuKH. Ficus religiosa, Linn, 

ANI POOLIA MARM. Tam. Adansonia 

ANI-PULLI. Tam. The tree squirrel. 

AN-IRAN, the non-Aryan people. 

ANIRUDDHA, the son of the incarnate Indian 





ANISEED. PimpinoUa anUum. 

AaUun, . . ASAB., Gh. 
Kndis-Mtuiia ? . . IUli. 

Mahori Bkno. 

Ite-moun Ua bah, BuuM. 
Rwai-hiang, . . CHIN. 
Siaa-hwui-niang, . ,, 
Tu-hwui-hiang, . ,, 
Anutt OuJ. 

B<mf, Hind. 

Anise It. 

Adas-niaaLi ? Mungfl, Jav. 
Jira-manis, . . Malay. 
lliizian-i-rumi, . . PKitH. 
Sutaphaspha, . . Sanbk. 

Wombu, Tam. 

Tedtla Sadapa,Sompu,TEli. 

Skimmi, .... Jap. 
Adas Manis, . . Malay. 
Anasipu, . . Tam. ? Tel. 

The plant producing these Bmall, aromatic, 
pungent, fragnvnt, sweetish seeds, is the Pimpi- 
oella anisum, one of the Apiacea; of Liudloy, 
-which is cultivated in the Levant, all over 
Burope and in China. They are an agreeable 
oanuinative, and vield on distillation a volatile 
oil, and a fixed oil by pressure. The Bali and 
Javanese terms may possibly designate the star 
anise. — Drs. Voigt, O'Sh., Riddell and Mason ; 
Vegetable Kingdom, 376 ; Faulkner ; Poole. 

ANISE-STAR, Illicium anisatum. 
Badian-i-khatai, Ar. jPeius. 
Pa-co-hu-huei-hiam, Ch. 
Anaa phul, . . . DUK. 
Badian, .... Hind. 

Star anise is the fruit of the Illicium anisatum 
)f Linnaeus, a shrub or small tree, which grows 
in the countries extending from China to Japan 
From lat. 23^° to 35° N. The name is given from 
the clustering star-like form assumed by the 
capsules or pods, five to twelve ib number, joined 
together at one end, and diverging in rays, 
[generally five. These are used all over the east 
iS a condiment. They are prized for the volatile 
oil obtained from them, and for their aromatic 
taste. The bark has a more aromatic flavour 
than the seeds, but is not so sweet. In China, 
their most common use is to season sweet dishes, 
fn Japan, they are placed on the tombs of friends, 
md presented as offerings in the temples. They 
ire chiefly exported direct to India, Great Britain, 
md the north of Europe. In India, they are much 
ised in seasoning curries and flavouring native 
Jishes, and large quantities are used in Europe in 
;he preparation of liqueurs. In Britain, it is from 
;his fruit that the oil of anise is prepared, and it 
mparts the peculiar flavour of the Anisette de 
Jourdeaux. — Morrison ; Simmonds ; Faulkner ; 
ySh. Benq. Phar. ; Vegetable Kingdom. 

ANISHORINIGAM. Male. Urticaheterophylla. 


P. crassifolius, Ilort. 
P. strobiliferus, Roxb. 
ColeuB spicatuB, Benth. 
Karruwalli, . . . Tkl. 
Piiidi banda, . . ,, 
Piadi bonda, . . „ 
Koga chettu, . . „ 

[javendula camosa, lAnn. 
*lectranthu8camosu8, Sm. 
*. dubius, Spr. 
Jtaki-pangeri, . . DUK. 
rbick -leaved laven- 
der, Eng. 

^at-karka, . . Maleal. 
Caq)urawalli, . . Tam. 
This is used in native medicine. It has small 
luish purple flowers, and grows among the 
ircar mountains, and at Taong Dong. — Roxb.; 
^oigt ; Ainslie ; Uscf id Plants. 
ANISODUS LURIDUS. Link. A tincture of 
8 leaves is recommended as an anodyne and 

Tepeta Malabarica, Linn. 
tMhys „ Sieh. 

>ao-Zaban of Bombay. 
lootan Koosham, Samsk. 
Iittti ; Pema-retti, . 

Ajuga fruticosa, Roxb. 

Madheri, . . . , 
Moga biraku, . . 
Cbinna ranabheri, 



A plant of the AVest Indies, Mauritius, the 

Peninsulas of India, Malacca, aod Java. It haa a 
very fetid odour. In tlie Weit Indies, the cntiro 
plant is deemed emenagogue, and natives of India 
use the leaves internally in dyst^ntery. — Roxb. iii. 
1 ; Voigt; 0\Sh. ; Veg. King. ; Ainalie. 

AnU. diatioha, Heyw. I Nei>cta Amboinies, lAtm. 

Ajuga „ Roxb. iii 2. | Marrubium Indio. Bwrm, 
Ballota „ L, Afant. Ballota Mauritiana, Per*. 
Nepeta diatioha, Bl. \ 

A plant of Ceylon, Peninsular India, Benoal, 
and Nepal, with a strong camphoraceous smelT.— 
Roxb. iii. 2 ; Voint, 460. 

tree, the Tetracrypta ciunamonoides, Card, and 
Champ., and the Wella-piyanna of the Singhalese, 
grows in the southern and centralparts of Ceylon, 
up to an elevation of 1500 feet. The wood is used 
for building purposes. — Mendis ; Beddome, FU 
Sylv. part xvii. p. 195. 

ANIYATA-DHAMMA, a class of priestly mis- 
demeanours of the buddhists of Ceylon. — Ilardy't 
Eastern Monachism, p. 433. 

ANJALl. Sansk. One of the Hindu forms of 
respectful obeisance ; it is the Dandawat of the 
south of India. The head is slightly bowed, the 
palms of the hands are brought together and 
raised laterally to the middle of the forehead, so 
that the tips of the thumbs only are in contact 
with it. — Hind. Theat. ii p. 108. 

ANJAMAN, among the Parsees, a constituted 
council or assembly. — W. 

ANJAN. Hind. A grass of the N. W. Pro- 
vinces of Bengal, used as fodder. — W. 

ANJAN, Hind. ?, or Anjana-kahloo, also Un- 
juncle, Tam. Sulphuret of antimony ; also man- 
ganese, used in pottery as a glaze. 

ANJANA, an Indian era, which began B.C. 691. 

ANJENGO, a fishing village in Travancore ter- 
ritory, on the Malabar coast, in lat. 8° 40' N., and 
long. 76° 47' 60" E. The name is a corruption of 
two Tamil words, Anji Tenga, or five cocoa-nut 
trees. The place was for many years an English 
factory. The ruins of the Portuguese church and 
fort still exist. Orme, the historian, was bom at 
Anjengo, and Eliza Draper, the object of Sterne's 
affection, lived here. — Forbes' Oriental Memoirs^ 
Abbe RaynaVs History of the Indies; H. Drxiry^ 
Cochin; Horsburgh. 

ANJIL. Arab, Malva sylvestris, Linn. 

ANJILI MARAM. Tam. Artocarpus hirsuta. 

ANJIR. Pers. Figs. 

ANJUN. Mahr. Hardwickia binata. Anjuna, 
also Kurpa, Memecylon tinctorium and M. rami- 
florum, Lam. 

ANKADOSA. Tel. Leea staphylia, R. 

ANKAL-AMMA, one of the tutelary village 
goddesses of the Peninsula of India. Sec Amma. 

ANKAM. Maleal. In Malabar, a duel, or 
single combat, formerly frequent among the Nair 
race ; each combatant had to pay a sum for per- 
mission to fight. The duel was sometimes fought 
by hired champions. — W. 

ANKHI. Panj. Rubus sp. 


Khal-Khal, Abab., Hind. I Karyalu, . , , , Tkl. 
Kapu, Tam. | 

Anklets of gold, silver, brass, copper, deer 
horn, the metals being solidly massive, also as 
chains, are in use in all eastern countries. Oc- 
casionally a grown man of the Hindus may be 




seen with a small gold or silver ring, but in 
general they are restricted to women and children. 
The custom has doubtless been through all ages, 
and they are alluded to in Isa. iii. 16, 18. Some, 
and pari;icularly those of the Marwari women, 
are inconveniently massive ; and heavy rings, 
usually of silver set with a fringe of small bells, 
are often worn by other Hindu ladies. The other 
loose ornaments, one above another, on the 
ankles, at every motion of the feet produce a 
tinkling noise. — Toy Cart. 

ANKLONG. Malay. The musical bamboo 
of Java. See Bamboo. 

ANKOLAMU. Tel. Alangium decapetalum. 

ANKO-RUTE. Tam. Trichosanthes pabnata, 
Roxh. ; T. bracteata. Lam. 

ANKUS. Pees., Hind. Elephant goad. 
Arpe, .... Gb. I Ankasa, . . . Sansk. 

Cuspis, . . . Lat. I Hendoo, . . . Singh. 

The goad and guiding rod of an elephant-driver, 
in shape resembling a small boat-hook. It is 
figured in the medals of Caracalla of the identical 
form in use at the present day in India. 

ANMAIL. Tam. Pavo cristatus. 

ANNA, a British-Indian coin, sixteen to a 
rupee, and equal to about three-halfpence. It is 
applied to indicate a rateable share, as 4 or 5 
annas in the rupee, similar to the percentage. 

ANNA BUGDI. Tam. Green copperas. 

ANNADEOTA. See Chank. 

ANNAI KARAI MARAM. Tam. Odina woodier. 

ANNAM. The Annamitic group of peoples in- 
habit Cochin-China and Tonkin, and are a section 
of the division of the human race to which the 
Chinese belong. The Chinese form of Annam is 
Ngannam ; the Tonkinese call the Cochin-Chinese, 
Kuang and Ke-kuang; the Cochin-Chinese, on 
the other hand, call the Tonkinese, Kepak. Two 
centuries before Christ, the Chinese found the 
Annam race in possession of the basin of Sang Koi. 
The first migrations from the northern side of 
the E. Himalaya is now best represented by the 
Annam, Kambojan, — Mon, and Lau tribes, who 
appear to have been at a later period gradually 
pressed by the Tibeto-Burman tribes to the east- 
ward and southward. The Mon-Annam, or E. 
Himalaya tribes occupy the territory bounded on 
the north by the left side of the valley of the 
Brahmaputra as far as the head of Assam, and a 
line drawn thence eastwards along the range in 
which the Irawadi has its sources, and across the 
converging meridianal chains, beyond, to themost 
eastern, the Mangli, which separates the j^jiang 
from the M-Kong. In physical appearance, the 
Annam race, in size, form of the head and person, 
expression, and temperament, have a close resem- 
blance to some Indonesian tribes. The Javan group 
has a larger admixture of the Annam type than the 
Sumatran or Borneon. Annam heads are common 
in eastern Java, and especially among the Bawian 
and Maduran peoples. The Malay and western 
Javan have frequently a more Siamese form. The 
Annam race want the large straight faces, flat 
occiput, lowness of the hairy scalp, comparatively 
small and firm mouth, hard staring eye, and grave 
expression of the Siamese. The Annamese are of 
low stature, the men with long arms and short 
stout legs. They are very light coloured. The 
men are hardy and active. The women, still fairer, 
are well formed and graceful. The higher classes 
are solemn and decorous, like the Chinese; the 


lower, lively and talkative. The dress of both 
sexes consists of loose trousers and loose frock 
with large sleeves. In their persons, their dress, 
and their food, they are very uncleanly. They 
are about 14 miUions. Their religion is Buddh- 
ism, but Shaman superstitions also prevail. A 
Cochin-Chinese marries when he has the means, 
and among the poorer classes the age of the female 
is from 15 to 20. The wife is purchased ; poly- 
gamy is habitual. Abortion is often had recourse 
to. Unmarried women are not all chaste ; but 
adultery in the man'ied woman is punished with 
death. The Annam, Kambojan, Siamese, Mon, 
Barman, and the other ultra- Indian languages are 
all characterized by strong complex sounds. The 
Annam and Siamese abound in complex vowel 
sounds, and the Burman family in complex con- 
sonantal sounds, which are harsh in Singpho, less 
so in Rakhoing, and much softened in Burman. — 
Bowring's Siam, i. p. 683, ii. p. 464 ; Crawfurd's 
Emb. p. 459 ; Lubbock, Origin of Civil, p. 243 ; 
Lathani's Ethnology; Crawfurd's Dictionary, pp. 
321-488. See Cochin-China ; India. 

ANNA PURNA DEVI, a beneficent form of 
the Hindu goddess ParvatL She is described as of 
a deep yellow colour, standing or sitting on the 
lotus, or water lily. She has two arms, and in 
one hand holds a spoon, in the other a dish. In 
her dress she is decorated like the other modem 
images of Durga. Anna Puma is a household 
goddess, and is extensively worshipped by the 
Hindus. Her name implies the goddess who fills 
with food, and they believe that a sincere wor- 
shipper of her will never want it. She is possibly 
the Anna of Babylon ; and she has been considered 
as the prototype of the Anna Perenna of the 
Romans, whom Varro places in the same rank 
with Pallas and Ceres, and who was deified and 
held in high esteem by the Roman people, in con- 
sequence of having supplied them with food when 
they retired into Mount Aventine. Besides the 
great similarity of names, there is a singular co- 
incidence in the times of their worship, the 
festivals of Anna Purna taking place in the early 
part of the increase of the moon in the month 
Choitru (partly in March), and those of the 
Roman goddess on the Ides of March. To make 
the chain complete, Anna travels east from 
Babylon to India ; west from Babylon to Phoenicia, 
accompanies her sister Dido to Carthage, flies 
thence to Italy, and then the Anna Purna of the 
Hindus becomes the Anna Perenna of the Latians. 
Such is the Roman legend. In India she is 
known simply as Anna, also as Anna Purna or 
Anna Devati. In his hymn addressed to her by 
the rishi Agastya, she is personified as Pitu or 
material food. — Coleman^s Mythology, p. 91 ; 
Wilson^ s Hindu Theatre. 

ANNEE, a Tibetan nun. 

ANNELIDA, of Cuvier, from amiulus, a ring ; 
an example of this class of animals is the ringed 
form of the common earthworm. 

ANNESLEY, Sir JAMES, a medical officer of 
the Madras Army, who rose to be the head of the 
Medical Board, author of Sketches of the most 
prevalent Diseases of India, comprising a Treatise 
of the Epidemic Cholera of the East, and Reports of 
the Diseases in the Madras Army, London, 1825 ; 
Researches into the Causes, Nature, and Treatment 
of the more prevalent Diseases of India, and of 
Warm Climates generally, London, 1828. 




ANOA DEPRESSICOUNIS, the sapi utan, or 
wild cow of the Malays. It approaches the ox-like 
antolop<^H of Africa, and has Dcen classed as an 
ox, a bu£Falo, and antelope. It is found only in 
the mountains, and never occupies places where 
there are deer. 

ANOCH. Hind. Fraxinus xanthylloides. 

Ck>nocarpus aoiuninatus, Roxb. ii. 443. 
Toong, .... BuRH. I Pachi manu, Pashi, Tel. 

This lofty tree is met with in several parts of 
India. Its timber is good and durable. That 
of the Godavery is described as very hard and 
strong, and very ornamental, and much resembles 
the wood of A. latifolius. It has a purple heart- 
wood ; it is much used for building puri)08e8, but 
will not stand exposure to water. — Roxb. ; Voigt ; 

Oonocarpus latifolius, Roxb. 

Chiriman, Sheriman, Tkl. 
YellaMaddi, . . „ 
Dhobu, . . . Ubiya. 

Dhaori, Dhowra, Hind. 
Dawu, . . . Singh. 
Vellaynaga, . . Tam. 

Veokalie, ... „ 

This very valuable timber tree grows to an 
enormous size. It is common throughout the 
Madras Presidency, Mysore, Bombay, Bengal, and 
Ceylon, in the plains, and it ascends the mountains 
to an elevation of about 3000 feet It grows at 
Chillaune, Islamabad, in the Kennery jungles, the 
valleys of the Konkan rivers near their sources, 
the inland Dekhan hills, and in the Dehra Doon. 
Its wood is light-coloured, with a purple heart ; it 
is close-grained, and very durable when properly 
seasoned ; it is much used in house and ship 
building, and is one of the best woods for poles 
luid axle-trees of carts, and for agricultural im- 
plements. If left in the forests exposed to the 
eather, the wood rapidly deteriorates, and is 
Hoon attacked by insects and white ants. The wood 
from small trees wants the dark -coloured heart, 
md is anything but durable. Near the Godavery, the 
ood is said to be one of the hardest in the forests. 
The leaves are used by tannera A gum exudes 
from the bark, which is sold in the bazars. A. 
pendula, Edgew., is a tree of Ajmir and Nimar. — 
Roxb. ; Voigt ; Beddome. 

ANOINTING, a form of installation and initia- 
tion. It is the * massah ' of the Arabs, hence their 
Al-Maseh and the Hebrew Messiah. In Rajputana, 
nointing appears to have been, in all ages, the 
node of installation. The unguent used is of sandal 
wood and attar of roses made into a paste, or very 
hick ointment, of which a little is placed upon the 
brehead with the middle finger of the right hand, 
nd then the jewels, the aigrette and necklace, are 
lied on. Amongst the earliest notices of this cere- 
lonial is that in Genesis xxviii., when Jacob rose 
ip early in the morning, and took the stone that 
le had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, 
Ad poured oil upon the top of it. The Brahmans 
oint their stone images with oil before bathing 
im, and some anoint them with sweet-scented 
liL This practice probably arises out of the cus- 
oms of the Hindus, and is not necessarily to be 
ilBrred to their idolatry. Anointing persons, as 
act of homage, has been transferred to their 
ilols. There are resemblances betwixt the Jewish 
md Hindu methods of, and times for, anoint- 
|^[. Oil is applied to the crowu of the bead, till 


it reaches all the limbs; it is called abhyanga, 
and is noticed in Psalm cxxxiii. 2, Mark xiv. 3. 
At the cluee of the festival in honour of Durga, the 
Hindus worship the unmarried daughters of Brah- 
mans, and amongst other ceremonies poor tweet^ 
scented oils on their heads. Amoogst the Hindus, 
this ceremonial is attended to after sickness, which 
Pealtn xiv. 7 mentions. And Hindus, when fast- 
ing, in sickness, or sorrow, abstain from the daily 
anointing of the body with oil, but again anoint 
on recovery, as 2 Samuel xii. 20, where ' David 
arose from the earth, and washed and anointod 
himself, and changed his apparel, and came into 
the house of the Lord, and worshipped.' Bathing, 
anointing the body with oU, and changing the 
apparel, are, among the Hindus, the first outward 
signs of coming out of a state of mourning or 
sickness. The abhyanga st'hnanam, or bathing on 
the wedding day of a Hindu couple, is part of the 
marriage ceremony. This practice of anointing 
all the body with oil is wholly confined to tho 
Hindu community ; the Mahomedans, whether of 
India or Western Asia, do not practise it. It is 
probable that the Hebrews learned the custom in 
Egypt or from their Assyrian neighbours, and 
that the anointing of kings, which European 
nations have adopted, was handed down through 
the Old Testament, The Masah of the modern 
Arabs is the canonical mode of performing the 
smaller ablutions or purifications. — Tod, iL 568. 

ANOLA. Hind. Fruit of Emblica officinalis, 
the emblic myrobalan. It is roundish, blackish, 
grey, very wrinkled, obscurely six - sided ; nut 
three-celled, each cell with two shining seeds. 

ANOMA, a river famous in the history of 
buddhism, as the scene of prince Siddharta's 
assumption of the dress of an ascetic, where 
he cut off his hair, and dismissed his attendant 
and his horse. Its distance from Kapila is said 
to be 60 yojanas. — Cunningham, Ancient Geog. 
p. 423. 

ANOMADASSA, according to the Singhalese 
buddhists, a Buddha previous to Gautama. — 
Hardy, Eastern Monachism, p. 433. 

AN ONAGER, the custard apple order of plants, 
natives of the old and new worlds. The order 
includes about 15 genera and 250 species, more 
than half of them occur in the Indies, of the 
genera uvaria, guatteria, orophea, miliusia, lobo- 
carpus, Pattonia, anona, artobotrys, polyalthia, 
hyalostemma, saccopetalum. The anona are trees 
or shrubs, with a powerful aromatic taste and 
smell, furnishing esteemed edible fruits, of which 
the custard apple, sour sop, sweet sop, and bullock 
heart may be named. — Voigt; //. and T. 

ANONA CHERIMOLIA. Mill. A tree of 
Peru, with a succulent fruit of a dark purple 
colour, containing a soft sweet mucilage. It was 
introduced into India in li>20. There are two 
varieties of the cherimoyer, one smooth, the other 
with a tubercle on the middle of each scale. — Dr. 
Weddell, Bolivia ; Riddell; Voigt. 

ANONA MURICATA. Liun. The Soursop 
tree of the West Indies, but cultivated in India and 
Tenasserim. It has large yellowish green flowers, 
with a vinous smell, and bears only once a year. 
The fruit resembles the custard apple, ripens in 
March, and grows to about the same size as the 
bullock heart ; is of a greenish colour when ripe, 
and has a rough, thorny appearance ; the flavour 
is very peculiar, differing from the other species of 



the Anonacese ; the scent resembles that of black 
currants; the seeds are similar to those of the 
custard apple. The wood is inferior. — Riddell; 
M. E. Juries' Reports; Voigt; Hook. f. et T. 
p. 114 ; Vegetable Kingdom, 28. 

ANONA RETICULATA. L. Bullock heart. 

Luvunae? . Beng., HiND. 
Kam-Phal, Dkkh., Hind. 
Nona, Manna, . Malay. 

Anona maram, . Singh. 
Rama sita maram, Tam. 
Kama chettu, . . Tel. 

This fruit tree derives its specific and English 
names from the appearance of its dark brownish 
and red fruit. It is to be met with in all parts of 
the tropics, and grows to a large size. It is soft, 
sweetish, and pulpy, and is not much esteemed by 
Europeans. — Drs. Ainslie, Riddell, Mason, Bird- 
u'ood, Bombay Products ; M. E. J, Rep. ; H. f. et 
Th. 115 ; Crawfurd's Diet. 

ANONA SQUAMOSA. L. Custard apple. 


Sri Kaya, 

Att'ha mara, 

Auta-chika, , 



Atta, . . , 

Atta maram, 

Sita pallam maram, ,, 

Sita ph'allam chettu, Tel, 

, Tam. 

Shurifa Arab. 

Luna, Meba, . . Beng. 
Ame-sa, Au-za, . Burm. 
Na-nat? .... „ 
Fan-lih-chi, . . Chin. 
SitaPhal, . . . Dekh. 
Sweet Sop, . . . Eng. 
Ata? . . Hind., Beng. 
Manoa-papoa, . Malay. 
Buwah-nona, . „ 

This small tree, originally from tropical America, 
grows freely, even wild, in the south-east of Asia. 
The fruit is wholesome and pleasant, and, being 
perfectly free from acid, may be used by such 
delicate people as dare not venture on others of 
a different nature. It is delicious to the taste, 
and, on occasions of famine, has been useful. 
This and similar subacid fruits, to the Bur- 
mese, serve as substitutes for flesh meat, being 
eaten with rice as an ordinary article of their 
daily provisions. The tree, when cultivated and 
pruned during the hot season, produces fruit 
afterwards of double the usual size. The leaves 
have a disagreeable odour, and the seeds con- 
tain an acrid principle fatal to insects, on which 
account the natives of India use them, powdered 
and mixed with the flour of Bengal gram 
(Cicer arietinum), for washing the hair. A few 
leaves and some seeds put into a bed infested 
with bugs, have been said to dispel these pests 
immediately, but their virtue is over-praised. — 
Royle, Gibson, Useful Plants ; McClelland; Riddell; 
Crawfurd ; Ainslie; Mahom's South-Eastern Asia, 
i. p. 180; Voigt; Hooker and Thomson ; Cal. Cat. 
Ex. 1862 ; Birdwood, Bombay Products. 

ANORATHA SAUMEN established buddhism 
at Pagan, in Burma, and built aU the temples 
there. — Yule, p. 9. See Pagan. 

of the Cyperacese, is the Gothoobi of Bengal. 

ANOU, Malay, of Sumatra, the coarse, black, 
bristly Ejo or gomuti fibre, from the Arenga sac- 
charifera, or gomuti palm. 

ANSA, or Ansana. Sansk. Portion of a por- 
tion of Krishna, as Paramatma, or supreme spirit. 
See Chaitanya. 

ANSARI, a tribe of shaikh mahomedans in the 
N.W. Provinces, who seem to have come to India 
from Herat in the time of Firoz Shah. They 
claim to be descendants of the original Ansari, an 
Arab tribe who became auxiliaries of Mahomed, 
and adopted his views at Medina. — W. 

ANSARI, a numerous and powerful people, 
occupying a large territory in Karamania and 

Syria. They are a shiah sect, who worship Ali, 
son of Abu Talib, and son-in-law of Mahomed. 
One of their sections, called Ansariyeh, is divided 
into five tribes, who reverence the moon, the 
stars, the air, and the sun. In religion, as in 
blood, those Ansariyeh appear to have much in 
common with the famous sect of the Assassins, 
whose chief was known in the crusading chronicles 
as the Old Man of the Mountain. To this day, 
like the Jews, the Ansariyeh have kept themselves 
apart from their neighbours, by whom they are 
despised and detested. Burckhardt calls the 
Ansari sects Kelbai, Shamsai, and Mokladjai. — 
Robinson's Travels, ii. pp. 68, 69 ; Olipliant ; Cata- 

ANSER, the goose, the hansa of India. A. 
albifrons, A. cinereus, and A. brachyrhynchus, 
are known in India and the Panjab. A. Indicus 
occurs at Siligori. A. cygnoides of China is 
domesticated. The wild species is still extant. 
A. cinereus (Anser ferus), 'Grey leg goose,' Europe 
and Asia, is common in India. A. brachyrhynchus, 
'Pink-footed goose,' Europe, N. Asia, Panjab 
(rare)? The domestic goose of India is a hybrid 
between A. cygnoides and A. cinereus. — Hooker, 
Journ. i. p. 399 ; Catal. Cal. Museum. See Bu-ds. 

ANSJELI. Maleal. Artocarpus hirsuta, L. 

ANSUS, an island in the Eastern Archipelago, 
inhabited by Papuans. Their houses, built on 
posts, are placed entirely in the water. At very 
low water only is the beach partially uncovered. 
This beach consists of mud, in which the man- 
groves grow luxuriantly, and completely obstruct 
a landing. The gardens, from this cause, are 
situated on the surrounding islands, principally on 
an island with a high beach, lying opposite to the 
kampong. The Papuans of Ansus have their 
hair growing in tufts. Their appearance is good- 
natured, faces regular, eyes beautifully black, the 
mouth broad, with beautiful regular teeth, and 
the forehead high but narrow. Many have thin 
lips and finely curved noses, which give them a 
more European physiognomy. The men are 
generally handsome and well formed, stout, with- 
out being too thick, strong and muscular; the 
women very good-looking ; and some children with 
very regular soft faces, and long pendent curling 
hair. — Jour. Ind. Arch., June 1852, p. 330-3. 

Namlah, .... ARAB. I Irmbu, Yaroomboo, Tam. 

Fourmi, Fr. | Chima, Tel. 

Cheonti, .... HiND. I Neml, .... Turk. 
Lamut, . Malay, Pers. | 

Ants have attracted attention from the earliest 
ages, on account of the singular economy and 
extraordinary industry manifested by the different 
species. Dr. Jerdon, a Madras medical oflicer, in 
a series of papers in the thirteenth volume of the 
Annals of Natural History, described forty-seven 
species of Southern India. M. Nietner, of Ceylon, 
forwarded to the Berlin Museum upwards of 
seventy species taken by him in that island, chiefly 
in the western province and the vicinity of 
Colombo. Dr. Jerdon, in the Madras Lit. Soc. 
Journal, arranges them according to St. Fargeau, 
who, in the first volume on the Hymenopteres 
in the Suites k Buffon, divides ants into foui 
tribes, viz., 1st Tribe — Les Myrmicites, females 
with a sting, first segment of abdomen of 
two knots. This includes the following genera: 
— Cryptocerus ; Atta ; Ocodoma, differing from 




n it8 larger tioad, and the presence of spincft ; 

Eciton, and Myrniica. 2d Tribe — Honerites, 

fenmlefl with stiti^, iirst segment of abdomen of 

3ne knot only. It inclndus the genera Odonto- 

!ui8 and I'onora. Sd Tribe — Lea Forniicites, 

los without a sting, first segment of the abdo- 

of one knot only ; and it contains the genera 

' rgus and Kurmica. Uut many Indian ants 

— :iot be well referred to any of these genera. 

The black ant of India is the Formica compressa, 
:ind the red ant is F. smaragdiua. The genus 
I'olyrachis is plentiful in all eastern forests. It 
j remarkable for the extraordinary hooks and 
-; with which the bodies of the species are 
' 1 ; and they are also, in many cases, beauti- 
ully sculptured or furrowed. One species has 
rocesses on its back just like fish-hooks ; others 
ire armed with long straight spines. They gene- 
ally form papery nests on leaves, and, when dis- 
urbed, they rush out and strike their bodies 
gainst the nest so as to produce a loud rattling 
loise. They live in small communities. Their 
arious hooks, spines, points, and bristles adhere 
their enemies. 

The green ant of the Malay Archipelago, CEco- 
hylla smaragdina, is a rather large, long-legged, 
tive, and intelligent-looking creature. It lives 
large nests formed by glueing together the 
Iges of leaves, especially of the zingiberaceous 
ants. AVhen the nest is touched, a number of 
lese ants rush out, apparently in a great rage, 
And erect, and make a loud rattling noise by 
ipping against the leaves. Their jaws are blunt 
id feeble. 

Many of the Myrmecidse sting most acutely, 
hey are very abundant, and destroy greatly, 
vouring every edible thing. See Insects. 
ANTAKA. In the Hindu religion, an attribute 
Yama or Dharma-raja, in the character of the 
nder, the Destroyer. See Yama. 
ANTAMOOL, or Anantamool. Beng. Hemi- 
smus Indica. The roots largely used as a sub- 
itute for sarsaparilla, price three annas per 

ANTAPUR. Near this is a knoll fifty feet 
gh, and four hundred in circumference, sur- 
anded by still higher hills. Captain Newbold 
of opinion that it is an ancient furnace, 
it others think that volcanic agency is the cause 
this curious elevation. One local tradition 
8 it, that a Ilaksha.sha or giant, named Edim- 
asamli, who had objected to the marriage of 
sister with a sou of king Pandian, and was 
erefore mui*dered, was buried here. But another 

kdition states that a great battle was once 
light here, and that the dead were burned on an 
ormous funeral pile. The ashes, or whatever 
ey are, effervesce when treated with diluted 
Iphnric acid. 

ANTAR, author of a famous Bedouin romance. 
le grand words the aged shaikh pronounced over 
i dead body of this Arab hero were : — ' Glory 
thee, brave warrior ! who, during thy life, hast 
Bfe the defender of thy tribe, and who, even after 
f death, hast saved thy brethren by the terror 
thy corpse and of thy name ! May thy soul 
• for ever I May the refreshing dews moisten 
ground of this thy last exploit!' The Ana- 
eb or Antariyeh, in Cairo, are a class who recite 
ehant poetical war tales, and take their name 
•u the Antar romance. 


ANTARA TAMARA. Tkl. Any floating, 
large-leaved water plant, as the Villaniia Indioi, 
Vetit.; Menyanthes Ind., L. ; Pistta stratiotui, L. 
Antara Valli Tige is the Ca«yta iilifonnis, L. 

ANTARAVKDI, a Hindu shrine on the ooaiit 
of the Godavery district, one of seven sacred 
sites on that river, at each of which pilgrims 
bathe, to complete the saptasagana yotra. During 
the five days' ceremony of the Kalayauam, about 
20,000 pilgrims visit it. — Imp. (Jaz. 

ANTAR-BED or Antarved, the ancient name 
of the lower part of the doab from Etawa to 
Allahabad, but sometimes taken as the name of 
the entire doab between the rivers Ganges and 

ANTARJALI. Sansk. A Hindu rite of taking 
a dying person to the river-side, or, at the moment 
of death, immersing the lower part of the body in 
water. This cannot but hasten the fatal event. 
The Pioneer newspaper related two instances 
of this in April or May 1875, one near Calcutta, 
the other near Lahore : — ' On Thursday last, the 
victim was carried to the river-side, amidst a 
crowd of people, with the usual accompaniment 
of tomtoms and other discordant noises, etc. His 
head dangled over a stretcher much too short for 
him ; and as he raised his hand to shield his face 
from the glaring light, his son and heir opened 
an umbrella and held it over him by way of pro- 
tection. Arrived at the river, he refreshed him- 
self with a draught of milk and a smoke, chatting 
meanwhile with his sympathizing relatives. Last 
Saturday still found t!.e man quite equal to his 
milk and tobacco, and his friends carried him off 
to another spot on the river, and immersed him 
until he was drowned.' 

AKT-EATER, Manis pentadactyla, Pangolin. 

Badjar-kita, . 
Scaly Ant-eater, 
Tanggilin, . . 


. Eng. 


Tarang-giling, , 
Arialer, . . , 


The Pangolin of India, belonging to the Eden- 
tata, gets that English name from its Malay 
designation. The genus is common to Africa and 
south-eastern Asia, and in India is not rare, though, 
from their habit of appearing abroad after sunset, 
they are not often seen. Manis Javanica of Des- 
marest inhabits the Malayan peninsula, Penang, 
Borneo, Java ; M. crassicaudata of Tickell (the M. 
pentadactyla of Linnaeus is the M. macroura of 
Desmarest) and found in several parts of India, and 
in the lower part of the Himalaya. This species has 
been known ever since the expedition of Alexander 
the Great, and is mentioned by iElian under the 
name ^«TT«y». — Tickell; Elliot; Ogilvie; Cantor; 

ANTELOPE is the name usually given by the 
British in India to the Antilope cervicapra of 
Pallas, A. bezoartica, Blyth. An antelope only 
15 inches long was obtained in Sumatra by Mr. 
Carl Bock, about 1880. See Antilopinse. 

ANTELOPE HORN, Ling-yang-koh of the 
Chinese. In pregnant and puerperal cases, the 
horn in powder is given, partially calcined. 

ANTEN, a district in the island of Banka, 
containing the richest of the tin mines. 

jhoola of the N. W. Provinces ; its tomentum is 

ANTHELIA. This phenomenon is common in 
the Khassya bills and in Ceylon. Sir J. E. Teunent 
mentions that at early morning, when the light 



is intense and the shadows proportionally dark, 
when the sun is near the horizon and the shadow 
of a person is thrown on the dewy grass, each 
particle furnishes a double reflection from its con- 
cave and convex surfaces, and the spectator sees 
the shadow of his own head surrounded by a halo 
as vivid as if radiated from diamonds. — Sir J. E. 
Tennetifs Ceylon; Hooker, Him. Journ. 
ANTHEMIS NOBILIS. Linn. Chamomile. 

Ku-kiuh-hwa, . . Chin. 
Anthemis, Gr., Theoph. 
xa.fMtifAti^.ov, Ge., Dioscor. 
Babune phul, HiND. Pers. 
Baboona-gao, . . Pers. 
Chamaindoo-poo, Tam. 

Atna mu8 — Plant, Arab. 
Baboonuj — Flower, ,, 
Okh-hywan, . . ,, 
Tuffah-ul-arz, . . ,, 

Hubuk-ul-bukir, . ,, 

El-dak-l-mirza, . , , 

Kau-kiuh-hwa, . Chin. 

The flowers of this native of Europe and Persia 
are met with in all the Indian bazars. It is 
largely used in the infusions or khissanda, and is 
a simple bitter tonic. In China, A. apiifolia is said 
by Burnett to be found as its representative. The 
flowers of Chrysanthemum album and of Matri- 
caria chamomilla are excellent substitutes for the 
true chamomile. — Smithes Chin. Mat. Med. ; O^Sh.; 
Waring ; Birdwood, Bombay Products ; Royle. 

Anacyclus pyrethrum, D. C. 

Akarakara, Beng., Hind. 
Indian Pellitory, Eng. 
Indian feverfew, . ,, 

Pyrethron, Gr. of Dios. 
Akarakara, . . . Pers. 
Akarakaram, . • Tam. 

This is a native of the south of France and 
Barbary, but its roots are largely imported into 
India, where they are used in medicine and as 
an ingredient in certain snuffs. As a masticatory 
it is used largely in toothache, and it has effectu- 
ally cured cases of spontaneous salivation ; but it 
is used as an external as well as an internal stimu- 
lant and sialogogue. — Vegetable Kingdom ; O^Sh. ; 
Cat. Ex. 

ANTHER.EA MYLITTA. Drury. This is a 
Tusseh silk moth of Ceylon, which feeds on the 
Terminalia catappa and Palma Christi. A. Paphia, 
Linn., called Bughey in Northern India, is found 
in Assam, Bengal, Birbhum, and Behar, and feeds 
on the Zyziphus jujuba or Bar, and on the Asseen. 
It has not been domesticated. Other species are, 
A. Assama, Heifer, A. Frithii, Moore, A. Helferi, 
Moore, A. Roylei, Moore, all of the Himalaya ; 
and A. Perotteti, Giier. , of Pondicherry. 

ANTHERICUM, a genus of the Liliaceae. A. 
annuum, canaliculatum, exuviatum, filifolium, 
fragrans, graminifolium, glaucum, Liliago, Nepal- 
ense, Nimmonii, physoides, ramosum, revolutum, 
tuberosum, vespertinum, grow or are cultivated 
in India. 

ANTHIA. Some carnivorous insects are found 
ranging far to the north in the Himalaya, an 
example of which isAnthia 6-guttata, a well-known 
native of the tropics. The specimens, however, are 
mere dwarfs compared with those of peninsular 
India, a fact which may be regarded as a proof 
that Anthia has here reached its extreme limits, 
and consequently will soon disappear, as is the 
case, and be represented by another type, fulfilling 
the same functions, only under a difference of 

Chooneria, . . . HiND. | Jyotishmati, . . HiND. 

This is one of a genus of grasses of the order 
Panicacese. It is abundant in parts of the Salt 
Range, Trans-Indus, and in the outer hills, from 
2300 feet to 8500 feet. Madden mentions that in 

Kamaon its roots are frequently luminous, whence 
it is there called jyotishmati. — Dr. J. L. Steioart. 

A. Australis, B. Br. \ Kangaroo Grass. 

A grass of south Asia, Australia, and all Africa; 
its growth should be encouraged by every means. 
It grows abundantly in the Konkans, where it is 
largely converted into hay for horses ; A. poly- 
stachia, A. heteroclita, ^lioxb., and A. scandens, 
Roxh., are also made into hay. — Von Mueller; 
Mason; Voigt. 

Hooker. A timber tree of Darjiling Terai, one of 
the Rubiacese. 

the Orchiacete growing in Nepal and the Khassya 
mountains, with large blood-coloured flowers. 

ANTHOZOA, a natural order of polype found 
within the tropics. The Corallium rubrum. 
Lam., the red coral of commerce, is obtained from 
this order, and the coral is the axis of the poly- 

ANTHRIBIDiE. See Insects. 

ANTHUS OBSCURUS, A. petrosus, 'Rock 
Pipit,' of Europe, Siberia, Japan, is replaced in 
the Himalayan region by A. cervinus, which is 
likewise found in Europe. A. Pratensis, ' Meadow 
Pipit,' is of Europe, North Asia, Japan, Asia 
Minor, West India (Gould), Nepal (Hodgson, 
Gray), and Pegu. 

ANTI, Hind. Also Sylie. A necklace made 
of coloured threads, worn by fakirs. 

ANTIALCIDAS, one of the Greek successors 
to a part of Alexander's kingdom. Antialcidas 
succeeded Lysias in the Paramisus, about B.C. 150, 
also in Nysa. See Greeks of Asia. 

ANTIARIS. There are six or seven species 
recognised of this genus of trees, viz. A. toxi- 
caria, Lesch., the genuine upas tree of Java, the 
A. innoxia, Blume, and the A. macrophylla, R. Br. 
A fourth species (ramis foliisque utrinque velu- 
tinis) is cultivated in the Kew Gardens ; the A. 
saccidora, Dalz., of the western coast of peninsular 
India, is a fifth ; the sixth is the A. Zeylanica, 
Thwaites, of Ceylon, which, like A. saccidora, 
yields sacks, but this author now refers it to A. 
innoxia, Blume; and a seventh is A.' Bennetti, 
Seeman,the Ma-nui or Ma-vu-ni,Tagaof the Tonga 
Islands ; all are trees of great height. — No. 53, vol. 
9, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.; Hog^s Vegetable King. 
p. 68; O'Sh. p. 282; Thwaites' PI. Zeyl. p. 263. 

ANTIARIS INNOXIA. Blume. Sack tree. 

Lepuranda saccidora, Nimmo. 

. . Can. I Araya-angely, . Ma leal. 

. . ,, I Riti gas, Kitti, . SiNGH. 

. , Hind. I Netavil maram, . Tam. 

. . Mahr. I AUi, . . of Animallay. 

A stately forest tree, not uncommon in the driei 
parts of Ceylon, indigenous on the west side ol 
India, in the ravines at Kandalla, and in th( 
jungles near Coorg, and very common, and tht 
most gigantic of all the trees in the Wynac 
jungles. The wood is good, although not mud 
used ; but Kurumbar bags or sacks are made froQ 
the liber or inner bark by a very simple procees 
A branch is cut, corresponding to the length ant 
diameter of the sack wanted. It is soaked a little 
and then beaten with clubs until the inner barl 
separates from the wood. This done, the sack 
formed of the bark, is turned inside out, and pulle* 
down until the wood is sawn off, with the excepti<^ 





' siimll piece left to form the bottom of the 

.iiiil which is carefully left untoucluKj, These 

.i< .vs are in general use among the villagers for 

:;arrying rice, and are sold for about six auuaa 

"••' The Singhalese sew up one end of the bark 

sack.— fto///e'« Fib. PL p. 843 ; Mr. M'lvor, 

E. J. R. ; Thwaitcs' Zeyl. p. 263. 

lARIS TOXICARIA, Lcschen. Upaatree. 

Ipo toxioaria, Penoon. 

, . . BORNBO. I Anchar, Antiar, . Jav. 

tree of Java, often over 100 feet in height, and 

ce is one source of the lialf fabulous Upas 

I. The poisonous milky sap flows freely 

rom the bark when tapped. The Upas antiar 

loison is prepared from it in an earthen vessel ; 

be juice is mixed with the seed of the Capsicum 

utescens, and various aromatics. The poison at 

irst acts as a purgative and emetic, then as a 

larcotic, causing death by violent fits of tetanic 

jnvulsions. But its virulence is less than the 

oison of the cobra. The people, however, are 

luch impressed with its power. The tree has a 

ne appearance, with bark of a very white colour, 

nd the stem is supported at its base by but- 

resses. In clearing new grounds near the tree, 

le inhabitants do not like to approach it, as 

cy dread the cutaneous eruption which it is 

nown to produce when newly cut down. But, 

Kccpt when the trunk is extensively wounded, 

when it is felled, by which a large portion of 

le sap is disengaged, the effluvium of which, 

lixing with the atmosphere, affects the persons 

cposed to it with the ailment just mentioned, 

ie tree may be approached and ascended like 

le common trees of the forest. — Horsfield, p. 53 ; 

'aiavian Transactions, vol. vii. ; Low^s Saratvak ; 

egetable Kingdom, p. 680 ; O'Sh. p. 579 ; Craw- 

trWs Diet. p. 442. 

ANTICHRIST. The Mahomedans believe in 
ntichrist, whom they term Al-Dajjal. They 
Jieve that he is to be slain by Christ, who is to 
-establish Islam, and this is to be a sign of the 
iproach of the last day. 

ANTIDESMA ACIDA. Linn. Poolchi pallam 
the Tamils. Its acid fruit is eaten by the poorer 
ople. A. lanceolaria is a shrubby plant of 
littagong and Ceylon, up to 1500 feet; A. 
ontanum, a middle-sized tree, from 3000 to 
)00 feet, in Ceylon. Wight also figures A. 
uroinata, paniculata, tomentosa. — Roxburgh ; 
inslie ; Thic. ; W. Ic. 
A. Zeylanicum, Lam. 
ambilla gas, . SiKO. | Noli tali maram, . Tam. 
A small but very handsome tree, common in 
jylon, in the jungles at Coimbatore, and in the 
rests on the Bombay side of India. It affects 
fcher the skirts of cultivated land, and never 
Eiches a size fit for purposes of carpentry. Its 
ives are used in decoction in snake-bites. From 
e tough stringy fibres of the bark, the inhabit- 
its of Travancore make ropes. It has a pleasant- 
reddish -coloured fruit, said to be prized 
the Malabar coast for its cooling qualities. — 
iiM/ie ; Vegetable Kingdom ; Drs. Gibson^ Wight, 
' Roxb. iii. p. 758 ; Thic. p. 289. 

aomptum, Tul. I A. Alexiteria, L. (partim). 

floribundum, Tul. \ Stilago ISunias, Linn. 

poriyam, . Malay. I Kara-willa gas, . Singh. 
I tali, maram, . Tam. | Kabilla gas, . . „ 

A quick-growing, nniddlo-sized branchy tree, 
common in Ceylon up to 3000 feot above tiiu itva, 
also on the Corunuuidel and Malabar aides of the 
Peninsula of India, and found in Aaaam and iu 
Nepal. It attains rather a large aiie in Aiwani, 
with a girth of twelve or fourteen inches, but thu 
wood, by inmiersion in water, becomes heavy and 
black as iron. The bark is uHetl for making ropes. 
Its leaves are acid and diaphoretic, are uaea as 
decoction in snake-bites, and, when young, are 
boiled with pot herbs, like sorrel, and emttloyed 
in syphilitic cachexia. — Roxb. iii. 758 ; Wight ; 
Useful PI. ; Veg. King. p. 683 ; Thw. 2kyL p. 289. 

Stilago diandra, WUlde. | Tella-gomoodoo, . TxL. 

This tree grows on the Northern Circar moun- 
tains, in Ceylon, and Travancore ; for various uses. 

Khoodi jam, . . Beng. | By-it-zin, . . . BCRM. 
Kyet-tha-hen, . . BURH. | Boo-ambilla gas, . Singh. 

This is a low, ramous tree, common in Ceylon 
up to 2000 feet above the sea; common in 
Bengal jungles, and found in the Rangoon, Pegu, 
Tounghoo, and Tharawaddy forests. It has a 
light ash- coloured bark. On the same plant are 
notched, round, and pointed leaves. It flowers in 
April and in July, and bears a red, sour fruit, 
resembling the barberry. It furnishes a small 
crooked timber of a close grain, with the wood of a 
red colour, and adapted to cabinetmaking. — Drs. 
Mason, M'Clelland, Roxb. iii. p. 770. 

Joriam kottam, ALalkal. I Jana palascru, . . Tel. 
Jeram kottam, „ | Pollari, Pollai, . . „ 

This small tree is a native of the Northern 
Circars ; its bark is used for making ropes. The 
berries are eaten by the natives. — Roxb. iii. 770. 

ANTIGONUS. Seleucus Nicator, B.C. 305, 
gained a great victory over Niconor, a lieutenant 
of Antigonus. Seleucus, B.C. 303, crossed the 
Indus to wage war on Chandragupta, but, making 
a hasty peace, he turned on Antigonus, whom he 
drove into Phrygia, where he was defeated and 
slain, B.C. 301. The name of Antigonus appears 
in the edicts of Asoka on the rock temples. 

ANTILOPINiE, the antelopee, a sub-family of 
the Bovidfe, are classed by Jerdon with the Bush 
antelopes or Tragelaphinre of Blyth, and Desert 
antelopes, as under : — 

Bush Antelopes. 
Portax pictiis, Jerdon, The Nil-Gai. 

TragelapbuB hipiHslaphus, 

Ru-i, ■ . [. . . Mahr. 
Manu-potu', . . Tkl. 

be the Hippelaphus of 

Damalis risia, H. Smith, 
Maravi, . . . . Can. 
Guniyi, Guriya, . GoNU. 
Roz, Kojh. . . . Hind. 
This is supposed to 
Aristotle. It is found throughout India, from the 
foot of the Himalaya to the extreme south of 
Mysore. It does not occur in Ceylon, Assam, nor 
in the countries east of Bengal. It frequents thin 
forests and low jungles, associating in small herds 
of seven to twenty. When caught young it is 
easily domesticated. — Jerdon. 
Tetraceros qnadricomis, Jerd., 4-horned antelope. 

Antilope chickara, Hardw. 
A. 8ub-quadricomutu8,J?W. 
Bhirul, .... Bhils. 
Kurus, . . . Bl'star. 
Kond-guri, . . . Can. 
Bhirkuru (male), . GoND. 
Bhir (female), . ,, 


T. striaticoniis, Leach. 
T. iodes, paccerois, Hodg», 
Chouka; Cliousingha, H. 
Jangli Bakra, . . „ 
Bhekra, Bhirki, . Mahr. 
Konda-gori, . . Tkl. 



Throughout all India, Western Panjab, Sind, 
the Mulnad, and the lower bills and forests of the 
Himalayas, but not in Ceylon nor in the valley 
of the Ganges, nor the countries east of Bengal. 
It lives in jungly hills and open forests. It is 
strictly monogamous, and is always met with singly 
or in pairs. It is of a uniform bright bay colour. 
Mr. Elliot says the spurious horns are so small 
as rarely to be met with in adult individuals. They 
arise from bony swellings immediately in front of 
the true horns. They are about two feet high, and 
the colour is various shades of brown. — Ogilhy ; 
Elliot; Jerdon. 

Desert Antelope. 

Antilope bezoartica, Jerd., Indian Antelope. 

A. Cervicapra, Pall., ML, Fr., Cuv., Hard. 

Kahoit (black buck), Hind. 


Alali (male), . , 
Gandoli (fern.), . 


Kalsar (male), . . 
Baoti (female), 
Chigri, .... 
Common antelope, 
Indian antelope, . ,, 

Mirga ; Ham (male), HlND, 
Harna ; Harnin (fem.), „ 



Phandayat, do. 
Barout (male), . 
Sasin (female), 
Mriga, . . , 
Irri (male), . . 
Ledi (female)? . 
Jinka, . . . 
Guria, Goria, . 
Kala (male). 





The common antelope frequents the plains on 
the cotton soil of India, When they move off to 
avoid some object of which they have doubts, 
they often bound to surprising heights. Their 
swiftness is such that dogs have never, or only 
rarely, it is believed, captured a healthy one, but 
they are often run down by wolves, who drive 
and surround them, and the cheetas kill great 
numbers of them, usually selecting the bucks. 
About 1838, great herds of very many hundreds, 
with many outlying bucks, were to be met with in 
the Dekhan, but the hunting leopard, the cheeta, 
and the sportsman have so weeded out the bucks, 
that only small patches of three to twelve are now 
(1871) to be seen, and these all does, who, without 
the males, easily fall a prey. The bucks are of a 
dark black colour, and the younger bucks are driven 
off by the buck of the herd so soon as they begin to 
turn black, but fierce combats ensue before the 
buck of the herd is selected. The horns are from 
19 to 25 inches long, with 4 or 6 flexures, and up 
to 50 rings or annuU. — Elliot ; Jerdon ; Pers. Ohs. 
Gazella Bennettii, Jerdon, Goat antelope. 

Antilope Arabica, Hemp- 
rich, Elliot. 
A. dorcas, Sundevall. 
Dabi, Zabi, . . . Arab. 
Porsi (m.),Chari (f.),BAOBi. 
Tiska, Budari, . . Can. 
Mudari, .... ,, 
Ravine deer, . . Eng. 

Antilope Christii, Gray, 
A. hazenna. Is. Geoff. 
Gazella sub-gutturosa ? 
Indian gazelle, . Eng. 
Chikara; kal-punch, HiND. 
Kal-sipi, .... Mahr. 
Hazenne, . . Malwa, 
Burudu jinka, . . Tel. 

The Indian gazelle is not known in Bengal or 
Malabar, but occurs in all other parts, and 
abounds in Hurriana, Rajputana, and Sind, pre- 
ferring the open bare plains, or rocky plains or 
sandhills. It abounds in the Indian Peninsula, in 
the valleys of the sandstone formation, and gene- 
rally among the jungles of the red soil to the east- 
ward of the southern Mahratta country, in small 
herds of three, five, six, or more, but commonly 
a buck with two does. Mr. Elliot says the gazelle 
of Arabia is found in the islands of the Red Sea, 
particularly in Dhalak and on the western shore 
about Massowa, and all along the Abyssinian coast. 
The gazelle of Hauran and Syria are probably the 
same. The Dabi is the same as the Hebrew word 
in Deuteronomy xiy. 5, translated the Roe, and is 


the gazelle of the Arabian poets, who say, ' Tl 
eyes of the Dabi are the most beautiful of al 
The ordinary height is about 2 feet, and its hon 
10 or 11 inches. — Elliot in Mad. J. Lit. and Sc. 

Gazella Dorcas, Blyth. 
Antilope Arabica. I G. Kevella. 

Gazella Cora. | G. Corinna, H. Smith. 

Has been said to occur in western India, but 
known to be brought from Aden and Muscat. 
Gazella sub-gutturosa, Jerdon. 
A. Dorcas, var. Persica, RuppeU. 

Persia, Sind? Beluchistan? 

Kemas Hodgsonii. 
Antilope Hodgsonii, Abel. \ Pantholops HodgsoniL 

The Chiru of Tibet is a fine antelope, beautif 
and stately, confined to the Bhot country, Tibt 
and neighbouring territories, and appears to ' 
wholly unknown on the southern face of tl 
mountains. — Ogilby. 

Procapra picti-candata, Hodgson, is the Ra go 
or Goa of Tibet. 

Antilope gutturosa, Pallas, of central Asia ai 

Saiga Tartarica, the Saiga antelope of Easte: 
Europe, Central Asia, and deserts of Tartary.- 
Jerdon, Mammalia. 

ANTIMACHUS. See Greeks. 


Ismad, koh'l, . . 


Stibium, . . . . 


Tay-lak-youk, . . 


Kinang, . . . . 


Peh-lah, .... 


Antimonia, . . . 


Spies-glas, . . . 


Sauvira, . . . . 


Surma, . Dukh. 

, Pers. 

Anjana Mai, . . 


Ter-Sulphideof A., 


Kolilu, Anjancle ? . 


Grey Antimony, . 


Nilanjanam, . . 


Anjan, .... 


Anjanam, Katuka, 


This is obtainable in most eastern bazars, ai 
is used medicinally by native physicians, and 1 
Mahoraedan men for an eyelid application. B 
ores of iron and manganese and lead are oft( 
sold as surma. It is obtained in Cornwa 
Saxony, Spain, Mexico, Siberia, Chin-kiang-fu 
China, the Eastern Islands, Siam, Pegu, Martaba 
Amherst, and Beluchistan? but the best is fro 
Sarawak, in Borneo, and from Vizianagrai 
Ter-sulphide of antimony is said to be found 
the Salt Range near the Keura salt mine. Va 
quantities of antimony have been found by Maji 
Hay in the Himalayan range of Spiti. A sulphic 
of antimony is found at Jaggatsukh Kulu, in tl 
Kangra district, and specimens were sent fro 
Bajaur, and it has been found near Beyla I 
Major Boyd ; it occurs massive in Beluchista 
Mr. O'Riley found it at the sources of the Atarai 
and large quantities of the ore have been dug i 
in the neighbourhood of Moulmein. The met 
was found for the first time in Borneo in 1823, < 
the north-western coast of that island. It exists 
several places there, but mines of it have bei 
worked only in Sarawak. This ore is generally 
a lead-grey colour, possessing considerable sple 
dour, and is met with compact, and in rhoml 
prisms of considerable size, and variously modifie 
Butter of antimony is a substance sometimes us< 
with sulphate of copper for bronzing gun barre. 
the iron decomposing the chloride, and depositii 
a thin film of antimony on its surface. The chi 
alloys of antimony are type metal, consisting 
4 lead and 1 of antimony • stereotype metal, 
lead and 1 antimony, — music-plates consisting 
lead, tin, and antimony ; Britannia metal, co 





i^r of 100 parte of tin, 8 antimony, 2 of copper, 

J bismuth. Pewter is BumetiinoH fonnc«i of 

arts of tin and 1 part antimony. Antimony 

■ > uh«h1 in the preparation of some cnanielH 

ijjer vitreous articles, and much employed in 

in medicine as antimonial powder and tturtrate 

ii imony. James's powder is said to consist of 

ittj of phosphate of lime, and 67 of oxide of 

aony. — Aladras Museum ; O^Sh. ; Dr. Mnsoii's 

I'eiKtsserim ; Faulkner; Tomllnson ; Madras Exhib. 

>/^l.s57; Jur. Reports of Exhib. o/lSbl and 1857; 

toitdoti Exhib. Cat. fur 1862; Craw/urd's Diet. 

|). 13 ; Major Boyd, in Bom, Geo. Trans. 1889, p. 

10, vol. iii. p. 204 ; Capt. Foley in Bl. As. Tran. 

1830, vol. V. p. 273. 

ANTIMUN. Malay. Cucumis sativus, Linn. 

ANTIOCH, an ancient town of celebrity, of 

ivhich tlie modern village of Antaki is the humble 

epresentative. Previous to the Macedonian con- 

{uoat, its name was Riblath; but, being chosen 

>y Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander's generals, 

be the seat of his future government, and 

)eing greatly embellished by him, it received the 

lame of Antioch, from respect to his father, 

^ntiochus. For several centuries it was the 

esidence of the Syro-Macedonian kings, and 

fterwards of the Roman governors of this pro- 

ince. Vespasian, Titus, and other emperors, 

ranted to it very great privileges. It is fre- 

uently mentioned in the Acta of the Apostles, 

iid here the disciples of Christ were first called 

hristians. Being repaired by the emperor Jus- 

nian, a.d, 629, it was called Theopolis, or ' the 

ity of God,' on account, it is said, of the inhabit- 

ats being mostly Christians, attracted hither, 

doubt, by the peculiar liberty they enjoyed in 
le exercise of their religion. This liberty was a 
iimnant of the jus civitatum, or 'right of citizen- 
lip,' which Seleucus had given to the Jews (of 
horn the Christians were considered as a sect), 

1 common with the Greeks. Their church was 
ng governed by illustrious prelates. — Robinson''s 
Vavels, ii. p. 288. 

ANTIOCHUS was the name of thirteen rulers 
i^er parts of Alexander the Great's conquests, 
lexander was born B.C. 856, died 823, and the 
allowing are the 6um<ame8 and the ordinarily 
cognised dates of those of his successors bearing 
tis name : — 

I. Soter, . . 

n. Theos, . . 
III. Magnus 

rV. Epiphanes, 

V. Eupator, . 
VI. Theos, . . 
II. Sedetes, . 

B.C. 280 

» 261 

„ 223 

„ 175 

„ 164 

„ 144 

,. 137 

VIII. GrypuB, 
IX. CyzicenuB, 
X. £u8ebe8, . 
XI. Epiphenes. 
XII. Dionysius of 
XIII. Asiaticus, . 

B.C. 125 
.. 112 


fter the last of these, Syria became a Roman 
■evince. Some of the Antiochi merit separate 
>ticcs, from the influence which they exercised 
^ep N.VV. India. Antiochus i., surnamed Soter, 
B8 a Syrian king. In B.C. 280, Seleucus Nicator 
assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraimus, from 
ih date, the whole of Asia, from the Indus to 
Jaxartes, was under Antiochus Soter, who 
B.C. 280 to 261 reigned undisturbed over the 
le territory, and left it to his son, the second 
hus, surnamed Theos. In the reign of 
itiochus Theos, a Scythian named Arsaces 
from the north of the sea of Azof, induced 
e Persians to throw off the Greek yoke, and 
~ed the Parthian empire, making Rhages bis 

capital. AntiochuB iii. was «amamed Magnos 
(Acha^ua). Acconling to the Greek and lioman 
hiutorians, bo invmled India B.C. 206, and fortnerl 
an alliance with tiophagascnes, the aovereif^ of 
that country, who, it ia now aacertained, waa 
Asoka, or Piyadasi, king of Magadba (gmndaon 
of Chandragupta), who ascended the throne B.C. 
247. Antiochus the Great, in his march towarda 
India, defeated Euthydemua near Menr, in a 
battle in which Antiochus led the united Syrian 
and Parthian armies. Euthydemus waa then 
taken into alliance, and ho led Antiochus and hia 
Syrian army through Bactria, i.e. by the roote 
north of the mountains, to the Kabal valley, and 
across the Indus, in B.C. 206. There Antiochus 
the Great made peace with Sophagasencs, the 
Asoka of India, and Asoka recorded this, by edicts 
engraved on rocks and pillars, in various parte of 
India in characters exactly resembling those on 
the coins of Agathocles. That on the Gimar rock 
names Antiako-Yona, Raja. In B.C. 205, Antio- 
chus returned by way of Arachotia. He was 
assassinated. The discovery of his name in two of 
the edicte of Asoka, was made by James Prinsep. 
—Bl. As. Trans. 1838, p. 156 ; Hist, of the Panjab, 
i. p. 57. See Greeks oi Asia. 

ANTIRRHINUM MAJUS, Linn., is the Eng- 
lish Snapdragon, which with other species of 
this genus, A. moUe, siculum, and orontum, are 
grown in India as flowering plaute. A. orontum 
has a variety known as A. Indicom. — Jaffrey; 
Voigt, 499. 

ANTISA. Tel. Achyranthus aspera, L. 

ANT-LION, of India. At the lower part it 
resembles that of a spider, but the head is armed 
with a sharp, strong pair of claws. They exca- 
vate, in fields, gardens, and roadways, small cup- 
shaped cavities, with exquisitely smooth edges 
and sides, at the bottom of which they lurk, so 
that any insect approaching near immediately falls 
below to the ambush, and is seized and destroyed. 
Their excavations are usually carried on at night, 
and in the process, though they throw up the 
sand and gravel to a considerable height, the soil 
around their cups is very level. They will throw 
up a particle of sand towards any adhering insect, 
w hich, by moving the mass, brings down the insect 
with it. In Ceylon are four of the tribe,— Pal- 
parius contrariua, Walker; Myrmelon gravis. 
Walker; M. d\m&, Walker; and M. barbatus, 
Walker. — Tennent's Nat. Hist. Ceylon, p. 4. 

ANT-PUTH. Maur. A screen placed between 
a Mahratta bride and bridegroom in the marriage 

ANTS, WHITE. Termites. 

Ani-ani, . 


Rayap, Rayah, 
Shellu, . . 
Cheddulu, . 


White ante are species of Termites. They are 
interesting, from the great mounds of earth, seven 
or eight feet high, which they erect. In the open 
fields, the injury to produce which they can occa- 
sion is trifling ; but in gardens, where, as with 
sugar-cane, the crops are long in the ground, 
much loss is sustained from their attacks. They 
usually work under cover, and erect galleries of 
earth, cemented as they progress. In towns, with 
substantial houses of mortar and beams of wood, 
the loss which they occasion is often very great, 
for they pierce the walls and tunnel th^ beams 
in every direction. The effective remedy is to 




destroy their cells and dig up their queen, a large 
shapeless white mass in the centre of the mound. 
A composition of lime, tar, and soap, in equal 
parts, boiled together and smeared over places 
where white ants appear, is a very effectual bar 
to their further progress. To protect the beams, 
the ends are now usually laid on the wall, and 
the sides left unenclosed, so that the approach 
of these insects can be detected ; and this open- 
ing also prevents dry-rot. The earth-oils of 
Burma are thought to be effectual preventatives 
to their encroaches. In British Burma and Port 
Blair, where the majority of buildings are 
wooden structures, the whole of the timber is 
coated with earth-oil, which is laid on warm 
before the timber is put into the building, yearly 
coatings being also laid on prior to the rains. 
Sets of sugar-cane and other substances can be 
protected by steeping them for half an hour in 
a mixture of assafoetida, 8 chittacks ; mustard 
seed, 8 seers ; putrid fish, 4 seers ; bruised butch 
root or monkshood, 2 seers ; with sufficient water 
to mix them into the thickness of curds. But 
the poisonous influence of the butch on vegetable 
life is known, and cannot be recommended where 
the product is to be eaten. Small quantity of 
arsenic, mixed with flour or oatmeal and mois- 
tened with molasses, made into a dough and 
placed near their tumuli, is said to ensure their 
destruction. The wood-oils from the various 
species of Dipterocarpi, applied to wood, prevents, 
it is said, the dry-rot, as also the attacks of white 
ants; and the addition of catechu to the oil 
greatly increases its preservative powers. To 
check their ravages, Captain Man recommends 
that timber be smeared over with a mixture of 
3 of gambler and 12 of dammer oil. Captain 
Fraser advised that from ^ lb. to 4 lb. of hartal, 
the yellow sulphuret of arsenic, should be mixed 
with the concrete. Sulphate of copper or of 
arsenic mixed with the lime in immediate con- 
tact with timber, offers a ready method of pre- 
serving it from insects. A mixture of arsenic, 
aloes, soap, and dhobis earth has also been re- 
commended. Pound the arsenic and aloes, scrape 
the soap, mix with mud, and boil for an hour in 
a large pot half -full of water ; when cold, fill up 
with cold water. It is applied as a wash. The 
practice which obtains in Rohilkhand is to char 
the ends of all rafters slightly, and then coat them 
over with coal-tar. 

ANTUMORA. Beng. Isora coryhfolia. 

ANU, in Hindu legend, one of the sons of 
Yagati, one of the old fathers of mankind. Anu 
was the founder of one of the five great Turanian 
tribes, the Yadu, Turvasa, Druhyu, and Anu. He 
refused to exchange ages with his father. Among 
his descendants were Anga, Banga, Kalinga, 

ANU. Sum. Hair of the Arenga saccharifera. 

ANUGA KAYA. Tel. Lagenaria vulgaris. 

ANUGAMANA, in Brahmanism, the perform- 
ance of sati by a woman whose husband has 
died in a distant country ; a sandal, or any article 
of his clothes, may then represent him. It seems 
also to have the name of Anu-Marma. See Saha- 
manana ; Sati. 

ANULOMAJA. Sansk. In Hinduism, the off- 
spring of two persons of different social position, 
of whonj the father is of the superior class in the 
regular succession, as of a Brahman, and the woman 



of the Kshatriya class ; when the order is inverted 
the progeny is termed Pratilomaja. 

ANUMULU. Tel. Lablab vulgare, SavL 

ANUPSHAHR, founded in the reign of Jahan- 
gir, is in the Balandshahr district of the N.W 
Provinces, on the west bank of the Ganges 
About 100,000 Hindu pilgrims visit it on the ful 
moon of Kartik. — Imp. Gaz. 

ANUSASANAM, a quinquennial republication 
ordered by Asoka, of the great moral maxinii 
inculcated in the Buddhist creed, viz. 1. Honoui 
to father ; 2. Charity to kindred and neighbour 
and to the priesthood (whether Brahmanical oi 
Buddhist) ; 3. Humanity to animals ; 4. T( 
keep the body in temperance, and (5) the tongue 
from evil speaking. 

ANUVANSA, a Sanskrit list of ancient Indiai 

ANl^'ULLA. Mahr. Averrhoa bilimbi. 

ANWARI, one of the most famous Persiar 
poets. He lived in the 12th century. 

ANWAR-i-SUHAILI, the Persian version o: 
the Pancha Tantra, q. v. 

ANWAR-ud-DIN, nawab of Arcot, with whon 
the British entered into alliances against tht 
French, who were in alliance with Muzaffar Jung 
See Ambur- 

ANYANKA BHIMA, a prince celebrated ir 
Orissa, who unfortunately killed a Brahman, anc 
he raised numerous temples in expiation. He alsc 
endowed Juggurnath (Yoganatha). 

ANZARUT. Arab., Pers. Sarcocolla. 

AOD. Arab. Aloes-wood or Eagle-wood. The 
eastern nations distinguish several kinds : — 

Aod-i-Bahoor, Eagle-wood. 
Aod-i-Balessan, supposed to be the wood of 

Balsamodendron Kafa, Forsk. 
Aod-i-Cliini, Chinese Eagle-wood. 
Aod-i-Hindi, Indian ,, 

Aod-i-Kamari, Mountain „ 

Aod is used generally, in India, to designate 
the frankincense of the Boswellia, the Olibanuni 
of the ancients ; but throughout the east, with 
Arabic and Persian suffixes, it is also employed tc 
name varieties of Eagle-wood, from the Aquilarui 
agallocha. Lane says Al-Aod is the source of the 
English lute, the French luth, and Italian liuto, 
Aod-us-Salib, or wood of the cross, is an ornameni 
worn by Arab, women. It is a little round slendei 
bit of wood, enclosed in a case of gold ; supposed bj 
Lane to be of Christian origin. — Lane. 

AODHYA, the modern Oudh. 

AODIYA. Hind. A predatory tribe in the 
Cawnpur and Futtehpur districts. They made 
remote excursions at particular seasons, in different 
disguises. — Wilson's Glossary. 

AOGRRAH. PusHT. Rice boiled dry, and 
then mixed with buttermilk and eaten like por- 

AOKHAL. Hind. Land reclaimed from waste 
and brought under cultivation. 

AOLANIA, a Jat tribe residing in the Pani- 
pat district, following Hinduism, but they clain 
the Arabic appellation of Malik, or king, conferrec 
upon them, they affirm, by some ancient prince t< 
denote their sovereignty over other Jat tribes. 

AOOS. Hind. Dew. Aous-dhan, autumn rice 
a second crop of rice. 

AORNOS. MiUtary colonies of Macedonian; 

were established at Alexandria ad Caucasum 

Arigseutu and Bazira, and garrisons at Nysa, Ora 




MaMAjfit, Peucelaotis, and Aornos, a niountAin 8up- 
poBod by Boiiio to be Mnhabaii in the Pir Punjal 
or Mid-Hiinalftyan ranj^e. General Court saya 
tliiit opposite Attock ia n rock with all the peculiari- 
ties described. Quintus Curtius says, on a moun- 
tain that is topped by a cattle, attributed to Raja 
Uody. Alexander tlie Great (leaving a corps of 
10,0(X) infantry and 4(X»0 horse to stand fast), in 
the spriiij; of .S27 n.c, lc<l an army of 120,000 foot 
aud 15,000 horse, composed of Asiatic mercenaries 
*nd Greeks, through the Hindu Kush to Kabal. 
Despatching thence a strong division by the Kabal 
valley to the Indus to prepare a bridge, he 
marched by the upper road into the Yuzufzai 
country, according to his usual policy of leaving 
no enemy behind him. Driven out of their other 
fastnesses, tlie highlanders took refuge in Aornos, 
which was believed in the Greek camp to have 
thrice defied llerakles himself. Winter was at 
band, or had actually come on, but, discovering 
the one difficult path which led to the fort at the 
top, Alexander and Ptolemy, at the head of two 
divisions, each following the other, drove out the 
nemy in four days, by making a mound across a 
broad and shallow hollow which separated them 
from the besieged. Leaving all the hill country 
subdued behind him, the invader crossed the Indus, 
probably in March 826 B.c. 

General Cunningham's chief objections to the 
Mahaban hill as the representative of Aornos, are 
— 1. It is a vast mountjun of comparatively easy 
iMJCcss, and of which no spur presents a very steep 
lace towards the Indus. 2. The Mahaban hill is 
not less than 80 miles in circuit, whereas Aornos 
was not more than 200 stadia, or about 22 miles, 
tiocording to Arrian, or 100 stadia or 11 miles, 
iiccording to Diodorus. 8. The Mahavana hill 
was visited by Hwen Thsang in a.d. 630, and he 
lescribes it simply as a great mountain, which 
Feiived its name from the Mahavana monastery, 
D which Buddha had dwelt in a former existence 
inder the name of Sarvvada Raja. He says the 
mly other possible positions are — the ruined city 
)f Takht-i-Bahai ; the lofty isolated hill of Kara- 
nar ; the hill of Panjpir ; the ruined fortress of 
L^nigat. Ranigat is situated on a lofty hill above 
•he village of Nogram, which is just 12 miles to the 
3.E. of Bazar, and 16 miles to the N. of Ohind. 
ts position, therefore, is strongly in favour of its 
dentification with Aornos. — Cunningham, Ancient 
Geog. of India, p. 72. 
AOUL, a Tartar nomade village or camp. 
AP. Hind, A respectful term of address to 
Mahomedans, and Hindus, and Europeans, equi- 
valent to ' worship,' you or thou being never used, 
anly suchtermsas Ap, Janab,Pir-o-Mur8hid, Sirkar. 
APA. Tel. Bauhinia diphylla, Btich. 
APAMARGAMUorApamarpa. Sansk. Achy- 
nthes aspera, L. 

APAMLA, daughter of Artabazus the Persian, 
married Seleucus, who gave her name to three 
towns. Koornah,oneof the threeApamea, is situated 
it the point of a triangle formed by the confluence 
of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, and although 
now dwindled into a petty town, it was formerly 
place of consequence. Koomah is situated on a 
low flat, with apparently a rich soil, and along the 
river are low banks to prevent the country being 
9ooded. At this spot some oriental traditions 
aave^fixed the garden of Eden. — Malcolm's Persia, 
it p. 141. See Koomah. 


A PANDA or AstyagM. ion of iBfendiar, one of 
the Kaianinn «lyiui8ty of Persian kings. 

APAN(f. Bkncj. Achyranthos aspera. 

APAKAJITA. Benq. Clitoria tematea. Ana- 
rajita, in Hinduism, a form of the goddess Bba' 
wani. The name is doubtless derived from the 
flower of the Clitoria. Aphrodite of the Greeks 
is supposed by Mr. Paterson to be the Aparajita 
of the Hindus. See Sacti. 

APA SAHIB, a raja of Nagpur, who was de- 
feated by the Indian army at the battle of Seeta- 
buldce, on the 2Cth December 1817. His real 
name was Mudaji Bhonsla, and be had suooeeded 
to power by strangling Parsaji. Apa Sahib with 
his two chief ministers were finally ordered by 
the Governor-General to be sent to Allahabad, 
but on the night of the 12th-l3th May 1818, 
Apa Sahib escaped, and took refuge in Gondwana, 
where the people protected him against all offers 
for him to be delivered up. Whilst in Gondwana, 
Chain Shah and other of the Gond chiefs, and many 
parties, to the extent of 20,000 Pindari, Mah- 
rattas, and Arabs, joined him, or acted against 
the British in small parties in the valleys of the 
Nerbadda, the Tapti, and the Puma rivers ; but a 
large plan of operations was matured by Lieut.- 
CoL J. W. Adams, who in Febmaiy 1819 pene- 
trated into the mountains from the Nerbadda, took 
Chain Shah prisoner, and Apa Sahib fled to 
Asirghur, from which he again fled to Ranjit 
Singh's protection, and finally to that of the raja 
of Jodhpur, where he died, almost forgotten, in 
1840. See Bhonsla. 

APASTAMBA, an ancient writer on Hindu 
ritual and law, author of Sutras connected with 
the black Yajur Veda and of a Dharma-Sastra, 
These were translated by G. Buhler. Two recen- 
sions of the Taittiriya Sanhita are ascribed to him 
or his school. — Dowson. 

APASTAMBA, a Hindu ascetic mendicant, 
follower of the doctrines of Patanjali. He is said 
to have retained a posture so immoveable, that the 
birds built their nests in his hair. — Ward, iv. p. 30. 

APATE. See Insecta 

APAYATRITA. Sansk. One who has lost 
caste, and cannot therefore inherit. 

Keph, . . . 
Kephos, Kepos, 
Koph, . . . 
Bandar, . . . 

Apes form the sub-family Simianse of the 
family Simiadse or Monkeys, of the natural order 
Primates. Apes are represented in Borneo and 
Sumatra by Simia morio and S. satyrus. The 
ancient Egyptians are said to have worshipped 
monkeys, and some of them in India are still 
reverenced by Hindus. Various kinds of Ape 
seem to have been made known to the Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Romans, by specimens brought from 
Africa and India ; those known to the Hebrews 
probably from India, the Hebrew name Koph being 
almost the same as the Sanskrit KapL — Harris. 
See Mammalia. 

APHIS, a tribe of insects ; one species of China 
is supposed to produce oak-galls. Aphis coffeaj, 
the coffee- louse, is found in small communities on 
the young shoots and on the under side of the 
leaves of the cocoa-nut tree, but the injuries it 
occasions are insignificant. Firminger says (p. 48) 
a species of Aphis is the most injurious of ail the 


Kubbi, Keibi, . 

. Pbbs. 


Kaki, . . . 

. SiNQH. 


Korangu, . . 



Kothi, . . . 




many insect enemies of the sugar-cane. It usu- 
ally appears after long- continued dry weather, and 
disappears on a downpour of rain. Moore notices 
A. kakrasingha and A. pistaceae. See Insects. 

APHORISMS or Sutra are the usual mode 
of instruction followed in the Hindu Vedas, litur- 
gical books whose sacred character Hindus still 
acknowledge. Sutra were adopted in the fourth 
period of the Hindu progress, about B.C. 1000, 
and the ceremonial prescriptions were reduced to 
a more compact form, and to a more precise and 
scientific system. The aphorisms of the Nyaya 
philosophy, of the Mimansa and Yoga, were re- 
printed in Sanskrit and English about the middle 
of the 19th century, by Professor James Ballan- 
tyne of the Benares College. — Max Miiller. 

APH ROD I SI AC S, Several oriental races eagerly 
search for substances of this nature, and parts of 
fishes, insects, molluscs, and plants have a high 
reputation. With the Chmese, the gelatinous fins, 
air-bladders of fish, the nests of a species of 
swallow, and some molluscs, are greatly esteemed, 
also musk-rats' tails. 

APIACE^ of Lindley, the Umbellifer^ of 
Jussieu, are the celery tribe of plants. They 
number above 1000 species ; upwards of 130 be- 
long to the S. and E. of Asia ; several are used 

APIS, the sacred bull of Egypt, was chosen by 
the priests of Memphis for its black and white 
spots ; and Mnevis, the sacred bull of Heliopolis, 
had nearly similar marks. The Jews, in prepar- 
ing their water of purification, were ordered, in 
Num. xix. 2, to kill a red heifer without a spot. 
Amongst the Egyptians, the solemnities at the 
burial of Apis were entirely Bacchic. The priests 
did not wear the nebris or deer skin, but they 
wore the panther skin, and carried Thyrsus staves. 
The sacred bull of the Hindus, Nandi, the vahan 
of Siva, is carved in black stone, seated, looking 
at the lingani. — Bunsen, i. 432. See Sacrifice. 

Karafs, .... Arab. | Bhut-jata, . . . Hind. 

This temperate climate plant, acrid and 
poisonous when wild, is much cultivated wher- 
ever Europeans settle, and is grown in India 
in the cold weather. Its seeds are sold as medi- 
cine in every bazar of India. Its essential oil, 
dissolved in strong spirit, forms an essence a 
drop of which suffices to flavour a tureen of soup. 
— Voigt, 20 ; O'Sh. 357 ; Stewart. 

Chanoo, Khadooni, Beng. | Ajmiid, .... Hind. 

Cultivated in gardens in Bengal for the seed, 
which is used in diet and medicine. Its fruit very 
hot and carminative, good in dyspepsia, much 
used in all masalihs. — Roxb. ; Dr. Irvine ; O^Sh. 

APJOOLA. Hind. A mixed fabric of cotton 
and silk, made at Dacca. 


Putcliuk, . . . Hind. 
Kut ; Koot ; Kust-i- 
Bhereen ; Kust-talkh, ,, 

Uplati, . 

. Hind. 
. Tam. 

The root is exported from India to China, where 
it is used as incense. There are two kinds, viz. 
Kust-i-shirin and Kust-i-talkh. It has been re- 
ferred to Aucklandia costus, Falconar, also to 
Costus arabicus and C. speciosus. 

APOCYNACEJE, a natural order of trees and 
shrubs, including nearly 100 genera, with about 
400 species, about half of which are found in the 

S.E. of Asia, Arabia, Ceylon, the Peninsulas of 
India and Malacca, Bengal, Nepal, and Java. The 
Apocynacese abound in a milky juice, with which 
some acrid principle is frequently combined, 
rendering the whole suspicious and many highly 
dangerous; but the milk of the Hya-hya, or milk- 
tree of Demerara, and of a species of Tabernse- 
montana, Arnott, are said to be innocuous. In 
Sumatra, Urceola elastica yields caoutchouc, as A. 
Vahea does in Madagascar ; and bird-lime is pre- 
pared from the Voacanga, as in India, from species 
of Ficus. Nerium piscidium yields a strong fibre, 
etc. Willoughbeia edulis also yields caoutchouc. 
Several yield good timber, as Wrightia coccinea, 
which for its lightness and strength is used in 
makuig palanquins in the south, while in the north 
of India that of W. mollissima is used by turners. 
Holarrhena pubescens (koora) yields a light wood, 
and species of Strychnos, some of superior quality. 
The bark and seeds of Wrightia antidysenterica 
have long been employed by the Asiatics, and are 
the Tiwaj and lissan-ul-asafeer of the Arabs. The 
Hmdus call it indurjuo, and distinguish the seeds 
by the name of indurjuo shireen (mild) from those 
of Holarrhena antidysenterica and H. pubescens, 
which they call indurjuo talkh (bitter). Ichno- 
carpus frutescens is sometimes used as a substi- 
tute for sarsaparilla ; and Ophioxylon serpentinum 
has derived its specific name from its employment 
in snake-bites. One of the order furnishes the 
lancewood of Moulmein, a tree found all over the 
provinces. The Karens make bows of it, but 
prefer Cassia fistula. Mr. Mason says the tree 
belongs to the dogbane tribe, and is not at all 
related to Guatteria virgata, the lancewood of 
commerce. The principal genera of the E. Indies 
are : — 
































— Mason's Burma ; Royle, Him. Bot. 271; Voiqt. 

shau-wu of the Chinese, grows in Su-chau-fu, 
Kang-su, Kwang-tung, and Kwang-si. Its root 
is believed by the Chinese to prolong life, and it 
is used internally medicinally. — Smith. 

APOLLO of the Greeks is the analogue of the 
Hindu Krishna, whose favourite place of resort 
was a tract of country around Agra, and prin- 
cipally the plains of Muttra, where Krishna and 
the nine Gopia, evidently the nine Muses, usu- 
ally spent the night in dancing. Krishna, Hindus 
say, slew the Naga snake ; and the Apollo of the 
Greeks was sumamed Nomios, or the pastoral, and 
Opifer in Italy, who fed the herds of Admetus, and 
slew the serpent Python. The Apollo of Edessa 
also was called Monimos. He was identical at 
Babylon with the Phoenician god Esmun. Krishna 
and his Gopia are represented as well in their 
characters of Apollo and the Muses, as in those 
of the sun and the planets in harmonious move- 
ments round him. — Coleman. 

APOLLODOTUS. Of the Greek successors to 
Eucratides, ApoHodotus and Menander alone are 



^Rttioned by classical authorities. Apollodotus 
rultti ill I'ataleue, Syrastreue, and Lnricc about 
H.c. Kif). According to Colonel Tod, the Yavan, 
or Gret'k princes, who apparently continued to 
rule witliin the Intlus afUT the Ciiristian era, were 
either the renmins of the liactrian dynasty, or the 
iivU-jMjndcnt kingdom of Demetrius or AiMiUodotus, 
ruled in the Paiijab, having as their capital 
I la, changed by Demetrius to Euthymedia. 
r...ver says, in his Hist. Keg. Bact. p. 84, that, 
lu riii-ding to Claudius Ptolemy, there was a town 
within the Hydaspes, yet nearer the Indus, called 
Sagala, also Euthyniedia ; but he scarcely doubts 
tliat Demetrius called it Euthydemia from his 
father, after his death and that of Menander. 
Sagala is conjectured by Colonel Tod to be the 
Salbhanpoora of the Yatlu race when driven from 
Zabnli^than, and he supposes that the ^'u-chi or 
Yu-ti, who were fixed iliere from Central Asia 
in the fifth century, and if so early as the second 
century, when Ptolemy wrote, may have originated 
the change to Yuti-media, the ' Central Yuti.' Nu- 
merous medals, chiefly found within the probable 
limits of the Greek kingdom of Sagala, either be- 
long to these princes or the Parthian kings of Mina- 
pira on the Indus. The legends are in Greek on 
one side, and in the Sassanian character on the re- 
verse. The names of Apollodotus and Menander 
have been deciphered, and the titles of ' Great 
Kijig,' ' Saviour,' and other epithets adopted by 
the Arsacidse, are perfectly legible. The devices, 
however, resemble the Parthian. These Greeks 
and Parthians must have gradually merged into 
the Hindu population. — Tod's Rajasthan, i. p. 235. 
See Greeks of Asia ; Kabal. 

APOLLONIUS of Tyana, lived about a.d. 50. 
It is related in his Indian travels that Phraotes, 
who ruled over the kingdom which Porushad 

wayed, spoke Greek, and was versed in all the 
literature and philosophy of Greece. In his life 
by Philostratus, he is stated to have visited the 
Brahmans on the hills north of Sri-nagara, now 

ailed Triloci Narayana, near the Kedara Ganga. 

rheir chief, Jarchas, stated that Ethiopians had 
resided here under a ruler, Ganges, and that 

hey migrated to Egypt. Doubts exist as to Apol- 

onius having visited India, or Ethiopia, or Babylon. 

fcarna Kalanga, 

. Can, 

Koti Kalangu, . 

. Tam. 

■?hechoo, . . 

. HiNn. 

KettiGadda? . 

. Tel. 

Kakangi, . . 


Nama Dampa, . 

• »i 

A perennial aquatic plant of the Peninsula of 
ndia, growing in shallow standing water and the 
Mds of tanks, flowering during the rainy season. 
Phe natives are very fond of the small tuberous 
'Oots as an article of diet. Several species grow 

still, sweet watery places of India. Roxburgh, 

211, mentions A. echinatum, A. microphyllum, 
[rowing in the Bhutan mountains, A. undulatum 

Bengal. A. crispus, Thunb., of India and N.S. 

7ale8, has tuberous roots, small but starchy, and 
I excellent taste. — Von Mueller; Ainslie ; Rox- 

'gh ; Madr. Ex. Jur. Rep. ; Useful Plants. 

SosBpa Lindleyana, W. Ic. 
loUa, Surroli, . . Can. | Kabella, . . . SiNOH. 

This tree is abundant throughout Coorg and the 
Vynad, up to 4000 feet elevation; i3 met with 
hroughout the Madras western forests, in Bombay, 
lao in Ceylon, up to 2000 feet ; and it is also 
atuid in Sikkim. The wood is in use for building 


and other purposes. A. acuminata, fusifonnis, laU> 
folia, and lanceolnta, are small trees of Ceylon. — 
Thunitrs, p. 288 ; Jieddome, Fl. Sylo. p. 286. 

APOSTLK is a term sometimes applied in 
European literature to Mahomed, but his followers 
only recognise the appellations of Paiffbambor and 
Rassul Allah, the Messenger of God. 

APPA. Tam. Apupa,TEL. Unleavened cak« 
of rice flour and cocoa-nut milk, calle<l Hoppers. 

APPA. Tel. Appan, Tam. ; Apa, Mahb. A 
term of respectful address, a father, as Kangappa ; 
Govind Apa. Appa in Tuluva means mother. 

APPEL. Meleal. Premna integrifolia, Roxb. 

APPER, one of three celebrated votaries of 
Siva, who composed a portion of the poem Dcva- 
ram, which forms part of the Tamil Veda. 

APPLACARAM. Tam. Barilla. 

APPLE is a term applied, in India, to the 
fruits of several plants, — Cashew apple. Custard 
apple. Love apple, Pine apple. Rose apple, Greater 
wood apple. Lesser wood apple, the apple proper, 
Pyrus malus. The apples of Solomon's Song are 
the quinces or the Cydonia vulgaris. The apple- 
tree of Australia is the Angophora lanceolatu. 

The common apple, Pyrus malus. 

Seb, S«o, . Hind., Pers. 

Pomo, It. 

Malus, Lat. 

Seba, . Pebs., Sanhk. 
Manzana, .... Sp. 

This is naturalized in several parts of India. 
In Cbiua, it is cultivated in Honan, Peh-chih-li, 
Hup-eh, Shun-teh-fu, and Ho-kien-fu. 

APPOCOVAY. Tam. Bryonia rostrata. 

APPROVERS, in India, are criminals who 
have been tried and convicted as having be- 
longed to a band of Thug murderers or Dacoits, 
but who, having made a full confession of their 
crimes (in some individual cases amounting to the 
murders of as many as eighty persons), and having 
denounced their associates, have received a con- 
ditional pardon. 

APRANG, also Rangbbarat, Dam-ul-akwayn, 
and Hira-dakhan, a gum resin, a beautiful kind 
of kino,. brought to Ajmir from Bombay; con- 
sidered very astringent. It is given in intestinal 
haemorrhages, and is also used in enamelling on 
gold ; four tola one rupee. — Irvine, Ajmir, p. 126. 

APRICOT, Prunus Armeniaca. 

Tuffah, . . 

. Arab. 

Pin-Kwob, . 

. Chin. 



Pomme, . . 


Melea, . . . 


Barkuk, . . . Arab. 
Bukur-Koharii, Bokhar. 
Kin-hang, Hang-jin, Chin. 
Hwang-mei, . . „ 
Abricot, . . . Fb. 
Chinaru, Chulu, . HiHAL. 

Chir, .... HiMAL. 
Khubani, . . . HlND. 
Meliaca, Albicocca, It. 
Mish-miBh, Zasd-Aln, PsBS. 
Badam Kohi, . „ 

Albaricoque, . Sp. 

In India the tree has been naturalized. Tho 
fruit is greatly esteemed in Persia, Syria, Arabia, 
Afghanistan, etc. Moorcroft mentions ten varieties 
grown in Ladakh, all of them raised from seed, 
except one, which is budded. The stones are sold 
as ' Sari ' in the Himalaya, and called also ' Maghz 
khubani.' Apricot oil (Raughan-i-khubani), of the 
finest kind, is made by expression from the kernels. 
It is clear, of a pale yellow colour, and smells 
strongly of hydrocyanic acid, of which it contains 
usually about 4 per cent. This is a hill product 
near Simla, and near Kanawar, as also near Kangra. 
— Powells Handbook; vol. i. p. 422 ; Dr. Royle ; 
Birdwood, p. 154 ; Moorcroft ; Darwin, Var., etc. 

APSARAS. Sansk. In Hindu mythology, 
nymphs of Swarga, the celestial court of Indra, 
celestial dancers, celebrated for their beauty. 




Amongst them is Rembha, the popular Venus of 
the Hindus, and some others are described to be 
of inconceivable loveliness. They symbolize the 
floating clouds of the upper sky, or personifica- 
tions of the vapours extracted by the sun. In 
Indra's court they are forty-four in number, — 
thirty-four worldly and ten divine, — and arranged 
in fourteen gana or bands. They are the types 
of the swan maidens of German folk-lore. They 
answer also to the Pari of the ancient Persians, 
and the damsels called in the Koran, Hur-ul- 
ayun, the antelope-eyed Huri. Sir William 
Jones thus describes them in Swarga : — 
' Now, while each ardent Cinnara persuades 
The soft-eyed Apsara to break the dance, 
And leads her loth, yet with love-beaming glance, 
To banks of marjoram and champac shades, 
Celestial genii tow'rd their king advance, 
So call'd by men, in heav'n Gandharvas named.' 
According to Kshatriya belief, Ksliatriya war- 
riors slain in battle are transported to Indra's 
heaven by these Apsarases. Manu, vii. 89, says, 
* Those rulers of the earth, who, desirous of de- 
fending each other, exert their utmost strength 
in battle, without ever averting their faces, ascend 
after death directly to heaven.' And in Book 
ii. 19 of the Nala, Indra sayS, ' Why are no 
warriors slain now-a-days, that I see none arriving 
in heaven to honour as ray guests ? ' — Coleman, 
Hind. Myth. ; Sir William Jones, Hymn to India, 
vol. xiii. pp. 270 and 273 ; Williams' Story of 
Nala, p. 140. 

APTA. Mahr. Bauhinia parviflora, B. race- 

APTERA. Example, fleas and lice. See Insects. 
APTIMUN, Hind. Also Amr-Bel. A yellow- 
coloured parasite creeper, often seen on babul trees 
all over India. The entire plant is used in native 
medicine, in ' munj,' or muzil, a diluent form of 
medicine, employed preparatory to giving a purge. 
The Aptimun AVilayti is an extract of the Apti- 
mun plant from Bombay, and used in the same 
way as the plant. — Irvine, Ajmir, p. 125. 

Seing, .... BuRM. I Patsa kallu, . . Tam. 
Zamarrud, . . ?ERS. | 

This is found in the south of India, where it is 
classed as an inferior emerald. Chrysoberyl is 
found among the Tora hills near Rajmahal, on 
the Bunas, in irregular rolled pieces, small, and 
of a light green colour. These stones are sold as 
emeralds by the natives under the name of punna ; 
but the native dealers are aware that they are 
softer than the real emerald of India, which is 
generally green-coloured corundum. The oriental 
emerald is often seen in Burma, but beryl and 
emeralds are brought from the north of Ava. 

AQUEDUCTS, in S.E. Asia, are chiefly known 
as underground tunnellings, designated throughout 
Persia, Beluchistan, and India as Kanat and Karez. 

Yellanjuj, . . . Arab. 

Agur, . _ . . . 


Ayaloogi, Ayulugin, . „ 

Ayal-urchi, . . 


Ak-yau, .... BURM. 

Agallochum, . . 


Ugoor or Ag'r, . Benj. 

Kalamba, . . 


Eagle-wood, . . Eng. 

Kaya gahru, . 


Calambac, ... ,, 

Agaru, . . . 


Bois d'Aigle, . . . Fr. 

Krishna agam, 


A'g'r, .... Hind. 

This is an immense 

tree, a native 

of the 

mountainous tracts E. and S.E. from Silhet, in 
lat. 24° and 25° N. Roxburgh mentioned that 
the real Calambac or Agallochum of the ancients 

is furaished from this tree ; and though, in his 
time, small quantities of the fragrant resinous 
wood were imported from the eastward, the 
imported articles were always considered inferior 
to that from Silhet. Dr. Mason also is of opinion 
that the A. agallocha produces the fragrant lign- 
aloes, or wood-aloes, which is offered for sale in 
all the bazars on the Tenasserim coast, and is 
the produce of a tree that grows on the Mergui 
islands. It is imported into Mergui by the Selung 
race, who, as they profit from the trade, endea- 
vour to keep all in ignorance of the tree from 
which they obtain it. The Hebrew and Greek 
names are ' derived from the Indian name of the 
tree, agil, Sanskrit agaru and aguru.' The chief 
consumption of aloe-wood is in Siam and China, 
where it is burned in the temples. It was used 
in Napoleon's imperial palaces as incense. The 
wood is heavy, yellowish - white, shaded with 
green ; fibrous, spongy, and resinous ; its taste 
aromatic, its odour in combustion very agreeable. 
— 0' Shaughnessy ; Mason ; Malcom's Tr. i. p. 191 ; 
Boyle's III. Ind. Bot. 172 ; Roxb. ; Voirjt ; Vege- 
table Kingdom ; Mad. Ex. Jur. Reports. See Aod. 


A. ovata of Botanists. | Bois d'Aigle of Malacca. 

This tree is a native of Malacca, China ? and 
Ceylon ? It has a whitish timber. Roxburgh 
seems inclined to regard this as identical with 
A. agallochum of Silhet, but others recognise it as 
a separate species. — Roxb. ii. 422 ; Voigt, 306 ; 
Veg. Kingdom, 629. 

a white and inodorous timber, but when diseased, 
it secretes a resinous matter said to be the true 
Eagle- wood. 

Ophiospermum Sinense, Loureiro. 
Pa-mou, . . . Chin. | Pah-muh-yang, . Chin. 

A tree of China. — Voigt. 

AQUILEGIA. In India, several species are 
known as ornamental flowering plants. Their 
name, literally, the AVater Gatherer, is because 
the leaves collect water in their hollow. — II. f. d 
T. p. 44 ; Veg. King. p. 18 ; Voigt ; Riddell. 

AQUILINE, a sub-family of the family Fal- 
conidse, comprising the True Eagles, the Kite 
Eagles, the Hawk Eagles, the Serpent Eagles, 
Fishing Eagles, as under : — 

1. True Eagles. 
Aquila chrysaetos, Linn., The Golden Eagle. 
Falco chrysaetos, Linn., Gould, Blyth, Horsf, 
„ niger, Gmelin. 
„ melanonotus, Lath. 
Aquila daphsenia, Hodgson. 
„ nobilis, Pallas, 
Burkut, . . . Tartar. | Bear coote of Atkinson. 

It inhabits the greater part of northern and 
central Europe, Asia, America, and has been 
found in the Himalaya. In Central Asia, it is 
trained by the Kirghis and other nomades to kill 
antelopes, foxes, wolves. 

Aquila imperialis, Bechst., Imperial Eagle. 
Falco imperialis, Bechstem, Gould, Blyth, Jerdon. 
Aquila mogilnik, Gmelin, 
„ heliaca, Sav. 

„ bifasciata, Gray and Hardw., Sykes, Jerd, 
„ Nepalensis, Hodgson. 
„ chrysaetos, Jerdon, 

Fnis, Beng. I Jumiz, Jumbiz, . HlKD. 

The imperial eagle ranges in the south of 




Europe, North Africa, West and North Asia; it 
inhabits the Himalaya, is not uncommon in central 
India and on tlie table-laud of ludia, but is rare 
in the Dekhan. 

tAquila nsevia, Gmel., The Spotted Eagle. 
Faloo nsevia, Gmel., Blyth, Horif,, Oouid. 
Aquila melnnaetus, Sav. 
„ olanga, Pallas. 
„ vittata, Hodgt. 
lyari Jiyadha, . Bknq. I Kal-janga, . . . Etoro. 
k kite, . . . Enq. I Nella-gedha, . . . Tkl. 
It is found in the south and west of Europe, 
North Africa, and West Asia, and throughout 
India, especially in the neighbourhood of cultiva- 
tion, tanks, marshes, and paddy fields, and common 
in the Sunderbuns, 

Aquila fulvescens^ Gray, The Tawny Eagle. 
Aquila punctata, Chay and Hardw, 
„ fusca, „ „ 

,, vindiana, Franklin, Jerdon. 
„ nssvioides, Blyth, Uorrf. 

All,. . 


Salwa Tel. 

Dholwa of the Waobi. 
Bursa wul of the Yebkala. 

It is found throughout the greater part of India, 
except in the more moist and wooded portions, 
but Ls unknown in Bengal and the Malabar coast, 
and does not extend into the Indo - Chinese 
countries. It is a very noisy, shrill- screaming 
bird. It builds on high trees. 

Aquila hastala. Less., The I^ng-legged Eagle. 

Spiraetus punctatus, Jerd. \ Lemnaetus unicolor, Blyth. 

Jiyada, Gutimar, HiND. | Pahari Tisa, . . . Hind. 

A small, handsome eagle of Bengal and the 
south of India. 

Aquila pennata, Gmel., The Dwarf Eagle. 

Aquila minuta, Brekm. \ Spizaetua milnoides, Jerd. 

Butaquila atropbiata, Hodys. 

Garden eagle, 
Field kite, . 
Baghati Jumiz, 



Gilbri mar, . 
Punja Prandu, 
Ootlatal gedda, 


This eagle is found in the south of Europe, North 
Africa, AVest Asia, and throughout India, fre- 
quenting groves of trees, gardens, and cultivated 
land. The crows readily distinguish it, and pursue 
it clamorously. 

2. Kite Eagles, viz. 
Neopus Afalaiensis, Reinwardt, The Black Eagle. 
Falco.^mw., Blyth, Jerd. I Heteropus, Hodgs., Horsf. 
Aquila pemiger, Hodgs. \ Nisaetus ovivorus, Jerd. 
Heugong, .... Bhot. I Adavi nalla Gedda, Tel. 
Lakmong Bong, . Lep. | 

It occurs in the hilly and jungly districts of 
India, in Malabar, Wynad, Western Ghats, Neil- 
gherries, Central India, and Himalaya. 

8. Hawk Eagles, viz. 
Nisaehis BonelU, Temm., Crestless Hawk Eagle. 

Aq. intermedia, Bonelli. 
Nis. grandis, Hodgs. 
N. niveus, Jerd. 
Rajali, .... Tam. 
Kundeli salawa, . Tel. 

Fftlco, Temm. 
Aquila, Horsf. 
ButolmaetuB, Blyth. 
Peacock killer, . . Eno. 
Hare do., . . „ 
Mohr-angab, . . Hind. 

This magnificent eagle is found throughout India 
in hilly and jungly districts. 

Limnaetus niveus, Temm. 
Falco limnaetua, Vigors, Horsf., Blyth. 
Nisaetus pallidua, Hodgs. 
The Sadal of Bengal has been found in the 
I tract between the Himalaya and Calcutta. 

Limnaetus crislaUlltu,Tcmm., Crested Hawk Eag1«. 
An. KlliottI, Jerd. I F. cirrbatui, Omet. 

Falcu Lathauii, TicktU. \ 

SbabBai, . . . HiNi>. | Juta Bhairi, . . . Tkl. 
Found throughout central and soutbem India, 
Bengal, East and West Ghats, and Himalaya. 
Limnaetus Nepalensis, Hodg., Spotted Hawk Eagle. 

Nisaetus Nepalensis, var. eristata, Hodgs., Blyth. 

N. pulcber, Hodgs. 

Falco orientalia, Temm. and Schlegtl. 

Reijore Bhot. | Kanzba, . . Chil., Lxp. 

This splendid hawk eagle has been found in 
the Himalaya, Darjiling, the Khassya hills, and 

Limnaetus Kienierii, De Sparre. 

Astur, De Sparre, Blyth, Horsf. 

Spisaetus albogularis, Tickell. 

This beautiful rufous-bellied hawk eagle has 

been found in the Himalaya, Darjiling, and Central 

India. Another species is L. Caligatus, Horsfeld. 

4. Sebpent Eagles. 
Circaetus Gallicus, Gm., Common Serpent Eagle. 
C. bracbydactylus, Meyer, Sykes, Jerd. 
Faloo, Omel., Gould, Blyth, Horsf. 

Pamula-gedda, . . Tel. 
Rawul of tbo Wagki. 

Kondatele of Yeukala. 

Sap mail, .... Beno. 
Mal-patar, . . . Can. 
Samp-mar, . . . Hind. 
Pambu prandu, . Tam. 

Found all over India, generally in open plains. 
Its chief food is snakes, guanas, and lizards, but it 
eats also crabs, rats, weaJc birds, frogs, centipedes, 
and large insects. They have been caught on the 
ground with their claws on the snake's head, its 
body coiled round the bird's wings. 
Spilornis cheela, Gray, Crested Serpent Eagle. 
Falco, Daudin, Blyth, Horsf. 
„ albidus, Cuv., Temm. 
Circaetus undulatus, Jerd. 

,, Nepalensis, Hodgs. 
Buteo bacha, Franklin, Sykes. 
B. melanotua, Jerd. 

Tilai baj. Sab cheer, Beng. 

Furj Baj Hind. 

Goom, Can. 

Botta Genda, . . Gondi. 
Murayala, . . . Mahk. 
Nalla pamula gedda, Tel. 

It is found all over India, in jungly districts ; 
also in Assam and Burma. It lives on snakes, 
lizards, frogs, and large insects ; it has a plaintive, 
wild cry. 

Spilornis bacha, Daudin, the F. bido, Hors/., 
inhabits Java and Sumatra. 

Spilornis spilogaster, Blaine, India and Ceylon. 

Spilornis holospilus, Vigors, inhabits the Philip- 

5. Sea Eagles or Fishing Eagles. 

Pandion halixtus, Linn., The Osprey. 

P. Indicus, Hodgs. \ P. fluviaUs, Sav. 

Mach moral, Bala, . Beng. 
Mach manga, . . Hind. 
Macbariya, ... „ 
Pantiang, . . . Lep. 

Macbarang, . . Nepal. 
Verali, addi pong, Tam. 
Koramin gedda, . Tel. 
Heggidi of the Yerkala. 

The fish-hawk of Europe, Asia, and Africa, is 
spread all over India ; it is frequently robbed of 
its prey by the Halieetus leucogaster. 
Polioastus ichthyoetuSf Horsf., White-tailed Eagle. 

Falco, Horsf, Blyth. 
Pandion, Horsf. 
Haliffitus, Jerd. 
Pandion lineatus, Jerd. 

Hal. plumbeus, Hodgs. 
Icbtbyoetus bicolor, Gray. 
„ Horsfieldi, Hodgs. 
lucarius, Hodgs. 

Mach morol, . . . Bkng. | Madbuya, . . . Hind. 

It is spread over most of India, Saugor, Bengal, 

Burma, and all the Malay countries. Its chief 




ibod is fish, but it carries off birds, as teal and 

PoUosetus, sp. 
Pontaetua humilis, Temm. \ Ichthyoetus nanus, Blyth. 

A native of Malacca and the islands. 
Ilaliastusfulviventer, Viellot, Ring-tailed Sea Eagle. 
Falco Macei, Temm. 
Halisetus Macei, Blyth, Horsf. 
,, albipes, Hodgs. 
„ lanceolatus, Hodgs. 
,, unicolor, Gray, Hardw. 

Bala koral, . 

. Bkng. 

Macha rang, . . 

. Hind 

Machkoral, . 

• >> 

Kokna, Ugus, . 

. KOL 


. Hind. 

This fine fish eagle is abundant in Bengal, and 
found in all the north of India, ascending the 
Ganges and the Indus rivers. It lives on fish, 
but eats also snakes, turtle, etc. 
Halisstus leucogaster, Gm., Grey-backed Sea Eagle. 
Blagrus leucogaster, Blyth. 
Falco blagrus, Daudin, Jerd. 
,, dimidiatus. Baffles, Gould. 
,, maritimus, Gmel. 
Ichthysetus cultrungis, Blyth. 
Kohassa, Samp-mar, Hind. I Ala, . . . Tam., Tel. 

Found all over India, Burma, Archipelago, but 
chiefly on the coasts, and up some of the large 
rivers; lives on sea-snakes, fish, rats, crabs. It 
habitually robs the osprey. — Jerdon, Birds, i. pp. 
64, 84. 

AR. Tam. A river ; a common postfix in 
Tamil countries, as Pal-ar, Ady-ar, etc. Ar, a 
river, is early Scythic or Kushite Babylonian, and 
the word is found in the Ar-Malchar of Pliny and 
the Ar-Macales of Abydenus, terms used to desig- 
nate the Nahr-Malcha, or royal river of authors. 
— Rawl. i. 2. 

AR, an ancient word entering very extensively 
into the language of the Indo-Germanic races, 
and supposed to be the source of the term Aryan. 
It seems to be connected with the original term 
for one of the first of avocations, namely, plough- 
ing and the plough. In the western hemisphere, 
the answer will be remembered which was said 
by the Delphic oracle to Myson, when Anacharsis 
inquired who was the wisest man in Greece : ' He 
who is now ploughing his fields.' Into the Indo- 
Germanic languages the word has been adopted 
in various ways connected with the earth, the 
fields, ploughing, and field implements. The 
root ar means to plough, to open the soil ; and 
from it we have the Latin ar-are, the Greek 
ar-oun, the Irish ar, the Lithuanian ar-ti, the 
Russian ora-ti, the Gothic ar jan, the Anglo- 
Saxon er-jan, the modern English to ear. Shak- 
spere says (Richard ii. iii. 2), 'To ear the land 
that has some hope to grow.' From this we have 
the name of the plough, or the instrument of 
earing — in Latin, ara-trum ; in Greek, aro-tron ; 
in Bohemian, oradto : in Lithuanian, arklas ; in 
Cornish, aradar ; in "Welsh, arad ; in Old Norse, 
ardhr. In Old Norse, however, ardhr, meaning 
originally the plough, came to mean earnings or 
wealth, the plough being, in early times, the 
most essential possession of the peasant ; in the 
same manner as the Latin name for money. The 
act of ploughing is called aratio in Latin, arosis in 
Greek; and Max Miiller believes that aroma, in the 
sense of perfume, had the same origin, for what 
is sweeter or more aromatic than the smell of 
a ploughed field? A more primitive formation 
of the root ar seems to be the Greek era, earth ; 

the Sanskrit ira ; the Old High-German ero ; the 
Irish ire, irionn. It meant originally the ploughed 
land. Besides, the simple ar in Old Norse means 
ploughing and labour, and the Old High-German 
art has likewise the sense of ploughing. Kpovpct 
and arvum, a field, would certainly have to be 
referred to the root ar, to plough. The English 
word plough, the Slavonic ploug, has been identi- 
fied with the Sanskrit plava, ship, and with the 
Greek ploion, ship. — MiiUer's Lectures^ p. 242 ; 
Taylor's Words and Places ; Mailer's Chips, 1 864. 

ARA. Scythic. A mountain. The word is not 
to be found in any Sanskrit dictionary with this 
signification, yet it appears to be a primitive root 
possessing such meaning, as we have Ar-budha, 
hill of Buddha ; Aravalli, hill of strength ; Ara- 
vindha, hill of limit. 

ARABIA, in the S.W. of the continent of Asia, 
is about 1430 miles long and 1200 miles broad. 
The ancient Greek and Roman geographers divided 
Arabia into A. Felix, A. Petrsea, and A. Deserta. 
The first nearly corresponds to the modern Yemen, 
but included Mahrah and Hadramaut ; the second, 
the modern Hejaz ; the third extending N.E. from 
A. Felix as far as the Euphrates. Some oriental 
authors, however, have included the whole pen- 
insula under Yemen and Hejaz ; while others, 
into Yemen and Hejaz, Nejd, the Tehama and 
Yemana. Hadramaut, Mahrah, Shehr, and Oman 
have also been reckoned independent provinces 
by some, while others include them in the two 
great divisions, Yemen and Hejaz. It is also known 
to the people as the Balad-ul-Arab and Jazira-ul- 
Arab. It has a central table-land surrounded by 
a desert ring, sandy to the south, west, and east, 
and stony to the north. This outlying circle is in 
its turn girt by aline of mountains, low and sterile 
mostly, but in Yemen and Oman of considerable 
height, breadth, and fertility ; while, beyond these, 
a narrow rim of coast is bordered by the sea. The 
middle table-land occupies half the peninsula, and 
the whole of Arabia is about two-thirds cultivated 
or cultivable, the remaining third being irreclaim- 
able desert. All the western parts of the Arabian 
peninsula, from Suez to Aden, including Pales- 
tine, the Hejaz, Mecca, and Yemen, are often 
spoken of as nominally subject to the Othoman 
Empire ; but at Mr. Palgrave's visit, the more 
northerly parts, from lat. 26° to 32° N. into the 
Syrian desert, and eastwards to the Euphrates, 
were subject to the king of Shammar, the more im- 
portant of whose territory surrounded Jabl Sham- 
mar ; and the Wahabi king owned the tract from 
the shores of the Persian Gulf westward to the 
Hejaz, with Shammar on the north, and the great 
desert on the south. The sway of the king of 
Oman extended along the eastern shores from 
Bahrein to Dofra. Mesopotamia, Irak, and the 
plains north of Palmyra are part of Arabia, 
forming with the Hadad a region uniform in its 
physical features and in the race which inhabits 
it. The Shammar, Anazeh, and the Montefik 
tribes are as purely Arabian as their kinsmen of 
Nejd, and the villagers of the Euphrates and the 
Jof as those of the Hejaz and Yemen. The lands 
of northern Arabia, since the 15th century, have, 
however, been repeatedly fought for by Bedouin 
tribes. But up to 1880 the Shammar were supreme 
in Mesopotamia, and the more powerful Anazeh 
in the Hamad and as far north as Aleppo. Since 
1862, the Turkish Government have marched 




down tho valley of the Euphrates, and taken 
military possession of Jaber and Deyr; and several 
tribes have since taken to agriculture. Tho Sham- 
mar Hodouin of Mesopotamia have above twenty 
sections, in all about 12,000 tents. Their allied 
tribes, nine in number, have about 80,000 tents. 
Tho Anazeh Bedouin have nine sections, in all 
"i(X) tents, with four allie<l tribes possessing 
tents. The Amur, Aduan, Aluin, Beni 
.'^ikkhr, I^ehep, Sherarat, and Saleb are inde- 
I>. iident tribes of the upper desert and Hamad. 
( ixler the partial control of tho pashalik of 
I>a<^'hdad are six tribes, amongst them Montefik, 
•witii 8000 tents, partly Bedouin, partly Fellah, 
inhabiting Irak. 

The present Arabians, according to their own 
historians, are sprung from two stocks, — Kah- 
tan, whom they claim to bo the same with Joktan 
or Yoktan, the son of Eber; and Adnan, de- 
scended in a direct line from Ishmael, the son 
of Abraham and Hagar. The Arabs of the 
south are regarded as descendants of Kahtan, 
and those of the north, of Adnan, of the blood of 
Ishmael. YoktJin, according to Bunsen, was one 
of the two sons of Nimrud, and was the chief 
of the first Arabian emigration that proceeded 
southwards. Tradition, he says, points to the 
mountains of Armenia as the birthplace of the 
Arab and Canaanitish races. It is supposed that 
they travelled along the banks of the Tigris into 
Mesopotamia, from which a portion of them com- 
menced a great migration southwards, the result 
of which was the foundation of the primeval 
kingdoms of southern Arabia, the kingdoms of 
the Adites in Yemen, who believe that they came 
from the sacred north, and once lived in a 
glorious garden of the earth, which they were to 
restore. In southern Arabia, Yemen, Hadramaut, 
and Oman, the people are more or less Himyarite 
in blood, history, and civilisation. The people 
now occupying the peninsula are regarded by 
Captain Burton {Mecca, 41, 45) as of three dis- 
tinct races, viz. the aborigines of the country, 
who have been driven into the eastern and south- 
eastern wilds bordering upon the ocean ; second, 
a Syrian or Mesopotamian stock, typified by Shera 
and Joktan, that drove the indigense from the 
choicest tracts of country. These invaders still 
enjoy their conquests, representing the great 
Arabian people. And, thirdly, an impure Egypto- 
Arab race, well personified by Ishmael, his son 
Nebajoth, and Edom (Esau, the son of Isaac), that 
populated and still populates the Sinaitic penin- 
sula. The indigenes, he says, are sub-Caucasian 
tribes, which may still be met with in the pro- 
vince of Mahrah, and generally along the coast 
between Muscat and Hadramaut. The Mahrah, 
the Jenabah, and the Gara especially show a low 
development, for which hardship and privation 
only will not satisfactorily account. These are 
Arab-el-Arabah, for whose inferiority oriental 
fable accounts as usual by thaumaturgy. Dr. 
Carter, likewise, has remarked the similarity 
between the lowest type of Bedouin and the 
indigenes of India, as represented by the Bhil and 
other jungle races (Burton, iii. pp. 29-31). The 
jprincipal immigrant race, Burton says (iii. p. 31), 
irere the Noachians, a great Chaldsean or Mesopo- 
tlunian clan, which entered Arabia about B.C. 2200, 
drove before them the ancient inhabitants, and 
Miied the happier lands of the peninsula. This 

race would correspond with the Arab>el-Mat«- 
Arabah, or Arabicizcd Aral« of the eautem his- 
torians. The thinl family, an ancient and a 
noble stock, dating from B.C. 1900, and typified in 
history by Ishmael, still occupies the Sioaitic pen- 
insula. These Arabs, however, do not, and never 
did, extend beyond the limits of the mountains. 

As a race, the Arabs have well-marked charac- 
ters. The ideal of the ancient Arab was a fiery- 
souled, irresistible warrior, always in sight of 
his tribe, bold in speech, rapid with song and 
repartee, indulging m wine, feasting, gambling, 
and love of women, holding tears to be dis- 
graceful, with limbs as iron as his armour, sup- 
porting without suffering the beat of the desert 
under an Arabian sun, delighting in the beauty 
and swiftness of his steed or of his camel, impas- 
sioned for the chase, a match unarmed for the 
lion, indefatigable in combat, and routing like 
Antar whole armies with his single spear and 
shield. From the impulse and unity given by 
Mahomed, the world saw the Arabs issue from 
their naked deserts. At all times impetuous, their 
energies were then concentrated to enforce belief 
at the point of the sword ; and within twenty 
years they mastered Syria, Palestine, Egypt, 
and Persia, the conquest of Persia being merely 
a prelude to further extension in the east. Maho- 
med's death occurred at Medina on the 8th Juno 
682. Abu Bakr succeeded as the temporal and 
spiritual head, with the title of khalifah. The fall 
of Bosra opened the way to that of Damascus. 
The battle of Aiznadin, in 683, in which 50,000 
Christians are said to have fallen, decided the 
fate of the capital of Syria. In 634, Emessa and 
Balbec were taken, and Jerusalem capitulated 
to Omar. Aleppo fell 638, and the capture of 
Antioch completed the conquest of Syria. The 
battle of Kadesia and the fall of Madain made the 
Arabs masters of Persia to the banks of the Oxus, 
and Alexandria fell to the forces of Araru. But 
from this time intrigues and great dissensions 
occurred. Omar was assassinated ; his successor, 
Usman, during an insurrection, was slain in his 
palace, at the age of 82 and the 35th of his rule. 
Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Mahomed, tho 
fourth khalifah, had a troubled rule, which ended 
in his assassination in a mosque at Kufa at the age 
of 63 ; and his son Hasan was poisoned at Medina, 
at the instigation of Moawiyah. From a.d. 661 
the Ommiades ruled as khalifs, till a.d. 750, in 
which year all the descendants of the house of 
Moawiyah were massacred during an insurrection 
in favour of the great-grandson of Abbas, uncle 
of Mahomed, who fixed his court at Kufah, and 
then at Hashemiah, on the Euphrates. His suc- 
cessor, Mansur, built and occupied Baghdad, where 
the Abbassides reigned till overthrown by Ilulaku, 
grandson of Chengiz Khan, in the 13th century, 
after which event Arabia became a province. 
During the khalifat of Umar in A.n. 15 or 16, but 
without his knowledge, a military expedition set 
out from Oman (Uman) to pillage the coasts of 
India. It appears to have proceeded as far as 
Tana, near Bombay. Usman sent an expedi- 
tion against Baroach and against Debal, under his 
brother, who failed disastrously. Umar disliked 
and forbade naval expeditions, a prohibition which 
was only relaxed in the time oi Moawiyah. In 
A.H. 22, Abdullah, son of Amar, invaded Kerman, 
and took Kuwashir, the capital. Mahomed Kasim, 




by arms and policy, conquered the entire valley of 
the Indus. He handed his conquests to Temim, 
■who governed for 36 years till the downfall of 
the Ommiad khalifs, on which event the Arabs 
■were expelled by the Sumra race in a.d. 750, and 
all the Arab conquests in India ■were restored to 
the Hindus. Sind, from Bakkar to the sea, was 
ruled by the Sunara Eajputs till the end of the 
12th century. At an early date after the Hijira, 
they established a factory at Canton ; and their 
numbers -were so great by the middle of the 8th 
century, that in a.d. 758 they attacked and pil- 
laged, and fired the city, and fled to their ships. 
From periods dating back to many centuries before 
the Christian era, the Arab race ■were keen traders, 
and to the present day they continue to settle 
wherever commercial transactions can be made 
profitably. Throughout eastern Africa, they and 
tlieir descendants from mixed blood, occupy a pro- 
minent position, also in the western parts of British 
India, and numbers of them are spread throughout 
the Eastern Archipelago. They are prone to ex- 
citement, and particularly on matters of religion. 
Ever since the time of Mahomed, they have sent 
forth keen missionaries, and their proselytizing 
efforts have been, and continue to be, largely 
successful, and at present they are working in 
Africa. In their own country, the towns on 
the sea-coast have an admixture of other Asiatic 
and African races ; and as Arab Bedouin life is 
ever changeable, quarrels and wars have greatly 
modified the tribes, dispersed some, and amal- 
gamated others, so that to the present day the 
ilozeina and Suleim are said to have alone 
maintained their individuality from the time of 
Mahomed. How far soever they have spread, 
they continue to designate themselves with their 
tribal name as a cognomen, as, for instance, Amir- 
ud-Din, Koreshi ; or with the name of the district 
or country in which their forefathers had settled, 
as, for instance, Mir Kadar Ali, Kirmani. And the 
descendants of Mahomed are styled Mir, prince, 
or Syud, lord ; those of Ali by his other wives 
are Alavi Syuds ; the offspring of a Syudani with 
a husband of another tribe being honoured with 
the title of Sharif, or noble. The Walajahi family, 
who ruled in the Kamatic from the middle of the 
18th century, claim descent from Umar. 

The population of the Arabian peninsula, vaguely 
estimated at 12,000,000, consists of many inde- 
pendent tribes, chiefly engaged in pastoral pur- 
suits. In this respect it is in the same state now 
as in ancient times, when the Kushite and Jok- 
tanite occupied A. Felix, when the Ammonite and 
Ishmaelite dwelt in A. Deserta, and the Moabite, 
Edomite, Nabathoeau, Midianite, and Amalekite 
in A. Petrsea. None of the Arab cities are large. 
According to Captain Burton, the population of 
El Medinah is from 16,000 to 18,000. Mecca 
contains about 45,000 inhabitants, Yambu from 
6000 to 7000, Jeddah about 2500, and Taif 8000. 
!Many tribes exact blackmail from the villagers. 
It is the ' khuwat/ (brotherhood), the tribute 
claimed from time immemorial by the Bedpuins, 
in return for their protection, or rather forbear- 
ance, in not touching the harvest or driving off 
the cattle. Each village pays ' khuwat ' to one 
shaikh in every tribe, who then acknowledges 
it as his ukhta or 'sister,' and is bound to pro- 
tect the inhabitants against all the members of 
his own tribe. 

The maritime states are independent, but ac- 
knowledge the feudal supremacy of the Wahabi 
ruler whenever his power, or their dissensions, 
may place him in a position to exercise it. Their 
chiefs are expected to afford military aid in his 
expeditions. The territorial possessions of the 
maritime states are confined to the inhabited 
spots on the sea-coast, and may be said to be 
bounded by the walls of their towns and the date- 
groves in their vicinity. They are each of them 
closely related to nomade tribes in the interior, 
over which the chiefs of the former exercise a 
limited control. The maritime tribes are de- 
pendent for their subsistence on the pearl and 
common fisheries. They engage also extensively 
in the coasting trade of the Gulf, and in the 
carrying trade to India and Zanzibar. With the 
exception of Koweit and the Bay of Kaleef, 
sheltered by reefs, the maritime coast possesses 
no harbours, and forms a lee shore to the pre- 
vailing N.AV. winds. The character of the coast 
of Arabia from the mouths of the Euphrates to 
the range of mountains in Oman, and which joins 
the sea near Ras-ool Khyma, is low, sandy, and 
barren. Water is everywhere more or less brack- 
ish. The desert passes close up to the walls of the 
towns, and except the scanty date plantations, the 
produce of which is altogether inadequate to the 
supply of the inhabitants, precludes cultivation. 
The towns are built on the banks of deep creeks 
or backwaters, into which the larger boats can 
enter only when unladen. The average fall of 
rain does not probably exceed four to six inches 
in the year. The heat during summer is excessive. 

In 1799, the British thought of occupying 
Perim, and in 1802 they engaged in political 
and commercial alliances with the chiefs on the 
coast ; and, on the 19th January 1839, Aden was 
taken by the British, and has since been exten- 
sively fortified. The tribes around Aden are the 
Abdali, Foodeli, Akrabi, Oulaki, Hushahi, Yaffai, 
Subaihi Alawi, Amir, and D'bene. The Oulaki 
occupy about 55 miles of the coast from the borders 
of Hadramaut westwards, and about 200 miles 
inland. Since 1848, Mocha and all the east coast 
of the Red Sea has been under the Turkish 

Many of the Arabs, between the rise of Chris- 
tianity and the time of Mahomed, became Chris- 
tians. Niebuhr (v. ii. pp. 178, 179) supposed the 
tribe of Abu Salibah, near Damascus, to be 
Christians, because of their name, literally 
Children of the Cross. In the days of Mahomed, 
the people of Mecca upheld the worship of their 
idols from motives of gain, but Arabs in general 
had little respect for them, and treated them 
worse than Neapolitans have ever treated a re- 
fractory saint. If the prophecies of their kalim, 
seers or holy men, did not concur with their 
wishes, they often put them to death. When 
Amr-ul-Kais commenced an expedition to avenge 
the death of his father, he entered, according to 
custom, the temple of the idol Zu-ul-Khulusa, 
to obtain his approbation by means of the divining 
arrow. Drawing the wrong arrows three times 
in succession, he broke them all and threw them 
at the head of the idol, saying, ' Wretch ! if your 
father had been killed, you would not forbid 
revenge for his death ! ' There was also an idol- 
worship in which bloody sacrifices were offered. 

The Arab family, now, is largely Mahomedan, 




except tho Christian Arabs of Malta. But the 
Beduuiu havo the least religious seiiHibility of any 
known race ; at the present time they are Maho- 
medans merely in name, and never utter a prayer, 
or if they perform any religious rites at all, 
these may possibly be some lingering relic of the 
old Sabaean adoration of the rising sun. Captain 
Burton mentions that in most places, even in the 
heart of Mecca, ho met with debris of heathenry 
proscribed by Mahomed, yet still popular. Several 
sites in Palestine and Arabia are held sacred by 
Jews, Christians, and Mahomedans. In the north 
is Jenisalem, and Tour or Tor, the Sinai and Mount 
Horeb of all these sects. On the S.W. are Mecca 
and Medina; and to tho S.E. is Karbila, reverenced 
by Mahomedans of the Sunni or the Shiah sects. 
Karbila was taken iu 1802 by the Wahabi, and 
Medina fell in 1804. 

Differences in their modes of life constitute the 
great distinction between the different tribes. 
The genuine Bedouin disdains husbandry, as an 
employment by which they would be degraded. 
They maintain no domestic animals but sheep 
and camels, except perhaps horses and asses. Those 
tribes which are of a pure Arab race, live on the 
flesh of their buffaloes, cows, and horses, and on 
the produce of some little ploughing. An ordinary 
Bedouin family has a tent, a few camels, goats, 
and poultry, a mare and her saddle and bridle, a 
lance 16 feet long, a matchlock or musket, a band 
mill, a cooking-pot, pipe, and leather bucket. 

Burton tells us that sharifs and other great 
men sometimes bind a white turban or a Kashmir 
shawl round the kerchief, to keep it in its place. 
The Aakal varies in every part of the country. 
Here it is a twist of dyed wool, there a bit of 
common rope, 8 or 4 feet long; some of the 
Arab tribes use a circlet of wood, composed of 
little round pieces the size of a shilling, joined 
side by side, and inlaid with mother-of-pearl ; the 
eastern Arabs wear a large circle of brown wool, 
almost a turban in itself ; in Barbary, they twist 
bright-coloured cloth round a rope, and adorn 
it with thick golden thread. The dress of the 
women is a wide cotton gown of a dark colour, 
blue, brown or black, fastened by a leathern girdle. 
Over their heads they wear a kerchief called 
shauber or mekroune, the young women having 
it of a red colour, the old, black. All the women 
puncture their lips and dye them blue ; this kind 
of tattooing they call bestoum. Round their wrists 
they wear glass bracelets of various colours, and 
silver rings both in the ears and nose. Both in 
Bunimer and winter they go barefooted. The 
females of Oman are tall and well made, with a 
roundness and fulness of figure, not, however, 
approaching to corpulency. Their complexion is 
not darker than that of a Spanish brunette, and 
in the towns they preserve their complexions with 
care. Mahomedan ladies in Oman enjoy more 
liberty, and at the same time are more respected, 
than in any other eastern country. During civil 
commotions, they often take a part in public affairs, 
and in some instances have displayed the utmost 
heroism. In Arabia, slavery of the Negro race is 
common, and concubinage of the master with 
" i slave women universal. They are all fond of 
aODgs and stories, and this has been a trait of their 
dbaracter from pre-Mahomedan times. A copy 
of the Kabir-ul-Aghani, a book of songs compiled 
in the lOlh century by Abul Faraj Ali of Isfahan, 

for which he got 3000 dinar (about £1600), has 
been since sold in Baghdad for 4000 drachma* uf 
silver. As historiaiu and physidana, they went 
pre-eminent for several hundroil years. Amoogat 
other famous names, mention may bo made of the 
Abbassi, Abul Farag. Ibn Zohar, Aricenna, Al 
Biruni, Baizawi, Mir Khond, Khondamir, Mawidi 
Ibn Haukul, and many others, and wherercr 
spread they continue eminently literary. 

The Arabic language, as written in the Koran, 
is the most develop^l and richest of the Sem- 
itic tongues. It is not now spoken in any part 
of Arabia, as there written. Probably it never 
was so, any more than the Latin, the English, 
the German, or Italian have ever been spoken 
as written in their respective bounds ; and Bur- 
ton quotes Clodius, in his Arabic Grammar, 
as saying that the dialectus Arabum vulgaris 
tantum differt ab erudite, quantum Socrates 
dictio ab hodiemil linguil Grajca. Arabs divide 
their spoken and even written language into 
two orders, the Kalam Wati, or vulgar tongue, 
sometimes employed in epistolary correspondence, 
and the Nahwi, a grammatical and classical 
language. Every man of education uses the 
former, and can use the latter. Palgrave tells 
us that the Arabic language of the Koran, the 
Ishmaelitic Arabic, is current in Jabl Shomer, 
and throughout Upper and Central Nejd, Naseem, 
Hoshem, Sedeyr, and the northern half of Aared, 
and at Riad. Southwards of these limita, the 
Kahtanic Arabic begins to prevail, till in Oman 
it wholly supplants the other. As now spoken by 
the middle and higher classes in Egypt, it is 
generally inferior in point of grammatical correct- 
ness and pronunciation to the dialects of the 
Badawi of Arabia; but the dialect of Egypt is 
much to be preferred to that of Syria, and still 
more to the dialects of the Maghrabi or western 
Arabs. In Persia and India the Koran is almost 
the sole Arabic work studied by the learned, and 
with them it is nowhere spoken. The differences 
in the dialects of Arabia are well illustrated by 
the presence in the language of many synonyms, 
one being in common use in one comitry, and 
another elsewhere. After the first great success 
of the Arab arms, up to the founding of tho 
Baghdad empire, the various dialects became 
fused into the language of Hejaz, and the old 
dialect confined to literary compositions. The 
most flourishing age of Arabic poetry and general 
literature and science, commenced with the Bagh- 
dad empire, and extended to the conquest of Egypt 
by the Othman Turks. But even in the present 
declining age of Arabian learning, literary recrea- 
tions still exert a magic influence on the Arabs. 
Modem Arabic is written in the same dialect 
in Egypt, in Syria, in Baghdad, in Constanti- 
nople, at Algiers, and at Zanzibar, whether it be 
a mercantile letter, a state proclamation, an ad- 
vertisement, or a letter in a newspai>er, and it is 
understood by everybody. The learned men who 
write novels or other books of belles-lettres may 
be aiming to bring back a classical style, but their 
dialect is less trustworthy, as actually modern. 
Poetry also may be ever so antique, just as in 
the decline of Greece the learned wrote poetry 
in Homeric dialect. Similarly to Italy, which has 
local dialects strongly distinguished, though the 
language of literature is but one, so is it with 
Arabic. The local dialects of Algiers, of Cairo, 




of Aleppo, of Baghdad, have marked diversities, 
as those of Sicily and Milan ; but Mecca seems to 
set the law in Arabic literature, as Florence in 
Italian. According to Wilkinson, the earliest 
inscription hitherto discovered in the present 
Arabic letters, occurs at the gold mines of Jabl 
Ilaqa, in the Ababdali desert. 

Of all the Semitic languages, the Arabic is the 
only one that has retained its original abode in 
Arabia proper, and it has also spread itself on all 
sides into the districts of other tongues. The 
others have become extinct, or exist in a modified 
form. The living dialects of the Himyaritic, for 
instance, are the Gara or Ekhili and the Mahrah. 
At present, the Arabic alphabet is in use 
amongst the Turks, Persians, Malays, and with 
some of the peoples of India and Africa, but 
differing in several particulars from one another, 
and they have also different modes of writing 
for different forms of business, each of which 
has its particular name. The writing characters 
anciently in use in these regions are known from 
the sculptures which remain. Neither the Arabic 
nor the Persian letters are sufficiently numerous 
to compose the pronunciations of many foreign 
tongues, and they are ill suited to record proper 
names, as in geography. Much of the value of 
Abul Fazl's records is lost from this cause. — 
Niebuhr, De Bode, Mignan, Palgrave, and Well- 
sted's Travels; Forster's Arabia, 184Si ; LowtK's 
Wanderer, 185k>] Tremenheers's Tribes, 1S7 2; Lady 
Anne Blunt'' s Bedouin Tribes; Burton's Pilgrim- 
age ; Lane's Egyptians ; Sharpens Egypt ; Gibbon's 
Roman Empire ; Elliot's India as told by its own 
Historians; Skinner's Overland Journey; Aitche- 
son's Treaties ; Pelly ; Rawlinson ; Joseph Cata- 
fago ; Logan in Jo. Ind. Art, ; Sale's Koran, Prel. 
Dis. ; Major Upton. 

a book known in Europe by this name, is the 
Arabic work Alif Laila, or One Thousand and 
One Nights, which again was a translation into 
Arabic, with modifications, of the Sanskrit book 
Vrihat Katha. Lane supposes that the original 
was a Persian work, the Hazar Afsanah, meaning 
The Thousand Tales ; also that the word Afsanah 
was rendered in Arabic Khuafi, the name of an 
Arab of the Odhrah tribe, whose name came sub- 
sequently to be applied to any incredible tale. 

ARABII of Arrian are the Arabitse of Curtius, 
the Arbiti of Ptolemy, the Ambritse of Diodorus, 
and the Arbies of Strabo. They dwelt to the 
west of the lower Indus, and are said to have 
been named from the river Arabis, Arbis, Arabius, 
or Armabel, the modern Purali river, which flowed 
along their confines, and divided their territory 
from that of the Oritse. — Elliot; Cunningham, 
India, pp. 804, 305. 

ARABI MUTCHI. Duk. Mullet fish. 
ARABSHAH, author of a life of Timur. He 
lived at Samarcand in A. D, 1422. 

ARAB-ul-MOSTARABA, or mixed Arabs, the 
lineal descendants of Ismael, occupied the Hejaz, 
and amongst their descendants was the tribe of 
Koresh. The nomades are styled Arab ; Arab 
being the town residents. 

ARACA. Maleal. Betel-nut. 
ARACEiE, about 100 species of the Arum 
tribe occur in S.E. Asia, in the genera arissema, 
amorphophallus ; colocasia, homalonema ; scin- 
dapsus, pothos, acorus, pistia, calla, and arum 

ARACHIS HYPOGEA. Linn. Earth-nut. 

A. Africana, Lour. 


Atke'kule, . 
Manilla Gram, 
Ground-nut, Earth-nut, , 
Manilla-nut, Pea-nut, , 



A. Asiatica, Lour. 

Valaiati-mung, . DUK, 
Bui Sing, Bui-Mung, >H, 
Mung-phalli, . . ,, 
Buchanaka, . 
Ver Kadale, . 
Veru Sanaga, 

. Tam. 
. Tel. 

This species of the Leguminosae, indigenous to 
South America, is extensively cultivated in the 
East Indies for the sake of the oil yielded by its 
seeds, and for the fruit. With the exception 
of the cocoa-palm, it is, of all the oil-yielding 
plants, the most extensively cultivated in the 
Malay Archipelago. Two varieties are grown in 
Malacca, also in Java, one with white, the other 
with brown seeds. It is sown in September and 
gathered in February. The young fruit, instead 
of being placed at the bottom of the calyx, as in 
other kinds of pulse, grows at the top and in 
the inside of a long slender tube, which looks 
like a flower-stalk. AV^hen the flower has withered, 
and the young fruit is fertilized, nothing but the 
bottom of this tube with its contents remains. 
At this period a small point projects from 
the summit of the young fruit, and gradually 
elongates, curving downwards towards the earth. 
At the same time the stalk of the fruit lengthens, 
until the point strikes the earth, into which the 
now half-grown fruit is speedUy forced, and 
where it finally ripens in what would seem a 
most unnatural position. W^hen mature, it is a 
pale-yellow wrinkled oblong pod, often contracted 
in the middle, and containing two or three seeds 
the size of a hazel-nut. The fruit is generally 
toasted before it is eaten, is extremely palatable, 
and is sold in the streets and bazars of every town 
in India, In flavour the nuts are as sweet as an 
almond. Its clear, pale yellow oil is most valuable 
in commerce ; in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, 
it is used for pharmaceutical purposes, and for 
lamps and machinery. The kernels in London are 
sold at about £16 the ton ; they yield 44 per 
cent, of oil, which has been sold there at about £42 
the ton. This useful oil is good for every purpose 
for which olive or almond oil is used. — Roxb.; 
Riddell; Voigt; Hogg,Veg. King.; Cratcfurd, Die; 
O'Sh. ; Simmonds' Veg. Prod. ; Birdwood's Bom' 
bay Prod.; Ainslie; M. E. Reports Cat. Ex. 
1862 ; Mason's Tenasserim. 

ARACHOSIA of classical writers is the Arok- 
haj and Rokhaj of the Arab geographers. The 
latter form is also found in Arrian's ' Periplus 
of the Erythraean Sea.' In Hindu mythology, 
it is the country of the Rachos, with whom 
the immigrant Aryans came in conflict, and 
have been turned to the fearful Rakshasa of 
popular Hindu belief. General Cunningham 
seems to regard Arachosia as Ghazni. According 
to General Ferrier, Arachosia can be distinctly 
shown, by the Greek measurements, to have been 
at the ruins of Shahr-Zohauk or Olan Robat, 
between Kilat-i-Ghilji and Mokoor. According 
to Ch, Bunsen, to the south of Kabal is Hara- 
quaiti, denominated the fortunate, the Harau- 
watis of the cuneiform inscriptions, the Arachosia 
of the classics. It was the tenth people whom the 
Aryans conquered. It was here that the Aryans 
commenced to inter their dead, which the Zend- 
avesta strictly prohibits, as being the greatest 




•ration of tho sacrod earth. — Bunsen, iii. p. 
IMf) ; FirrU'i's Journ. p. 323. 
IJAI). Guj. PhaseoluB mungo. 
IvADHYA, a class of brahmans who pro- 
iho Janj,'ftm croe<l, but adhere to their caste 

ii \v8. In other sects of Hindus, tlie brahman 
uniformly takes precedence of other castes. But 
Mnong tho Vira Saiva or Jangam sect, he is de- 
Sfrade<l beneath all othei-s. Hence there is a per- 
petual feud between the Aradhya brahman and 
ohe Jangam, who (unless at funerals, where all are 
bound to assist) treat these braliraans with con- 
bempt. — Brown on the Jmigams, p. 8; Wilson''s 
Glossrm/. See Jangam ; Basava. 

ARADOONDA. Tel. Capparis horrida. 

AliAKAT, anciently called Jabal Hal, the 
fdount of AVrestling in Pmyer, and now Jubal- 
ur-Rahmat, the 'Mount of Mercy,' is a low 
|)ointed hillock of coarse granite, split into large 
>IockB, with a thin coat ot withered thorns, 
^ut one mile in circumference, and rising 
ibruptly from tho low gravelly plain — a dwarf 
.Tall at the southern base forming the line of 
lemarcation— to the height of 180 or 200 feet, 
t is about a six hours' march or 12 miles on the 
faif road, due east of Mecca. Near the summit 

a whitewashed mosque with a minaret, looking 
ike a small obelisk ; below this is the whitened 
'latform, from which the preacher, mounted on a 
Iromedary, delivers the sermon, to be present at 
vhich is an essential part of the Mahomedan 
>ilgrimage to Uecca,.— Hamilton's Senai, p. 131 ; 
lurtnyi's Mecca, iii. p. 252, 257. 

ARAFURA. See Alfoeren. 

ARAHAR. Beng. Pigeon pea; Cajanuslndicus. 

ARAK. Vern. Arrack, any alcoholic spirit. 
U-ak i Bed i Mushk, distilled water of willow 
ower. Arak-i-Gowgird, sulphuric acid. 

ARAK. Panj. Hordeum hexastychum. Arak- 
lUshpi, Pentatrophis sporalig. 

ARAK. According to Leon de la Borde and 
orskal, two trees are known in Arabia by this 
ame, — one, in the interior of Oman, the Sal- 
adora Persica; the other, shorter and smaller, 
5 the Avicennia nitida. — Delille, Voyaae en 
irabie de Leon la Borde; WeUsted's Travels, i. 
. 416. 

ARA-KADU. Tam. Literally, the jungle on 
lie river ; the modern Arcot. 

ARAKAN was ceded to the British by the 
reaty of Yandaboo, dated 24th February 1826. 
ts districts are now Akyab, An, Ramri, and 
landoway. It is called by the natives Ra-khoing- 
yee or Ra-khoing country. There are three 
rincipal rivers, the Mayn, the Koladyn, and the Le 
[yo. The inhabitants of Arakan proper are the 
luddhist Burmese, known there as lU-kboing-tha, 
he Kola mahomedans from Bengal, and the Dom, 
Iso from Bengal, in the plains ; and in the hills, the 
[hyoung-tha, the Ku-me or Kwe-me, the Doing- 
ink, and the Mroong. Its chief ports are Chitta- 
png and Akyab, and rice is its great export. The 
irovince is a narrow belt of land, hemmed in 
•etween the sea and the Aeng or Youmadong 
ange of mountains, which runs very near the 
oaat. It is traversed from north to south by the 
l«adyn, a large river navigable for a consider- 
W© distance into the interior ; and lias numerous 
fflftll rivers, all of which have tidal channels, and 
onn a sort of delta along the coast, which is 
kirted by many islands. From the proximity of 

tho mountains to tho coast, and their coDBiderable 
elevation, the rainfall iii verjr great, aniounting to 

160 and 180 inches aiumally. 

The Arakanese and Bunuoae are of the ttme 
race, and have the common national name of 
Myara-ma, which is changed to Burma in Euro- 
pean tongues. It is, however, n comparatively 
modem appellation for the several trince which 
conjointly form the nation. The differenoe be- 
tween the dialect* spoken by the Burmese and 
Arakanese is mainly in pronunciation, the written 
languages of both countries being for the raoBt 
part alike. Some tribes reside on the banks of 
the mountain streams, and are distinguished by 
the name of Khyoung-tha. Their langxiage proves 
that they do not belong to the Yuma group, but 
are intruders from the north ; and their own 
traditions recognise the Ku-mi as the tribe in 
possession of the seaboard when they entcre<l 
Arakan. Mug is a term which the Mahomedans 
gave to the Arakanese, but that people restrict 
it to the descendants of Arakanese by Bengali 
mothers. The Mug form six-tenths of the native 
population of Arakan. 

The Arakan hill tracts, lying between long, 92° 
44' and 93° 52' E., and lat. 20° 44' and 22° 29' 
N., commence about 100 miles from Akyab, and 
terminate on the northern confines of British 
India, in a country occupied by independent wild 
tribes. The hill tracts of Arakan have an area of 
6000 square miles, are separated from Cachar on 
the N. by the territories of independent tribes, 
chiefly the Looshai and Shandoo ; on the E., be- 
tween Arakan and Upper Burma, lie the countries 
of the Shandoo and the Chin ; on the S. is the 
Akyab district, and on the W. is Chittagong and 
hill tracts. The hill tracts of Northern Arakan in 
1878-79 had a population of 18,329 :— 

Khyoung-tha, or 

Choungtha, . . . 1,580 
Khami, .... 10,800 

Khoon, 100 

Mro, 3,722 

Chin 1,559 

Anoo 43 

Chaw, 219 

Shandoo 50 

Arakanese 119 

Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Mahomedans, Hindus, 
Burmese, Manipurian, and Siamese or Shans, make 
up the remaining 130. 

The trans-frontier independent tribes are the 
Looshai, Shandoo or Pool, the Khyn and Khong- 
shoo. Kami number about 22 clans. Ka-mi means 
' man.' The Chin are much scattered through 
Burma and Arakan. They tattoo the faces of 
their wives at puberty. They have muskets, also 
bows and arrows. They make koung or rice- 
beer. The Mro tattoo. The Kami, Shandoo, 
and Upper Pin Mro do not tattoo. The Ku clan 
of the Chin, as their sole apparel, have a girdle of 
rattan cane, dyed red, coiled round and round 
their waists. 

The Choung-tha (choung, a river, and tha, a son) 
or Ra-kaing are of the Myamma (Burmese) stock, 
and have seven clans, all situated on the Koladyn. 
They tattoo. 

The Chaw are a small tribe, who are supposed 
to be descendants of Hindus taken in war. 

The Koon bury their dead; their language 
resembles tliat of the Ka-mi. 

They all practise the jhoom or kumari cultiva- 
tion. They grow tobacco largely. They all have 
slaves, captives and debtors ; and the graves in 
their burial-places, especially of the Chin, are 
marked by a stone slab lying across 4 or 6 hewn 




pillars. The widows are re-married to the brother 
of their deceased husband. 

The Shandoo or Pooi are a powerful tribe. 
They have eleven septs, — the Boukyee, Bwa, 
Hakka, Lallian, Moungdoo, Rumpee, Saypee, 
Sayboung, Tanglaug, Toungsat, and Yaillain. 
They dwell in villages of 80 to 700 houses. They 
were all till lately inveterate raiders, plundering 
and enslaving. They swear friendship in sacri- 
ficing a bullock or other animal. The Shandoo 
are known to the Burmese and the Yaw of Upper 
Burma by the name of Myouk-Chin, also as 
Boungshay, but usually as the Aying or barbarian. 
The powerful tribes claim 'ata,' or protection 
tribute, from the weaker bodies, and they enforce 
it by raiding. — Hughes'' Hill Tracts ; Lubbock, 
Origin of Civilisation ; As. Sac. Journ. ; Treaties. 

ARA KOORA. Tel. Marsilea quadrifolia. 

ARAL, an extensive inland sea in the Aralo- 
Caspian depression, from lat. 43° 35' to 46° 45' N., 
and long. 58° 22' to 61° 46' E. Its length from 
N.E. to S.W. 265 miles, its breadth in the centre 
165 miles, and its area 17,600 geographical miles. 
It is 117 feet above the Caspian, and 33 feet 
above the ocean. The Amu Darya and Syr 
Darya, the Oxus and the Jaxartes of the Greeks, 
empty themselves into this sea. It is called by 
the Kirghiz tribes Aral Tenghiz, Sea of Islands. 
The water contains 1"3 per cent, of salt, but is 
drinkable. It has many islands and reefs of 
rocks. Its depth varies up to 37 fathoms ; rain 
rarely falls. Its surface is supposed to be lower- 
ing. The Greeks, writing of the Jaxartes and 
Oxus, asserted that both these rivers disembogued 
into the Caspian. From this an opinion has been 
entertained that in ancient times the Sea of Aral 
formed a part of the Caspian. — Collet, C. /., Khiva. 

ARALA. Saksk. Ailanthus excelsa. 

ARALI. Maleal. AUamanda cathartica, L. 
In Tam., Nerium odorum, Ait. 

Dunuk, Chananri, Chenab. | Bana-klior, Churial, Panj. 

A rank plant growing to 6 or 8 feet high ; is 
abundant in some places in the Jhelum and 
Chenab basins, at 5200 to 9000 feet. It is said 
to be eaten by goats. — /. L. Stewart, M.D. 

ARALIACEJE, the ivy family, a natural order 
of plants, generally trees or shrubs. The genera 
panax, dimorphanthus, aralia, and hedera occur 
in the East Indies. The natives of Sikkim col- 
lect the leaves of many Aralias as fodder for 
cattle, for which purpose they are of the great- 
est service in a country where grass for pas- 
ture is so scarce ; this is the more remarkable, 
since they belong to the natural family of ivy, 
which is usually poisonous. The use of this food, 
however, gives a peculiar taste to the butter. In 
other parts of Sikkim, fig leaves are used for the 
same purpose, and branches of bird-cherry, a 
plant also of a poisonous family, abounding in 
prussic acid. Aralia cordata, Thunb., a plant of. 
China; its young shoots provide an excellent 
culinary vegetable. — Von Mueller; Hooker, Jour. 
i. p. 359 ; Hogg's Vegetable Kingdom, 390. 

ARALIA EbULlS. Hooker'/. Smith. 
Dimorphanthus edulis. | Tang-kwei, . . . Chin. 

Grows in the Chinese provinces of Kan-suh and 
Shan-si. Its root is used in hemorrhages, flaxes, 
dyspepsia, menstrual and puerperal disestees. 
Chinese women believe that it makes them turn 
to their husbands. The young shoots and roots 

are eaten in China and Japan. It greatly re- 
sembles celery. — Smith. 

ARALIA PALMATA, Smith, the Wu-kia-p'i of 
the Chinese, grows in Shen-si, Hu-peh, and in the 
valley of the Yaug-tsze. Its root is made into a 
tincture, and prescribed in rheumatism and tertiary 
ailments. — Smith. 

ARALIA PAPYRIFERA. Hooker. Rice paper. 
T'ung-ts'au, . . Chin. | T'ung-toh-muh, . Chin. 

This plant grows in King-chau-fu in Hu-peh, 
and is cultivated in Formosa. The ordinary size 
of its pith is about that of a man's thumb, but 
larger sizes are obtainable. It furnishes the rice 
paper of commerce, which is so largely consumed 
in the provinces of Canton and Foh-kien, that 
it is estimated 30,000 dollars' worth of it arc 
annually made use of in Fu-chu-fu alone, where 
every lady wears artificial flowers made out of 
it. One hundred sheets, each about three inches 
square, can be bought for three half -pence. The 
pith is sometimes 1^^ inch in diameter. It is not 
grown from seed, but from young shoots ; when 
these appear above ground early in spring, and 
are a few inches high, they are carefully separated 
from the parent roots and transplanted into pots, 
in which they remain until about a foot high, 
when they are removed to land prepared for 
them. They are said to attain their full growth 
of 10 or 12 feet at their tenth month ; they are 
cut down, the twigs and leaves removed, and the 
stems left to soak for some days in water, to 
loosen the bark and wood, and facilitate the 
removal of the pith. This last, after being cleaned 
and made into a cylindrical shape, is cut into 
convenient lengths, and is now ready for the hand 
of the paper-cutter, who, with a sharp broad- 
bladed knife, makes a slight longitudinal incisior 
in the cylinder of pith, which is then turned rounc 
gently and regularly on the edge of the knife, 
until the whole available material is planed off ir 
thin even slices. Much care and dexterity arc 
requisite to produce sheets of even thickness.— 
Bennett, pp. 299-304 ; Hooker ; Smith. 

ARALIE. Maleal. A tree about forty feei 
in height, and two feet in diameter; used in 
Malabar for planks in vessels. — Edye. Mai. Can. 

ARALU. Sing. Terminalia chebula. 

ARAM, the highland south-west of Armenia 
(Arminn) ; the country between the sources of 
the Euphrates and Tigris, and Mesopotamia 
proper, is Aram Nahrain. "The Aramaeans were 
a Semitic race of highlanders who first settled 
on the upper part of the Euphrates and Tigris 
districts, and then passed through Mesopotamia 
proper (Aram of the two rivers). The name of 
Uz, in Nejd, proves that its offsets extended as 
far as North Arabia. The Aramaic tribes, ac- 
cording to Chevalier Bunsen, are the historical 
nations of Syria, Aram, Mesopotamia, and Babyr 
Ionia, speaking Syrian in the west, and the 
so-called Chaldaic in the east. In the gradual 
diffusion of mankind, the western provinces 
of Iran seem to have fallen to the share of the 
Aramaeans and Elamites ; and the Semitic people 
and language displaced the Kushite. From theu 
primitive language two distinct branches sprang, 
the original Arabic, with the Musnud, Koreish. 
and other dialects of that tongue, being one, and 
the Aramaic the other. The latter had twCj 
grand subdivisions, from one of which, knowDj 
as the Western Aramaic, were derived the Am- 




haric, Syriac, Hebrew, etc.; and from tlio other, 

or Kastcrn Aramaic, came the Syrian, liabylonian, 

aiul Ciiiiltiean tongues. From its monosyllabic 

coiifitruction, the eastern seems to be more 

— iont than the western Aramaic ; and it appears 

wIbo to bo the root of the Zend, Pehlevi, 

I ..i.skrit, and other dialects in use throughout 

a jiorlioii of the territory along which it had 

«i>r,.,ul eastwards. The greater part of what was 

'1 Mesopotamia in later times, constituted 

icrritory of ancient Babel, and was the Aram- 

lain. The same territory, in Gen. xxviii. 2, 

. is called Padan-Aram, or champagne Syria, 

; of which designations agreed with the de- 

; tion of the country given by Strabo. — Colonel 

iiey's Euphrates and Tigris, p. 118 ; Bunsen, 

lid iv. p. 353. 

AliAMANDA. Tel. Eugenia bracteata, /Joxft. 

\KAMKA, in K^ttywar, held by the Badhail 

. who, along with the Wagher race of Dwarica, 

long the terror of the neighbouring seas. 

AKAM SHAH, son of Kutub-ud-Din, Aibek, in 

121 1) succeeded to his father on the throne of 

Delili, but was deposed by Altamsh, his father's 


ARANDI. Sansk. Ricinus communis; castor oil. 

AUANEA, sp., the Arasuk or Bir-bahuti insect. 

See Bir-bahuti ; Insects. 

ARANELLI. Tam. Cicca disticha. 

A HANG, a small town on the banks of the 

Mahunadi, in the Central Provinces ; formerly 

one of the seats of the Hai-Hai liajput dynasty. 

ARANG. Malay. Charcoal. Arang para, 
lamp-black. Arang tanab, coal. 

ARANGO. Guj. Large rough camelian beads, 
)f various sizes and shapes, made in Cambay, 
find formerly extensively used in the African slave 
trade. — Faulkner. 

ARAN-KOWAL. Hind. The lotus of the 
itesert, from aranya, a waste, and comala (pro- 
lounced kowal), a lotus. 

ARANYA. Sansk. A forest, a wood. Aranya- 
hashthi, a Hindu festival on the 6th (shashti) of 
feyesth (May — June), observed by Hindu women 
n the hope of obtaining handsome children. Part 
f the ceremonial is walking in a wood. Shashthi 
H also the name of a Hindu goddess. 

ARANYAKA. Sansk. Ti-eatises relating to 
Hinduism, to be read in a forest. Part of one is 
ud to have been written by Asvalanyaka, another 
lart by Sayana. They are religious and philoso- 
hical writings, which expound the mystical sense 
i the ceremonies, discuss the nature of God, etc. 
hey are attached to the Brahmanas. Their names 
re the Brihad, which is attached to the Satapatha 
rahmana ; the Taittiriya ; the Aitareya, a part of 
je Aitareya Brahmana ; and the Kanshitaki. 
liere are passages in these books unequalled in 
ly language for grandeur, boldness, and sim- 
lldty. — Garrett ; Dowsoti. 
ARARAT, a volcanic mountain, in lat. 39° 42' N., 
43° 38' E. It consists of two peaks, — Great 
t, 17,323 feet, on the north-west; Less 
,t, 13,093 feet, on the south-east. An erup- 
occurred on the 2d July 1840. It is called by 
Persians, Mountain of Noah ; Aghridagh, by 
•Turks ; by the Arabs, Jabl-ul- Judi ; and by the 
lenians, Massinssar, or Mountain of the Ark. 
all unite in revering it as the haven of the 
it ship which preserved the father of mankind 
m the waters of the deluge. Some planks of 

the ark arc fabled to have remained on this Lill 
at the date of the aooeaiion of the Abbaiid 
khalifs, A.D. 74^.— Porter's TraveU, i. 188 ; Gen, 
Monldth's Report ; MarQregor. 

ARAS, a mwlem name of the ancient AraxMi, 
the Awerma of the Puranns, now calle<i Kum 
Keroz. It laves the foot of the rock Istakbr. 
The Araxes, at it« commencement, owing to its 
many affluents, bears the Persian appellation 
of Hazara; it springs from the side of the Bin 
Gol, or mountain of thousand lakes, alx)ut 80 
miles south of Erzerum, and nearly in the centre 
of the space between the eastern and western 
branches of the Euphrates. Its course, from its 
first spring near Jabal Seihan, is almost north-east 
for about 145 miles through Armenia, when it 
turns eastward, being then near the frontier of 
Kars; this proximity continues for 110 miles. 
The sources of the Aras and those of the north 
branch of the Euphrates are about 10 miles from 
one another. In modern times, the north- 
eastern districts, along the banks of the Araxes, 
intervening between Aderbijan and Grcorgia, have 
been in general subject to the sovereigns of Persia. 
— MalcoMs History of Persia, ii. p. 212 ; Jour. 
Royal Geo. Society, vi. part il p. 200. 

ARASA. Beng. Solanum verbascifolium. 

ARASA. Karn. Arasan, Tam. A king, a ruler ; 
a variation from raja. 

ARASA-MARAM. Tam. Ficus religioea. 
Arasa-Nar, a fibre obtained from that tree. 

ARASHTRA, Sansk., or the kingless, the re- 
publican defenders of Sangala or Sakala. They 
are the Adraistse of Arrian, who places them on 
the Ravi. They were known by the several tribal 
names of Bahika, Jartikka, and Takka, from which 
last is the name of their old capital of Taxila or 
Takka-sila, as known to the Greeks. The people 
still exist in the Panjab hills; and their alpha- 
betical characters, under the name of Takri or 
Takni, are now used by all the Hindus of Kash- 
mir and the northern mountains, from Simla and 
Sabathu to Kabal and Bamian. — Elliot. See 
Chandragupta ; Takka. 

ARASINA-GURGI. Can. Garcinia pictoria. 

ARATI. Sansk. An enemy. The Arati cere- 
mony amongst Hindus is practised on the birth of a 
chUd, to avert the evil eye. See Curcuma longa. 

ARATNI. Tam. An ell ; the short ell measure. 

Bunya-bunya of the natives of Australia, grows 
about Sydney and on the mountain ranges between 
Burnett and Brisbane rivers. It attains a height 
of 250 feet, with a circumference of 25 feet. Its 
cones are 9 to 12 inches long, and 5 to 9 inches in 
diameter ; and as these form an important article 
of food at certain seasons to large tribes of abori- 
gines, the trees are preserved. Each tribe has its 
own group of trees. Araucari Cookii, R. Br., of 
New Caledonia, rises 200 feet; A. Rulei, F. v. 
Mueller, is a large tree : and A. Cunninghamii, the 
Australian or Moreton Bay pine, forms vast foresta 
along the shores of Moreton Bay, in lat. 14° to 
29° S., and on the alluvial bank of the Brisbane 
river, lat. 27° to 30° S. It attains from 100 to 130 
feet in height, with a circumference of upwards of 
14 feet, having a clear stem to 80 feet, with a 
circumference of 25 feet. — Jaffrey ; Von Mueller ; 
G. Bennett, pp. 325, 826. 

Doinbeya excelsa, Lamb. \ Colymbea ezcelsa, Sjir. 




The Norfolk Island pine grows also in New 
Holland, New Caledonia, Botany Island, and Isle 
of Pines. It is a majestic tree, attaining to 
heights of from 60 to 228 feet, with a circum- 
ference of So feet. Its wood is useful for carpen- 
ters' indoor work, but is too heavy for naval 
purposes, as spars. Admiral Keppell says that its 
timber soon rots when exposed to the weather, 
and the auger worm makes fearful ravages in the 
fences made of it. It is generally used for building 
purposes, flooring, partitions, etc. ; and when kept 
dry, and not exposed to the weather, it is more 
durable. — KeppeWs Voyage of the Meander, p. 82 ; 
KeppelVs Ind. Arch. ii. p. 282 ; Von Mueller. 

ARAVA, the Dravida people, commonly called 
Tamil, who speak the Arava or Tamil language. 

ARAVALLI, a chain of bills connected by 
lower ranges with the western extremity of the 
Vindhya mountains on the borders of Gujerat, 
and stretching from S.W. to N.E. up to a con- 
siderable distance beyond Ajmir, in the direction 
of Dehli, between lat. 25° and 26^° N., and long. 
73° 20' and 76° E. The range forms the watershed 
of the Indus and Ganges valleys. Its highest peak 
is Mount Abu, about 5650 feet. It divides Raj- 
putana into two nearly equal parts, forming the 
division between the desert on the west and 
the central table-land. It would be more cor- 
rect to say the level of the desert, for the S.E. 
portion, including Jodhpur, is a fertile country. 
Except this tract, all between the Aravalli moun- 
tains and the Indus, from the Sutlej or Hysudrus 
on the north to near the sea on the south, is a 
waste of sand, in which are oases of different size 
and fertility, the greatest of which is around 
Jessalmir. The narrow tract of Cutch intervenes 
between the desert and the sea, and makes a sort 
of bridge from Guzerat to Sind. Central India 
is a table-land of uneven surface, from 1500 to 
2500 feet above the sea, bounded by the Aravalli 
mountains on the west, and those of the Vindhya 
on the south, supported on the east by a lower 
range in Bundelkand, and sloping gradually on 
the N.E. into the basin of the Ganges. It is 
a diversified but fertile tract. The patar, or 
plateau, of Central India, is distinct from the 
Vindhya to the south and the Aravalli to the west, 
and its underlying rock is trap. Aravalli means 
the hill of strength ; and these hills have afforded 
protection to the most ancient sovereign race in 
the east or west, — the ancient stock of the Surya- 
vansa, the Heliadse of India, or children of the 
sun, the princes of Mewar, who, when pressed, 
retired to its fastnesses, only to issue again when 
occasion offered. The people who occupy the 
Aravalli are the Meena mountaineers, a preda- 
tory race. The hills are rich in mineral products, 
and enabled the Mewar family long to struggle 
against superior power, and to raise the magni- 
ficent structures which ornament their kingdom. 
The mines are royalties, and a monopoly. ' An- 
Dan-Kan' is an expression which comprehends 
the sum of sovereign rights in Rajasthan, being 
allegiance, commercial duties, mines. The tin? 
mines of Mewar were once very productive, and 
yielded, it is asserted, no inconsiderable portion of 
silver, but political reasons, during the Moghul 
domination, led to the concealment of such sources 
of wealth. Copper of a very fine description is 
likewise abundant, and supplies the currency ; 
surma, or the oxide of antimony ?, is found on the 

western frontier. The garnet, amethystine quartz, 
rock crystal, chrysolite, and inferior kinds of the 
emerald family, are all to be found within Mewar. 
— Elphin. i. p. 2 ; Tod'n Rajasthan, i. pp. 10, 12. -. 

ARAYA-ANJELI. Maleal. Antiaris sacci- 

ARAY KEERAY. Tam. Byttneria herbacea. 

ARAZI. Ar. From Arz, land. In N. India, 
Arazi-abadi, the village site, which is unassessed. 
Arazi-bagh, grove lands. Arazi-behan, or behnaur, 
SGGci bcQS 

ARBAB, the title of the chiefs of the Kha,lil, 
Momand, and other tribes on the Peshawar frontier. 
It is the plural of the Arabic rab, lord. — MacGr. 

ARBABI, a branch of the Nharui tribe ol 
Baluch, now tributary to Persia. 

ARBAMBAL of Jhelum. Hedera helix ; ivy. 

AR-BAND. Hind. The loin-cloth or dhoti ol 
the Hindu men, passed between the thighs. 

ARBELA. On the site of this great ancient 
city of Assyria, the modern town of Ervil has 
been built. A Turkish fortress is built on the to]: 
of the great mound. — Mignan's Travels, p. 334. 

ARBI or Arvi. Hind. Colocasia antiquorum, 

ARBOR ALBA, the cajaputi tree. A trans- 
lation of the two Malay words, Kayu-putih. 

ARBOR SECCO, the dry tree of Ezek. xvii 
24, is repeatedly spoken of by Marco Polo as 
existing in N.E. Persia. — Yule, Cathay, i. p. 48. 

ARCA. Sansk. One of the names of the sun 

Area Bahu Phala, in some MSS. is written Arcs 
Bahoota and Area Baghabala. It is, in Hindu 
astronomy, the arc which a planet describes during 
that part of the equation of time which arises fron 
the inequality of the sun's motion in his orbit 
being an equation to which all the planets are sub- 
ject, but the motion of which it differently affects. 

Arc Endu Sangama, the instant of true conjunc 
tion of the sun and moon. — Warren''s Kala Sanhitn 

koar of Chenab. A pretty little mistletoe, commor 
on Juniperus excelsa, at some places 9000 to 9501 
feet in Lahoul. It frequently kills the trees whict 
it attacks. It is said to flower generally in winter, 
— /. L. Stewart, M.D. 

ARCHA, in Hinduism, objects of worship, as 
images, etc. See Sri Sampradaya. 

ARCHALWA, of Sutlej. Coriaria Nepalensis, 

ARCHANGELS. Mahomedans reckon four, 
viz. Jibrail or Gabriel, who is God's messenger; 
Mikail (Michael), who is the protector of the Jews ; 
Israfil, who will sound the last trumpet at the 
resurrection ; and Azrail, the angel of death. In 
the book of Enoch, six are mamed, Uriel, Raphael, 
Raguel, Michael, Sarakiel, and Gabriel. 

ARCHER FISHES. The Chelraon rostratus, 
Linn., Chsetodon rostratus, Shaw, is, according tc 
Sir E. Tennent, the archer fish of the fresh waten 
of India. On seeing a fly settle overhead on a leaf, 
it propels a drop of water and brings it down 
See Chsetodon toxotes. 

ARCHERY. In Sanskrit, Dhanurvidya is always 
put for military science in general. Archery waf 
the predominant branch of the military art amon^ 
ancient Hindus, as is evident from this use of th( 
term, and from all descriptive accounts of heroic 
education. Rama, his sons, the Pandava, Ayus, ant 
all other princes, are represented in the Ramayana 
Mahabharata, and in all poems and plays, as making 
archery a principal part of their education, furnish 
ing a remarkable analogy, in this respect, to th« 




practice of tho ancient Persians and ScythiAns. 

Throiii^^hout south-eastern Asia, tho bow has ahnost 

diwijtpfared, tlio only people using it constantly 

in war and for the hunt being the Bhils, iSontals, 

1 the Mincopi ; but at the annual ' langar ' of the 

Ml of Hytterabml, there continued to the latter 

of tho lUth century to bo seen a few soldiers 

ho j)roce88ion amiod with bowa 

VliCHIL, a violet dye, obtained from several 

ies of lichen, the most important of which 

.... Koccella tinctoria and R. fusiformis. Also 

from liBcanora perella, or Orseille de terre, and 

tartnrea or cudbear. — Tomlitison. 

ARCHIPELAGO. In the south and east of 

Asia, there are several grent groups of islands 

to which this term is applied. The Maldives, 

Chagos, and Laccadives are of Madreporic origin. 

Tlie Mnldive Islands are in 17 groups called 

Atolle. They extend from 0° 40' S. to 7° 6' N., 

teparated from each other by narrow channels. 

The population is about 200,000, supposed to be 

" Arab descent. 

The Laccadive group extends between 10° and 
2'^ 40' N., and consists of fifteen smaller clusters 
of two or more islands. The people are of Arab 

"I'he Eastern or Indian Archipelago consists of 
an immense labyrinth of islands, among which are 
at Iciist twenty of considerable size, and one which 
nearly equals Europe in extent. Its clusters of 
ishiuds and islets, scattered in irregular profusion 
over tho Southern Ocean, commence at the S.E. 
extremity of the Bay of Bengal, and stretch east- 
ward far into the Pacific, through 50 degrees of 
longitude and 31 degrees of latitude, from 11° 
to 19° N., and from Sumatra to New Guinea, 
in an area of five millions of square miles. It 
comprises islands and groups of islands, in- 
habited by races differing -widely in character, 
estimated at 35 millions. Many of them are 
under the control of Holland, Spain, and Great 
Britain. Five-sixths of the whole Archipelago are 
jlaimed by the Dutch as their own possession, 
)r as feudatories (Moniteur des Indes), Sumatra, 
IBabi, Nias, Mintao, the Pora Isles, Poggi, and the 
Enganos; Java, Madura, Baweean, the Kangeang, 
IBanka, Billiton, Bintang, Linga, the Natunas, 
inambas, and Tambelan, the kingdom of Sambas 
a Borneo, with the great Pontianak and Banjar- 
nassim residencies, and the Karimata Isles; 
Celebes, Sumbawa, Bouton, Saleyer, Amboyna, 
^eram. Burn, Siam, Sangir, Talaut, the Xulla 
ind Bangaai groups, Halmahera, Obie, Batchian, 
lemate, Tidor, Waigin, Battanta, Salawatte, 
ifysole, the Bandas, the Ki, Arru, and Tenimber ; 
part of Timor, Rotti, Savu, Sumba, Ende, 
^denaar, Solor, Lombate, Putare, Ombai, Bali, 
id Lombok, with the western part of New 
oinea, — all these truly form a magnificent 
>loniaI empire. 

Phyalcal Features. — The monsoons regularly 
lur, blowing over the ocean and over forests 
tad swamps which remain in a state of primitive 
itttare. Abundant rains fertilize the soils, and 
TOduce a magnificence of vegetation which no 
Bttntry but Brazil can rival. It has been, and 
HU continues, tho theatre of prodigious volcanic 
4tion, to which it owes much of its imequalled 
leauty and fertility ; for ashes and scoria, if 
hey blast and destroy for a time the luxuriant 
ropical flora, are afterwards the basis, and 

become the cause of a most exuberant regeUi- 
tion. The limit« of tho volcanic band which 
crosses tho Archipelago are distinctly defined 
by the active volcanoes with which it is studded. 
There appears a great volcanic stream in the 
neighbourhood of Kamtachatka, from which it 
can be traced in a south-west direction through 
the Kurile Islands, Japan, and Loo-choo, 
skirting tho coast of Asia to Formosa, where 
it meets another coming from the south and 
south-west through the Philippines and Min- 
danao to the Moluccas, embracing the eastern 
extreme of Celebes and the western peninsula of 
New Guinea, and then another curved from the 
westward along the trans- Javan chain to the 
Straits of Sunda, where it meets one from a 
north-westerly direction through Sumatra and tho 
Andamans to Cheduba Island, in the northern 
part of the Bay of Bengal. From the western 
extreme of New Guinea, however, along the north 
coast of that island to New Britain, although its 
volcanic character has been decided by recent 
French navigators, there remains a tract including 
13 degrees of longitude in which no active volcano 
has been seen. In Java there are forty-six vol- 
canic peaks, twenty of which still occasionally emit 
vapour and flame. The eruptive forces operate 
with violence, and the great eruption of Tom- 
boro, in the island of Sumbawa, about 200 
miles from the eastern extremity of Java, was a 
notable example. This volcano had been for some 
time in a state of smouldering activity, but in 
April 1815 it burst forth with tremendous vio- 
lence, and did not cease to eject lava until July. 
The sound of the incessant explosions was heard 
in Sumatra, distant 970 geographical miles in 
a direct line ; and at Ternate, in the opposite 
direction, at a distance of 720 miles. Out of a 
population of 12,000 in the province of Toraboro, 
only twenty-six individuals survived. On the 
side of Java, the ashes were carried to a distance 
of 300 miles, and 217 towards Celebes ; and the 
floating cinders to the westward of Sumatra 
formed a mass two feet thick, and several miles 
in extent, through which ships with diflSculty 
forced their way. The finest particles were 
transported to the islands of Ambojrna and Banda, 
800 miles east from the site of the volcano ; and 
the area over which the volcanic effects extended 
was 1000 English miles in circumference, includ- 
ing the whole of the Molucca Islands, Java, and 
a considerable portion of Celebes, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. But if the disruptive forces in these 
regions have been great, the creative and con- 
structive power is active. The zoophyte is adding 
silently and incessantly to the number of the island- 
groups ; coral-reefs are constantly emerging from 
the waters; seeds, deposited by birds, or wafted by 
winds, quickly vegetate ; verdure spreads over the 
waste ; and palm trees rise in tufted groves, as if 
by enchantment, from the ocean. The bidden 
but ever active energy of the coral insect makes 
the navigation of this Archipelago exceedingly 
difficult, for charts and soundings do not long 
form safe guides where an unseen power is always 
at work, reducing the depth of seas, and convert- 
ing water into dry land. 

Mountains. — A mountain range, prolonged 
through Arakan, h'alt« at Point Negrais, to re- 
appear through the Andamans and Nicobars ; 
and, after extending along the S.VV. coast of 




Sumatra, terminates at its S.E. point. Another 
range runs along the Malay Peninsula, is lost 
for a time, but appears again in the high peak 
of Lingin, and terminates in Bahca and Billiton ; 
and a branch from this separates at Pulo Timoan, 
on the east coast of the Peninsula, and ends at 
Carimata, in the strait between Billiton and 
Borneo. Two ranges traverse Cambodia and 
Cochin-China in the same direction, and these per- 
haps traverse Borneo. Between the Cambodian 
range and the mountains at Sarawak, on the 
north-west extremity of Borneo, the Natunas 
Islands and Pulo Condor form the connecting 
link ; and as the Sarawak hills run to the south- 
east, the range is probably, continued, either by 
a connected line, or by isolated mounts, until 
it terminates in the Gunong Ratos, near Cape 
Selatan. This range, after traversing the western 
part of Borneo, terminates on the south coast, a 
little to the eastward of Kotaringin. The Annam 
or Cochin-Chinese range can be traced distinctly 
across the Archipelago to Australia, and the multi- 
tude of islands which are now to be seen, are either 
masses upraised by volcanic action, or the tops 
of great volcanic outbursts which have appeared 
above the ocean ; and where the earth has not 
risen above the water's surface, great submarine 
banks are to be traced from one island to another. 
The depth of water on these banks averages about 
30 fathoms, deepening rapidly as the edge is ap- 
proached, and shoaling gradually towards the land. 
The chain which extends along the Malay Penin- 
sula, and is continued at intervals to Banca and 
BilUton, abounds in metals, and mining operations 
are pursued with great success. Its tin mines 
and those of Banca are well known. This range 
may be considered as the backbone of the Great 
Asiatic Bank, which extends into the Archipelago 
from the south-eastern extreme of Asia to a distance 
of nearly 1000 miles, — in fact to within 50 miles of 
Celebes, perhaps to the south-west extremity of that 
island also, but there is a space of nearly 30 miles 
across which no soundings have been carried. 
Sumatra, which lies on its western verge, has been 
subjected to volcanic action, but not to so great an 
extent as to disturb the direction of its mountain 
range, which runs parallel to that of the Malay 
Peninsula. The third range that can be traced into 
the Indian Archipelago is the one that traverses 
Laos and Camboja, at the southern extremity of 
which it disappears for a time, showing itself 
only at Pulo Condor and Natunas, until it emerges 
under the north-west extreme of Borneo, and is 
continued along the entire west coast of that island. 
Here it again disappears, and only shows itself 
again on the north coast of Java, where it ceases 
entirely, the remaining portion of this island 
being either of volcanic formation or of alluvial 
deposit. The teak tree, which abounds on the 
Cambojan part of this range, but is not found in 
Borneo, is again met with here, the projecting 
part of the north side of Java, between Samarang 
and Surabaya, being a vast teak forest, from 
the timber of which the greater portion of the 
shipping employed in the Archipelago is con- 
structed. Java is the only island in the eastern 
seas in which the teak tree is indigenous, nor will 
it thrive in the volcanic parts of the island where 
its cultivation has been attempted. This, which 
may be called the Cambojan range, is also rich 
in minerals, gold and diamonds, especially the 

Bomean part of it. The volcanic islands of the 
Archipelago also contain metals, gold-dust being 
found at the bottoms of many of the mountain 

Ethnology. — In the Archipelago thtre seem to 
be the Malay race proper, and varieties of Negrc 
races, viz. the Mincopi of the Andamans ; the 
Semang or dwarf Negroes of the Malay Penin- 
sula ; the Negrito or Aeta of the Philippines ; the 
larger Negro race or Papua of New Guinea ; and 
a race wliom Crawfurd styles the Negro Malay, 
intermediate between the Papuan and Malay. Mr. 
A. R. Wallace, however, indicates only two vcrj 
strongly contrasted races, Malays and Papuans. 

The Malay inhabit the great western islands, 
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes ; the latter, 
New Guinea and the adjacent small islands. The 
Malays are superior to aU the others in intel- 
lect and civilisation. They occupy nearly the 
whole of the Malay Peninsula, half of Sumatra, 
and all the sea-coast of Borneo. Their numbers 
are estimated at 1,500,000 in Borneo, 1,250,000 ic 
the Malay Peninsula, and 1,000,000 in Sumatra, 
The typical Malays are of a light-brown colour, 
resembling cinnamon or lightly roasted coffee; 
they have, constantly, straight, black, anel rathei 
coarse hair, little or no beard, and generallji 
smooth, hairless bodies ; they are of a low stature, 
rather strongly made, with short thick feet, and 
small delicate hands. The face is broad, the eye- 
brows flat, the nose small, well formed, with th( 
nostrils somewhat exposed, the lips broad anc 
weU cut, the mouth large but not projecting. Ir 
character, the Malay is impassive, reserved, ane 
bashful. His feelings of surprise, admiration, O] 
fear are not readily manifested, and he has littk 
appreciation of the sublime or beautiful. He if 
somewhat taciturn, is deliberate when he speaks 
he but seldom laughs, nor does he openly express 
his gratitude for a favour. He revenges an iusull 
more quickly than an injury. He is honest anc 
trustworthy in money matters, but prides himsell 
upon his capacity for lying. His intellect is bul 
mediocre. He is deficient in the energy necessarj 
to acquire knowledge, and his mind seems incap- 
able of following out more than the simplesi 
combinations of ideas. He is quick in acquiring 
mechanical arts, and therefore makes a gooc 
servant for simple routine duties. 

The Papuan is, in many respects, the opposite ol 
the Malay. In colour he is a deep sooty brown oi 
black, his hair is harsh, dry, and frizzly, growing 
in little tufts, which in youth are short and com- 
pact, but which in adults often grow out so af 
to form a compact frizzly mop nearly a yard in 
diameter. He is bearded, and his arms, legs, and 
breast are more or less hairy. The Papuan if 
taller than the Malay ; the face is elongate, and 
the hands and feet rather large ; the forehead 
is flat, the brow very prominent, the nose large, 
long, and arched, with the nostrils hidden by the 
overhanging lip. The face has thus a Semitic 
character, which is perceptible even in the children 
The Papuan is impulsive and demonstrative ir 
speech and action, expressing his emotions anc 
passions in shouts and laughter, in yells and frantic 
leapings. He is noisy and boisterous in speed 
and action, both at home and before strangers. 
Of his intellect little is known, though it is sup- 
posed to be not inferior to that of the Malay. He 
has a love of art, decorating his canoe, his house 



^^^■ng. The Papuii uf Now Guinea arc true 
^^^Boes, aud liave inadc some advances iu civilis- 



ic inhabitants of the Moluccas and Timor may 
be cliwHod oither with the I*a|)uan or Malay. The 
V "'ro Malay are fairer than the Negro, darker 
I the Malay, but intermediate between Malay 

Lrrito of the Philippines, the Mincopi,and 
iig of Malacca differ in important charac- 
ters from the Papuan races. The Mincopi and 
Somang are a small Negro race. The Negrito are 
short, but well made, active, with soft frizzled 
hair, nose slightly flattened, features more regular 
and skin less dark than the African Negro. 
The inhabitants of all the Pacific Islands, as 
west as New Guinea and Australia, have 
much in common, while they differ greatly from 
other races. A vertical waving line may be drawn 
through the Moluccas, so that all the tribes of the 
Archiiielago to the west of the line will be of 
Malayan or Asiatic origin, and all to the east of 
Papuan or Polynesian origin. 

Island Groups and Languages. — Three islands 

the Archipelago — New Guinea, Borneo, and 

■Sumatra — are of the first class, inferior in size only 

:\.u8tralia. Java takes a second place. Three 

ire of thii-d size — Celebes, Luzon, and Mindanao. 

And those of a fourth size are at least sixteen, — 

IJali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Chandana, Flores or 

Vlangarai, Timor, Ceram, Bouru, Gilolo, Palawan, 

!^egro8, Samar, Mindoro, Panay, Leyte, and Zebu, 

—most of them with spacious alluvial tracts, navi- 

^-able rivers, and much natural riches. The 

iToups and chains iu which they are distributed 

ire dispersed over narrow seas, with the greater 

tdands intervening. Innumerable channels and 

•Bsages, therefore, open in every direction to the 

aariner, — tortuous, intricate, full of rocks, reefs, 

nd shoals, which render them in some parts 

liflBcult of navigation {Groot, Moniteur, i. 53). 

'hey are made less dangerous, however, by the 

TCvailing serenity of the waters, the regularity 

•f the currents, and the steadiness of the winds. 

IVeraendous storms, indeed, called typhoons, occa- 

ionally visit the Straits of Malacca (Bemcastle's 

^oyage, i. p. 274), and blow over the China Sea; 

>ut they are rare, and the islands of the interior 

^on may be said to lie amid perpetual calms. 

The groups known as the islands of the Arafura 

a consist of the Tenimber, the Ki, and the Aru 

idands, with others of inferior significance. They 

re scattered over a considerable space of sea, and 

ary in size from seventy miles in length, to mere 

uftB of verdure floating in the sea, like baskets of 

laas and flowers, crowned by tall clumps of palm, 

ad dispersing through the atmosphere a fragrance 

:e that of the cinnamon gardens in Ceylon. 

The Tenimber group consists of many islands, 

" abited by a curious race of people, half savage 

manner, whose villages, built on limestone hills 

the shore, combine with the varying outlines 

the surface, the fresh and green aspect of the 

ior slopes, and the blue water in the channels 

een, to present a grateful jjrospect to the 

_ .tor's eye, rarely equalled in brilliance. 

Timor is a word which means the east, and was 

■obably imposed on this island by the Malays, to 

iaoie language it belongs, because this was the 

Ktreme Umit of their ordinary comiaercial voyages 

to the Bouth-eftnt. It« principal inhabitants are 
of the Malay nice, but it coiitaioa also Papuans, 
and trilMis of the interme<liate race. The two 
languages of Timor are the Maii«toto and the 
Timori, the first spoken at the north-east end of 
the ishind, and the last used by many of the tribe* 
as a common medium of intercourse. No alphabet 
has ever been invented in Timor ; but, judgmg by 
the specimens of its languages, the vowels are Um 
same as those of the Malay and Javanese. 

From Tunor to New Guinea there runs a long 
chain of islets, forming, as it were, a wall or barrier 
to the south-eastern portion of the Archif)ela{^. 
In these islets the inhabitants are of the same race 
with the Malays, and speak many languages. Mr. 
Windsor Earl says that ' in the south-eastern parts 
of the Indian Archipelago, where opportunities of 
social intercourse between the various petty tribes 
are of rare occurrence, every island, every detached 
group of villages, has its own peculiar dialect, 
which is often unintelligible even to the tribes iu 
its immediate neighbourhood. In some of the 
larger islands, — Timor, for example, — these tribes 
are so numerous, and the country occupied by 
many of them so extensive, that it becomes im- 
possible to form even an approximate estimate of 
their number.' Of one language, the prevailing 
one, among several languages of the island of 
Kisa, one of the Sarawati group, in the chain 
of islets already mentioned, Mr. Earl furnished 
a curious and instructive vocabulary of 330 
words. The Kisa is an unwritten tongue, but 
its vowels are the same as those of the Malay 
and Javanese. 

The Spice Islands, in the Molucca and Banda 
Seas, consist of many islands, with numerous 
languages. Next to Java, of which they form a 
sub-government, the Moluccas are the most im- 
portant of the Dutch possessions in India. The 
islands to which this term is applied are Amboyna, 
Banda, Temate, Tidore, and smaller islands in 
their neighbourhood. The islands are small, 
volcanic, unproductive in grain, but fertile in 
fine spices. But the Dutch nation, in order to 
secure a monopoly of this class of products, for 
years rooted up and destroyed, at a great cost, 
often by force of arms, every nutmeg or clove tree 
not required for the production of that quantity 
of spices which they calculated they could dispose 
of. Rosingain, near Banda, was almost aban- 
doned after the extirpation of its spice trees, its 
people emigrating to the neighbouring islands 
in search of a livelihood. The people are of 
the Malayan race, short, squat, and darker in com- 
plexion than the Javanese. The Amboyuese are 
of a middling height, and well formed. They 
are gentle, very sober, brave, easily managed, and 
make good mounted and foot soldiers, and a con< 
siderable number of them have embraced Chris- 
tianity. Bauda is very unhealthy, and is subject 
to frightful earthquakes. When first discovered 
1)y Europeans, the inhabitants had made consider- 
able advances in civilisation, although still much 
inferior to that of the Javanese, bir Stamford 
Raffles furnished specimens of three of the lan- 
guages of this furthest east portion, viz. those 
of Ceram, correctly Serang, of Ternate, correctly 
Tarnate, and of Saparuwa, one of the Banda isles. 
Of 28 words of the language of Ceram, 9 are 
Malay, 2 Javanese, and 17 are common to these 
two languages. Ceram Laut was the great place 




to which the Bugis carried the Papuan slaves 
whom they stole from New Guinea. 

The great group of the Philippines^ although 
contiguous to the proper Indian Archipelago, 
differs materially in climate and in the manners of 
its inhabitants. It extends over fifteen degrees, 
from near latitude 6° 40' to 18° 40' N., and con- 
sists of ten principal islands, of which only Lu^on 
and Mindanao are of great size, and about 1200 
smaller islands and islets, with a population ap- 
proaching three millions. The bulk of the people 
are of the same tawny-complexioned, lank-haired, 
short and squab race, as the principal inhabitants of 
the western portion of the Indian Archipelago. The 
focus of the aboriginal civilisation of the Philip- 
pines, as might be expected, has been the main 
island of the group, Lu^on. This is a corruption 
of the Malay and Javanese word, lasung, meaning 
a rice-mortar. The Spaniards are said to have 
asked the name of the island, and the natives, 
who certainly had none, thinking they meant a 
rice-mortar, which was before the speakers at the 
time, answered accordingly. In the Philippines 
are many separate nations or tribes, speaking 
distinct languages, unintelligible to each other. 
The principal languages of Lu<;on are the Tagala, 
the Pampanga, the Pangasinan, and the Iloco, 
spoken at present by a population of 2,250,000, 
while the Bisaya has a wide currency among the 
southern islands of the group, Leyte, Zebu, 
Negros, and Panay, containing 1,200,000 people. 
Mr. Crawfurd tells us that it does not appear, 
from a comparison of the phonetic character and 
grammatical structure of the Tagala with those 
of Malay and Javanese, that there is any ground 
for fancying them to be one and the same language 
or languages sprung from a common parent, and 
only diversified by the effects of time and distance ; 
and an examination of the Bisaya dictionary gives 
similar results. 

The great islands of Mindanao and Palaivang, 
and the Sulu group of islets, forming the southern 
limits of the Philippine Archipelago, contain many 
nations and tribes, speaking many languages of 
which little has been published. Mr. Crawfurd, 
on the information from Mr. Dalrymple, informs 
us that even in the little group of the Sulu islands, 
a great many different languages are spoken, and 
he gives a short specimen of 88 words of one of 
those most current. Sulu was for many years the 
market where the Lanun and other pirates disposed 
of much of their plunder, and in former times itself 
was decidedly piratical. The Mahomedan religion 
has made much progress in Mindanao and the Sulu 
islands, as has the Malay language, the usual channel 
through which it has at all times been propagated 
over the islands of the Indian Archipelago. Mr. 
Crawfurd remarks that whether the principal 
languages of the Philippines be separate and 
distinct tongues, or mere dialects of a common 
language, is a question not easy to determine. 
Certainly, he adds, the phonetic character of the 
Tagala, the Bisaya, the Pampangan, and Iloco are, 
sound for sound, or letter for letter, the same. 

Mincopi, spoken in the Andaman Islands, is 
dissyllabic. In phonology, the Mincopi is 
fundamentally opposed to Silongi, Nicobari, and 
Semangi ; Niasi to Acheean, and Tilanjani to the 
rade Malayan dialects which appear to have pre- 
vailed, and are partially preserved in the adjacent 
portion of Sumatra. The vocalic element is found 

in all the Sumatran and peninsular languages, 
strong in Battan and Lampongi, less so in the 
Malayan dialects, and comparatively weak in the 
Acheean and Semangi. In the Mincopi, Tilan- 
jani, and Niasi, the consonantal element is very 

Besisi, a dialect of the Malayan Peninsula. 

Binua. — The ruder Binua dialects of the Malayan 
Peninsula, when compared with Malay, present 
the same aspect as the uncultivated Sumatran. 
But having been, comparatively with the more 
civilised and powerful Battan and Achin races, 
almost completely subjected to Malayan influence, 
the indigenous peninsular vocabularies are rapidly 
disappearing. The languages of the Binua or 
Sakai of Pera appear to resemble the ruder 
dialects to the southward. 

Nicobari^ spoken in the Nicobar group, has a 
phonology allied to that of the Silong and Simang. 

Silongi, a dissyllabic language spoken in the 
Mergui Archipelago. 

Semang. — The most northern of the old Indo- 
nesian languages of the Malay Peninsula, are 
those of the Semang tribes of Kidah and Pera. 
They are mainly dissyllabic, but they have more 
monosyllables ; and a dissyllabic tendency may 
still be detected in the contraction of some Malay 
words. The phonology of the Semang has some 
strong peculiarities, the voices low and soft com- 
pared with that of the Binua and Malay tribes. 

Sumatra. — The Malayan language, in its more 
ancient form, partook in a considerable measure 
of the general character of the AV. Indonesian of 
Sumatra, as is evident from the phonology of its 
ruder dialects. With the purer phonology of E. 
Indonesian, it combined the consonantal, aspirate, 
and guttural tendencies of the Malacca basin. 
Traces of this earlier character are still found in 
the centre of Malayan civilisation, Menangkabau, 
where the language received its greatest culture, 
and attained the form which, with some phonetic 
improvements and a few glossarial changes, it has 
preserved in its dissemination throughout the 
Archipelago. The Malay of Menangkabau is dis- 
tinguished from all the other Sumatran languages, 
by its higher culture, purer phonology, wider 
prevalence, and greater influence on other lan- 
guages. It is superior to the ruder phonologies 
of the Peninsula and Sumatra, but also, to a large 
extent, Javan. The principal languages of Suma- 
tra are the Battan dialects and the Malaya, these 
being spoken by the largest populations and over 
the widest extent of territory. 

In Sumatra are found at least three well-marked 
languages, each occupying its own area, and a 
fourth still preserving its peculiar character and 
location, although much affected by foreign in- 
fluence. In addition, the western islands contain 
at least three other distinct and stable languages. 
It has, however, only the diffusive language the 
Malay. The chief Sumatran tongues are the 
Battan, Acheean, Korinchi, Lampong, Rejang. 

Battan. — In the Battan dialects of Sumatra an 
Indonesian element predominates, and they have 
the closest affinity with Malay. The basis of 
Battan is similar to that of Niasi, the latter lan- 
guage having spread into Sumatra, and modified 
the W. Indonesian character of Battan. 

The Achin language is distinguished from all 
others in Asianesia, by having the accent on the 
terminal instead of the penultimate syllable. In 




icr roRpocts its phonology has the prevailing 
Suiiiatnui dmracter. 

Miintmrni i« the liinguagc of a race who inhabit 
the I'era and Pagai groups. Ita phonology is 
considorably more Uattan than that of Nias, purer 
than the ruder Mahvy, and apparently free from 
Suinatran ai^pinxtes. 

•Anvj, an island of 40,000 square miles in extent, 
and by far the most fertile of the Archipelago, 
contained in 1880, with Madura, 19,71)7,077 in- 
habitants. In the eastern and central parts there 
may be said to be three Javanese languages, — the 
popular, the polite (which is a kind of factitious 
dialect of it), and an ancient tongue, found only 
in old books and ancient inscriptions. The modern 
and popular language, as well as the pohte dialect, 
is written in a peculiar character, of which the 
substantive letters amount to twenty. In Java, 
in addition to the Javanese, is the Sunda language, 
which is spoken over about one-third of the island, 
extending from Cheribon across the island down to 
its western extremity. This tract is more moun- 
tainous than that inhabited by the Javanese, and 
the people somewhat less advanced in civilisation, 
but possessing the same amiable and docile cha- 
racter as that nation. 

Sundan has some peculiarities which separate it 
from the other languages of the Javan group, and 
ally it to some of the W. Borneon and S. Penin- 
sular dialects. Formatively, Sundan is more simple 
than the Javan or even the Malayan, and approxi- 
mates to the ruder Peninsular, Sumatran, and 
Borneon languages. 

Maduran. — The industrious, peaceful, and 
numerous people who speak the Madurese lan- 
guage, with its dialect the Sumanap, occupy the 
island of Madura, divided from Java by a strait, 
and form in some districts the bulk of the popula- 
tion on the opposite shores of Java, to which, de- 
populated by long wars for the past two hundred 
years, they have been emigrating. 

Bali. — In the adjacent island of Bali, which is 
small but fertile, well cultivated and populous, 
is the Balinese, with its ceremonial dialect and 
sacred language, and it is one of the most improved 
languages of the Archipelago. 

Lombok. — The fourth language, which Mr. 
Crawfurd considers to have a strong affinity with 
the Javanese, is that of Lombok, a fertile and 
populous island, divided from Bali by a narrow 
strait. This is the termination in an easterly 
direction of the group of tongues which begins 
with Sumatra. According to Mr. Logan, Javan 
has a much broader, more forcible, asperate, and 
primitive phonology than Malay, and the Javan 

Soup embraces Sundan, Maduran (with its 
alect Bawian), and Bali. 

Kawi. — The Kawi language preserves gome 
evidence that, at the era of its formation, the 
Javan language was less removed from the adjacent 
languages than it afterwards became, through the 
continued development and influence of Kawi, 
and a disposition to a factitious and pedantic 
onlture. The Javan language participates to a 
eertain extent in the peculiarities of the Kawi, 
Vxd e is a frequent sound in both. Indeed, it 
Vbuld appear that most of the peculiarities of the 
Javan, or those phonetic traits which distinguish 
ib from the general N. Indonesian phonology on 
the one side, and from E. Indonesian on the 
Other, may be referred to the influence of Kawi. 

Borneon Lantjuayei. — The Ngaju, Kabayan or 
Kayan of the south coast, and tlMt of the Laii<laki 
of the west coast, inland of Pontianak, are eutircly 
Malay in their structure and formatitTea. The 
Kayan must bo con8idere<l as the moat aoutbcrlv 
of the N.E. projection of Borneo, a position which 
brings it into proximity with the Buwayan and E. 
Indonesian languages. This is assuming the cor- 
rectness of Mr. Bum's statement, that the Kayans 
have spread from the basin of the Tiding over the 
watershed into the north-western lands extending 
from the Bruni to the Rejang. 

Alphabets. — In the ArcbijMjlago are nine distinct 
alphabets, every one of which appears to be a 
separate and a native invention. But they are not 
only distinct from each other, they differ equally 
from all foreign alphabets. These nine alphat)et8 
of the Archipelago are the produce of five largo 
islands only out of the innumerable ones which 
compose it. 

The Javanese is certainly the most perfect 
alphabet of the Archipelago, and the rest, although 
they differ in form, bear it, in principle, a com- 
mon resemblance. It has a distinct and invariable 
character for every sound in the language, and so 
far, therefore, it is a perfect system. The con- 
sonants amount to 19, and can be represented in 
Roman letters as follow — b, c, d, d, g, j, k, 1, m, 
n, n, p, r, s, t, t, w, y. Besides tliese, there is 
the aspirate which always follow a vowel, and 
never aspirates a consonant. The vowels arc 6, 
viz. a, a, e, i, o, u. The diphthongs are 2, viz. ai 
and au, but have no characters, being expressed 
only by their elements. The Javanese alphabet, 
like all the others of the Archipelago, is written 
from left to right. In the character thus described 
are written the proper Javanese, the Sunda, the 
Bali, and occasionally it is believed the Lombok. 
The Sunda and Bali alphabets, however, want the 
palatals d and t. Altogether, including Palem- 
bang in Sumatra, it is probable that the Javanese 
alphabet is current among no less a population 
than twelve millions. It is the most perfect, and 
has obtained the widest diffusion. But in prior 
times, other characters, to the extent of twelve 
in number, have prevailed in Java 

In Sumatra, beginning from the west, the first 
evidence we have of a native writtcu character 
is found among the Batak, and it is singidar 
enough that a nation of cannibals should |K)6se68 
the knowledge of letters. There was assuredly 
nothing of the kind in Europe or continental 
Asia until long after men hatl ceased to eat each 
other. The form of the Batak letter is horizontal 
The substantive characters of the Batak alphabet 
are the same as those of the Javanese, with the 
exception of the letter c and the palatals d and t, 
whicn it wants. 

The Korinchi alphabet, among the people of 
this name in Sumatra, who border on Menang- 
kabau, has 29 characters, and consists of horizontol 
or slightly raised scratching. 

The Rejang is the alphabet of Lemba and 
Pasummah on the western side of Smnatra. It 
consists of 23 substantive characters, formed of 
upright scratches or strokes, and on the whole 
it is more complete than either the Batak or 

The Lampong nation occupies that portion of 
the S.W. side of Sumatra which lies opposite to 
Java, divided from it only by the Straits of Sunda. 




It has its own peculiar alphabet, which consists of 
19 substantive letters, the vowel a and the aspi- 
rate being included among them, with double or 
treble consonants making them up to 44. It has 
a great deal of that angular linear and meagre 
form which characterizes the other Sumatra alpha- 
bets. The consonants correspond in power 
exactly with the Javanese, the palatals d and t 
excepted, which the Lampong does not contain. 
The Lampong, like the Rejang, has the Hindu 
classification, but it is not so correctly followed ; 
the vowel a and the sibilant are found out of 
place, and thrust in among the liquids. 

The Acheean and Malay of Sumatra are written 
in the Arabic character. 

In Celebes are two distinct alphabets, one of 
them the Bugis, at present in use over the whole 
island, and which extends to Bouton and Sum- 
bawa, and wherever the Bugis nation have 
settled or colonized. The modern Bugis has 23 
substantive characters, consisting mostly of small 
segments of circles running horizontally. The 
Bugis letters have no resemblance to those of 
Sumatra or Java, or even to the obsolete alphabet 
of Sumbawa. The other alphabet of Celebes is 
now obsolete. 

The Bima alphabet, formerly in use amongst 
the Bima people in the island of Sumbawa, east 
of Sumatra and Java, has now given way to the 
alphabets of the Celebes. 

The ninth and last alphabet of the Archipelago 
is the Philippine, that of the Tagala nation of the 
great island of Luqon or Luconia, and consists of 
thirteen characters. It is the only one existing in 
the whole of this group, and seems at one time to 
have been used among the civilised tribes of the 
neighbouring islands, having spread even to 
Magindanao and Sulu. The forms of the letters 
are rather bold and more complex than that of 
the Sumatran alphabets. 

The main characteristic of the Archipelago 
letters, their diifering among themselves, and their 
differing equally from all foreign letters, leads to 
the conclusion that each alphabet was a separate 
and independent invention, made, in all likelihood, 
in the localities in which we at present find them. 
What causes conduced to this early invention of 
letters among these nations, and at so many dif- 
ferent and distant points, it is not very easy to say. 
The Malayan Peninsula and Borneo, extensive as 
they are, have never given rise to an indigenous 
civilisation, sufficient to raise their inhabitants 
beyond the condition of small and miserable com- 
munities, and hence no indigenous alphabet can be 
traced to them. Their more civilised inhabitants 
are invariably stranger immigrants. The Borneo 
coasts are occupied by the Malay race and by the 
seafaring Orang Laut and Bugis, but in its interior 
are about sixty nations, and with distinct names, 
speaking distinct languages. The most powerful 
are the Dyak and the Kayan, wholly illiterate. 

No kind of native writing can be traced to the 
Spice Islands, which, notwithstanding their rich 
native productions, are incapable of yielding corn, 
iron, or cattle, the rough staples of early civilisa- 
tion, and without the presence of which, letters 
have never been invented or existed. In the 
great island of Neiu Guinea, with its savage Negro 
population, and with the same deficiencies, the 
presence of any kind of writing is not reasonably 
to be looked for. No trace of a written character 

has been found in the wide extent of the islands 
of the Pacific. Most of them are probably too 
small to have furnished a population at once suffi- 
ciently numerous and concentrated to generate 
the amount of civilisation requisite for the pur- 
pose. In the great islands of New Zealand, with 
their comparatively energetic race of inhabitants, 
the discovery of letters would most probably have 
been made, as among some rude nations of 
Sumatra, had the civilisation necessary not been 
precluded by the absence, as in the smaller islands, 
of the larger animals for labour, and of all the 
cereal grasses for food. 

The faciUty with which materials to write on 
are obtained in the countries occupied by the 
Malayan nations, has probably contributed some- 
thing towards their early discovery of the art of 
writing. The want of them, on the contrary, is 
known to have proved a great obstacle to the 
progress of letters, and probably was to their inven- 
tion in temperate regions. The absence of a good 
material in ancient Europe hindered the invention 
of printing ; while its presence in China no doubt 
contributed largely to its early discovery in that 
country. Like the Hindus and the Buddhists of 
continental Asia of the present day, the Archi- 
pelago islanders write on palm leaves, which have 
received no other preparation than that of being 
dried, and cut in slips ; on the inner bark of trees 
a little polished only by rubbing ; on slips of the 
bamboo cane, simjjly freed from its epidermis; 
and on stone, metal, and finally on paper. The 
palm leaf ordinarily employed is that of the lontar, 
or Borassus fiabelliformis. The Malay word ia 
most likely a corruption of two words, — ron, a 
leaf in Javanese, and tar or tal, the proper name 
of this palm in Sanskrit. This seems corroborated 
by the Javanese name, which is written rontal. 
From the use of this word, the practice of writing 
on palm leaves may have been derived from the 
Hindus. This word, with many others wholly or 
partly Sanskrit, belongs to the ceremonial and 
factitious dialect of the Javanese language, a 
genuine native name, kropyate, existing for it in 
the ordinary one. 

The instrument for writing with on the palm 
leaf, bark, and the bamboo, is an iron style, and 
their writing is, in fact, a rude engraving, which 
is rendered more legible by rubbing powdered 
charcoal over the surface, which falls into the 
grooves, and is swept off the smooth surface. 

The Javanese, however, understand the manu- 
facture of a kind of paper from the gluga, 
Broussonetia papyrifera, and the article itself 
daluwan, changed into dalanian for the polite 
language. The process is not the ingenious 
one of China, India, Persia, and Europe, but 
greatly resembles that of making the Egyptian 
papyrus, and still more closely the preparation of 
the South Sea cloth, the raw material being, 
indeed, exactly the same. The true bark, cut in 
slips, is long macerated and beaten, and, after 
being thus treated, slips of it are joined to each 
other over a smooth surface, and defects made 
good by patching. The fabric thus obtained is 
of a brownish grey colour, unequal in its texture, 
rigid, but strong. With the exception of the 
Javanese, it does not seem that the natives of the 
Archipelago ever wrote with ink, before they were 
instructed by the Arabs, no doubt from the ab- 
sence of paper. The Javanese have a native name 




for * pen ' and ' ink,' sua and manHi ; but with the 
other nations the only unea arc Arabic, kalmii and 
dowat, often indeed greatly disfigured, as in tlio 
exanii)Ie of the Bagis, who convert them into kalali 
and (lawak. The pen generally used is not reed 
as on the continent of Asia, or a quill as in Europe, 
but a stub obtaine<l from the Aren palm, Arenga 
siiecharifera. Even paper is generally known to 
the Indian islantlers by the Arabian name of 
kartas, so that it is probable that a true paper was 
iinjK)rted long before the arrival cf Europeans, 
although the natives were never taught the art of 
preparing it At present, European paper is in 
general use by all the more civilised nations, to 
the exclusion of Asiatic material. 

inimal Kinydoin. — Mr. A. K. Wallace tells us 
that the distribution of the existing forms of 
nian)mals throughout the Indian Archipelago may 
thus be indicated. Commencing with the species 
common in Asia at the present day, and exclud- 
ing those which may have been introduced in a 
domesticate<l state, such as the horse, dog, kine, 
and deer, the common brown monkey has pene- 
trated farthest from the continent of Asia, as it 
extends through Sumatra and the trans - Javan 
chain to the eastern extremity of Timor ; but the 
80 miles of Strait which separate this island from 
I.utti seems to have stopped its further progress, 
fur it is not found in a wild state in the Serwatty 
group. To the north, it extends through Borneo 
and Celebes, and is found in a single island of 
the Molucca seas, Batchian. This animal, from 
its habit of frequenting the banks of rivers, is 
very liable to be carried out to sea in the masses 
of drift which are sometimes detached from 
the banks by the current, and its extensive dis- 
tribution may be attributed to this cause. In 
Borneo, the elephant co-exists with the black 
bear (Ursus Malayanus), the Felis macrocelis, or 
Sumatra gigantic tiger cat, and so many varieties 
of the quadrumanes that their introduction can 
scarcely have been accidental. In Java, the 
rhinoceros, the royal tiger, the wild ox of the 
Malayan Peninsula, and several varieties of the 
smaller quadrumanes, still exist in the jungles. 
Sumatra and the Peninsula contain every form 
of mammal found in Java and Borneo, with the 
addition of the tapir. These facts would go to 
prove that Java, Borneo, and Sumatra continued 
attached to the continent of Asia at a compara- 
tively recent epoch. The common brown monkey 
is the only member of the family of quadrumanes 
that has reached Celebes and Bali, although the 
strait which separates the latter island from Java 
is only two miles wide. 

The marsupialia range from Australia towards 
the continent of Asia. A variety of the kangaroo 
(macropus), two varieties of the opossum (didel- 
phis), one of which closely resembles the ring- 
tailed opossum of New South Wales (Phalangista 
Cookii), one variety of the Dasyurus, the native 
oat of the colonists of New South Wales and Port 
ington, and one variety of the small flying 

risum, have been found in the south-west part 
New Guinea; and, singularly enough, the 
kangaroo has adapted itself to the half-drowned 
Vtture of the country by inhabiting the trees. A 
variety of the kangaroo still exists at Arm Island, 
which seems to be identical with the small grey 
or ' brush ' kangaroo, found in the thickets 
thionghout AustriUia. This is the * Filauder ' of 


Valentyn. The name by which it is known in the 
Molucciig is 'Pikndook.' In Ceram, the ring- 
tailed opossum, the native cat, the flying opowum, 
and the little flying squirrel, all inarBupials, and 
identical in appearance and habits with thoao 
which extend throughout Australia, bold undis- 
puted possession of the forest trees. The ring- 
tailed opossum, which is the most numerous, 
as in New South Wales, is a common pet through- 
out the Moluccas. The opossum, more esiMjcially 
the ring-tailed variety, which inhabits trees, is the 
most hardy of marsupials, that is to say, its geo- 
graphical range is farther extended than that of 
any other pouched animal. The tree opossum and 
the native cat (Dasyurus macrourus) are the only 
varieties of this ancient form of mammals which 
have not retreated before the European quadru- 
peds that have been introduced into the southern 
districts of Australia, the mere presence of a 
flock of sheep, without their usual attendant the 
dog, being sufiBcient to drive the kangaroos from 
the ' runs.' The tree opossums are not liable to 
be disturbed by any animals less agile than the 
monkey, as they are never seen on the ground 
except when thrown out of the trees while 
fighting, and then they scramble up again as 
fast as they can. The consequence is that the 
tree opossums now abound in the settled districts 
of Australia to an extent that could not have 
happened previous to the arrival of Europeans, 
when the aborigines kept down their numbers by 
dragging them out of their nests in the hollows 
of trees to serve as food. Even the presence of 
the monkey is not fatal to the tree opossums, as 
is evident from their co-existing in Timor and 
in part of South America. The musang or mun- 
goose of the western parts of the Archipelago 
will prove fatal both to the tree opossum and to 
the native cat, whenever it comes to be introduced 
to Australia, as it can enter the hollows of the 
trees and destroy them in their nests. The tree 
opossums of Australia feed on the leaves and 
tender shoots of the Eucalyptus. In the Moluc- 
cas, where the Eucalyptus is rare, if found at all, 
the tree opossums feed on the leaves of the 
Warringin and Lingoa trees, and on the outer 
bark of the Kanari. As the two first exist in 
the Malay Peninsula, the latter under the name 
of Angsannah, the absence of the tree opossum 
from this part of the Archipelago cannot be 
attributed to want of suitable food. The Malayan 
name is ' knsu,' which has been Latmized by the 
old Dutch naturalists into ' Cuscas,' and adopte<I 
by modem zoologists. In Timor, the ring-tailed 
opossum ip common in the southern parts of the 
island. The only marsupial that has yet been 
traced in Celebes is the flying opossum. The zoo- 
logical connection of Java, Sumatra, and Borneo 
with the continent of Asia is as distinct as that 
of Timor, Ceram, and New Guinea with the con- 
tinent of Australia. Probably Celebes will be 
added to the Australian group. The inferences 
to be drawn from these facta must be self-evident. 
The distinct character of the mammalian forms 
existing in the countries lying on the Great Asiatic 
Bank, show that Borneo, Java, and Sumatra were 
attached to the continent of Asia by an unsub- 
merged range at a period long subsequent to 
the separation of Australia, which would imply 
that the curved band that passes from Formosa 
tlirough the Philippines, the Moluccas, Java, and 


Sumatra, is the most recent line of volcanic 

Productive Character. — The mountain ranges in 
south-eastern Asia and the Indian Archipelago 
are all more or less metalliferous. Lead mines 
are worked in that part of the Malayan range 
which traverses the kingdom of Ava ; and copper 
mines have been opened in the Annam or 
Cochin-Chinese range, the produce of which is 
equal in quality to South American copper, but 
inferior to that of Japan. Iron is also smelted 
from the native ores on the western side of the 
Annam range, and it is likewise said that silver 
mines are worked. The tin of the Malay Penin- 
sula, Banka, and Billiton, and the gold of the 
Peninsula, Borneo, and Celebes, are all collected 
from the detritus in which the projected metal 
has been deposited. Lodes have been discovered 
and followed up, but they are found to fine 
away. Lead and antimony ores are found in 
the Cambodian range to the north of Kampot. 
Maize, upland rice, yams, and other esculent roots 
here attain perfection. The wheat grown in the 
uplands of Timor is remarkably rich in gluten, 
although the small size of the grain gives it an 
unfavourable appearance in European eyes. The 
coffee, cotton, cacao, and hemp (Musa textilis) 
growing on the upheaved areas are the best pro- 
duced in the Archipelago. Coal has been found. 
Iron ore of excellent quality is abundant where the 
line of upheaval has crossed primary ranges ; and 
limestone, so necessary as a flux in smelting the 
metals, is found everywhere. In the island of 
Coupang, copper was found, but the strata had 
been so broken up, that mining operations could 
not have been prosecuted with advantage (Jour. 
Tnd. Arch. iv. p. 495). Reputed gold deposits 
lie on the south side of the island. Quicksilver 
in a piu-e state is sometimes brought to Coupang 
by natives from the interior. The gold deposits 
in the western parts of the Archipelago are sup- 
posed to be now pretty well exhausted ; and in 
the more remote regions — Timor, New Guinea, 
and possibly Sumba— are the only spots in which 
the steady course of industry is likely to be in- 
terrupted by the search for precious metals. The 
native chiefs of the former island, terrified by the 
rapacity of the early European navigators, are 
said to have combined in establishing a law which 
made searching for gold a capital crime, except 
on occasions in which it was thought proper to 
propitiate the deities by the dedication of a Bulan 
Mas or golden moon, when a human being was 
sacrificed to the spirits of the mines before the 
gold could be collected. This ceremony is pro- 
bably alluded to in the Account of Timor, pub- 
lished in appendix, p. 6, Moor's Notice of the 

Commerce. — Intercourse between continental 
Asia and the islands of the Archipelago dates from 
a very remote period. Their rare products were in 
request in China and India long before they were 
heard of in Europe. Camphor and spices, two of 
the most esteemed productions of these islands, 
were used by the Chinese 2000 years ago, the 
one for diffusing an aromatic fragrance through 
their temples, the other as indispensable condi- 
ments in their feasts. In the volcanic area, a sur- 
passing richness of the soil is produced from the 
volcanic rock, which decomposes rapidly before 
the influence of the atmosphere. The natural 


productions are unimportant, — the nutmeg, which 
is scattered over that portion of the band which 
approaches the continent of Australia, being 
almost the sole exception. But the docility of the 
native inhabitants proved to be such, that they 
were easily coerced to labour, and the curved 
volcanic band which traverses the Archipelago be- 
came studded with European settlements through- 
out its length and breadth, which now yield the 
great bulk of the produce exported from the 
Indian Archipelago. In the northern part of 
the Philippines, the famed Manilla tobacco is 
the chief production ; sugar plantations occupy 
the centre ; and the Musa textilis, which yields 
the Manilla hemp, is the chief product of the south. 
Spices are almost the sole productions of the 
Dutch settlements of the Moluccas. Some islands 
east of Java yield products suited to the wants of 
the natives to such an extent as to give rise to an 
export trade with all parts of the Archipelago. 
In Java, coffee, sugar, rice, cinchona, and tobacco 
are the most important articles, the two first 
being exported to Holland in immense quantities. 
Coffee and pepper are the chief products of 
Sumatra, where the soil is less fertile than in 
some of the other islands of the band. The vol- 
canic agency here becomes comparatively weak, 
and is confined to the outer coast of the island, 
where, being backed by an area of upheaval, the 
greater portion of the alluvimn descends into the 
sea and is lost. 

The edible nest, which is constructed by the 
CoUocalia nidifica in the caverns of the limestone 
cliffs, is found throughout the areas of simple 
upheaval. Agar-agar, a marine lichen extensively 
used in China, trepang or sea-slug, and mother- 
of-pearl shell, are common to both banks, but the 
Australian bank is by far the most productive. 

Ocean Traffic. — There are five different seas 
recognised by European geography within the 
limits of the Eastern Archipelago, viz. the wide 
expanse between Borneo and the Malay Peninsula ; 
another between Borneo and Java, called the Java 
Sea; another between Celebes and Timor; the 
Sea of Celebes, between that island, Sulu, and 
Mindanao ; and the fifth, a basin of consider- 
able extent, between the Philippines, Palawan, 
and Borneo. Around all these flow, on the west, 
the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. 

Atmospheric Phenomena. — The transparency of 
the atmosphere is so great, that sometimes Venus 
can be discovered in the sky in the middle of 
the day. Especially in the rainy season, the land 
looms very greatly ; then we see mountains which 
are from 5000 to 6000 feet high, at a distance of 
80 or 1 00 English miles (Jansen). Waterspouts in 
many parts are very frequent. The height of the 
spouts is usually somewhat less than 200 yards, 
and their diameter not more than 20 feet ; but 
when the opportunity of correctly measuring them 
has been favourable, as it generally is when they 
pass between the islands, so that the distance of 
their basis could be accurately determined, they 
have never been found higher than 700 yards, nor 
thicker than 50 yards. In October, in the Archi- 
pelago of Rhio, they travel from south-west to 
north-east. They seldom last longer than five 
minutes; generally they are dissipated in less 
time. As they are going away, the bulbous tube, 
which is as palpable as that of a thermometer, 
becomes broader at the base, and little clouds. 



flWe stoam from the p\y>Q of a locomotive, are 
continuiilly thrown off from the circumference of 
the Bpout, and fjradually the water Is release* 1. 
In the north-east part of the Archipelago, the east 
monsoon is the rainy monsoon. 'Ihe phenomena 
in the north-east part are thus wholly different 
from those in the Java Sea. In the Archipelago 
there is generally high water but once a day, and-, 
with the equinoxes, the tides also turn. The 
places which have high water by day in one mon- 
soon get it at night in the other. 

lii'liifion. — Wherever western civilisation has 
reachiHl the indigenes, they have conformed to the 
religions of the new-comers. The brown or Malay 
race are largely Mahomedan in Sumatra and in the 
Malay Peninsula; in Sumbawa the Mahomedans 
take a high place, and are largely proselytizing 
the mountaineers, who, however, secretly trust in 
their idols. Bali is still Hindu, and the Balinese 
bnrn their dead, and the widows and some slaves 
of rajas burn with their husband's corpse, but 
other widows bum or arc despatched with a kris. 
A Hindu empire long flourished in Java, where 
many magnificent ruins still attest its duration 
anil greatness. The Arabs subsequently gained a 
footing there, as well as in the other islands of the 
Archipelago, and gradually supplanted the religion 
and governments of India. The Philippines have 
bi'come largely Christian. Mahomedan Malays 
inter without coffin or shroud. Kayan Dyak 
are idol-worshippers, keep their dead for some 
days, and inter in a coffin made of the hollowed 
trunk of a tree. The Javanese give picturesque 
names to the various places in the island, such as 
Prosperity, Country of Ghosts, Unlucky, Heroic 
Difficulty. The Javanese are skilful workers in 
metals, gold, iron, brass, cutlery, and in carpentry. 
Their kris has a hundred forms. Javanese and 
Suinatrans are both of Malay race, but the amok 
is almost unknown in Java. 

Johore Archipelago is formed by the prolonga- 
tion of the zone of elevation of the Malay Penin- 
sula from Singapore to Billiton. It is so closely 
connected geographically with Johore as to appear 
a continuation of it, partially submerged by the sea. 
These islands (with the exception of a few of the 
most southerly) formed the insular part of the 
kingdom of Johore from the 13th century to the 
British occupation of Singapore in 1818. There 
are several hundreds of islets, besides the con- 
siderable islands of Battam, Bintang, Krimun, 
Gampang, Gallat, Linga, and Sinkep, and Banka 
and Billiton may also be considered as included 
in it. They are geologically and ethnologically, 
although not geographically the same, thinly in- 
habited by several interesting tribes. Some of 
these have been slightly noticed by Dutch writers, 
but the greater part still remain undescribed. 
The more important of the tribes are those 
termed collectively Orang Persukuan, literally the 
people divided into tribes. They are all vassals 
if the king. Those of the highest rank, to whom 
^stinct services are appropriated when the king 
goes to sea or engages in war, are the Bentan 
under an Ulubaslang ; the Singgera under a 
Batin, the Kopet under a Jinnang, the Bulo, and 
9d Linga. The other tribes, some of the land and 
iome of the creeks or sea, are the Gilam, Bekaka, 
Sogi, Muro, Tambus, Mantang, Kilong, Timiang, 
Mnau, Pulo Boya, and Silat Besides these, there are 
some wil4 trib^ in the interior of the larger islands. 


Mergni Archipelago, oa the contt of TonaMerim, 
extends in a triple line from 8" 80" to 13° 13" N. 
The Scyer iskuds and King Ittland are the prin- 
cipal islands. Other islets are kuown a« St. 
Matthew, KusBcU, Phipps, Hastings, and BarwelL 
They are inhabited by the Seling raoe, a seafar- 
ing fisher people, using the trident and bows 
and arrows in their fishing. Dr. Heifer thought 
their hair like that of Negroes. St. Matthew rises 
to 3000 feet. In 1881 the British Indian Govern- 
ment made arrangements for tiieir colonization. 

The Ohagofl Archipelago, belonging to Great 
Britain, between 5° and 7" S., about 72° 30" E., 
over the great Chagos bank. They are coral 
islands, the chief being the Great Chagos. To its 
N. W. is a group of six islands, and the Peros 
Bauhos group has twenty-seven islands of small 
extent, their produce being cocoa-nut oil, cotton, 
salt fish, and tortoiseshell. — Craw/iir(ra Malay 
Grammar; Crawfurd's Ind. Arch.; G. W. Earl's 
Papuans; EarVs Ind. Arch.; Jour. Ind. Arch, horn 
1847 to 1858 ; Suppl. to No. 6, J. Ind. Arch., Dec. 
1847, p. 836; History of Java; Latham's Descrip- 
tive Ethnology ; Elliot's Magnetic Survey, in Philo- 
sophic Transactions, 1851 ; Maury's Physical Geo- 
graphy ; Madera's Narrative of the Voyage of the 
Triton; Sir Edward Belcher'' s Survey; Quarterly 
Review, No. 222 ; Sir Rod. Murchison, Ann. 
Address Geo. Soc, 1845; St. John's Ind. Arch.; 
A. R. Wallace on the Varieties of Men in the 
Malay Archipelago; A. R. Wallace in Report of 
the Society for the Adv. of Science for 18G5, p. 
147 ; Moor's Archipelago ; Walton's State. 

ARCHITECTURE. From the early part of 
the 19th century, the architectural remains and 
sculptures left by the races who in bygone times 
have ruled in India and its neighbouring countries, 
have been receiving more and more attention 
from the Government of India, and from Europeans 
residing there ; for the Hindus were a strangely 
non-recording race, and, prior to the advent of 
Mahomedan conquerors, the rocks, the temples, 
the caves, the topes, and the inscriptions on these, 
furnish almost the sole record of the many Hindu, 
Buddhist, and Jaina dynasties who held sway. 
Amongst those who have been thus engaged in 
their investigation, may be mentioned Colonel 
Mackenzie, Mr. James Prinsep, Colonel Sykes, 
Mr. Edward Thomas, Major Gill, General A. 
Cunningham, Mr. A. Burgess, Mr. Burnell, and 
pre-eminently Mr. James Fergusson, F.R.S., who 
has devoted a long life to these researches, travel- 
ling the various countries, and publishing the result 
of his inspections in his — 

Rock-cut Temples of India, . . . 1845 

Ancient Architectiure in Hindustan, . . 1847 
Palaces of Nineveh and Per8e{>oli8, . . 1851 
Illustrated Handbook for India, . . 1855-1859 

History of Architecture, 

Holy Sepulchre 18G5-1871 

Study of Indian Architecture, . . . 1867 
Tree and Seri>ent Worship, . . . 1868-1873 
Rude Stone Monuments, .... 1872 

Temples of the Jews, 1878 

Cave Temples of Westem India (jointly with 

Mr. James Burgess), .... 1880 

Age. — The oldest architectural remains in Bri- 
tish India belong to a race who, at the advent 
of the Aryans, occupied the country between 
the Himalaya and Vindhya mountains. They 
consist of square tower-like temples, with a per- 
pendicular base, but having a curvilinear out- 



line above. Throughout the north-west of India, 
the earliest material in use was timber. It was 
not till after the arrival of Alexander that stone 
was worked by the Indian architects ; and although 
soon after Alexander's time stone became the 
material employed, construction long retained the 
forms which were needed in the employment of 
wood. The Indians are supposed to have learned 
from the Bactrian Greeks how to make use of 
stone ; and Mrs. Manning is even inclined to be- 
lieve that Alexander had left artists in India, B.C. 
323, and Dr. Hunter says (p. 267, vol. iv.), what 
the Buddhists were to the architecture of north- 
ern India, that the Greeks were to its sculpture; 
Greek faces and profiles constantly occi^r in 
ancient Buddhist statuary. The purest speci- 
mens have been found in the Panjab. Proceeding 
eastward from the Panjab, purity of outline gives 
place to lusciousness of form. In the female 
figures, the artists trust more and more to swell- 
ing breasts and towering chignons, and load the 
neck with constantly accumulating jewels. In 
Ceylon, the Buddhist temple of Anarajpura seems 
to have been erected prior to the Christian era. 
At Rangoon and at Prome are Buddhist temples, 
grand in their colossal dimensions, but the dwell- 
ing-houses and religious buildings generally in 
Burma are all of wood, and do not permit the 
display which can be attained with stone, or even 
with brick and mortar. The architecture and 
ornamentation of the temples of India are by far 
the most interesting and complete memorials of 
the ancient sacerdotal and regal grandeur of India 
which are in existence, and give a striking impres- 
sion of the former splendour of the ruling empires. 
The Dharwar sculptures are the records of Cha- 
lukya, Hoi Sala, Belial, and other dynasties. The 
Nizam's territories comprehend the seats of some 
of the greatest and most powerful sovereignties of 
the Dekhan, such as Kalyan, the capital of the 
Western Chalukya and Bijala Raya dynasties; 
Devagiri, or Deoghur, the capital of the Yadava ; 
"VVarangal that of the Kakateya, and the great 
Mahomedan principalities of Kulburga, subse- 
quently split into the subordinate powers of the 
Bijapur Adil Shahi, the Ahmadnaggur Nizam Shahi, 
Golconda Kutub Shahi, Berar Imad Shahi, and 
Beder Birud Shahi, etc. The great religious in- 
stitutions now in the south of India, are Sri Sailam 
in Cuddapah,Conjeveram,Chellambram, Srirangam, 
etc. There are also many religious edifices of great 
architectural merit, very worthy of being depicted 
and preserved for the beauty of their sculpture and 
elegance of their design, such as the stone manta- 
pam in the fort at Vellore, latterly used as an 
arsenal, the temples at Tan jore, Gangondaram, and 
Tribhuwanam, the pagodas at Leepichi in Bellary, 
and of Tarpatry in Cuddapah, with many others 
equally worthy of admiration, in secluded and 
desert places, little known beyond their immediate 

Materials. — India owes the introduction of stone 
for architectural purposes to the great Asoka, who 
reigned from B.C. 272 to 236. In the twelfth year 
after his consecration, the sixteenth from his inaugu- 
ration, which was B.C. 255 or 257, he published 
his rock-cut edicts, in which he mentions his aUies, 
Antiochus and Antigonus, Ptolemy (PhUadelphos), 
Magas of Cyrene, and Alexander of Macedonia. But 
although the use of stone for sculpture had been 
general, the date B.C. 250 commences its history 

for architectural purposes, and for at least five or 
six centuries after that time all the monuments now 
known to us are Buddhist. Mr. Fergusson tells us 
that, in the south of the Peninsula of India, nearly 
all the finest buildings of early times have been con- 
structed of stone, while the edifices erected within 
the past 600 years, comprising some of the most 
stupendous piles at present to be met with, are of 
brick. In the Dekhan, the most massy structures 
are carved from greenstone rock, with a delicacy 
and correctness quite astonishing. The vaults and 
domes of tombs and temples are commonly bolted 
with iron from top to bottom, and in many cases, 
instead of scaffolding, the structure is surrounded 
with a high wall ten or twenty feet oif , the interval 
between being filled up with earth ; a long inclined 
plane having served for raising the stones. A 
magnificent structure of this sort, the tomb of one 
of the Gwalior princes, stood half finished near 
Poona for some thirty years, and native architecture 
could there be seen in perfection in all stages of ad- 
vancement. Since the Indian railroads commenced, 
with their great spanning bridges, the rocks of all 
their neighbourhoods have been largely utilized ; 
and structures, formed of the greenstones, granites, 
blue slates, limestones, and sandstones, are every- 
where to be seen. Throughout the great volcanic 
district of the Dekhan, the various kinds of green- 
stone have been largely used. Amongst the blue 
slate formation along the valleys of the Kistna and 
Tumbudra, and the compact limestone formation 
on each side of these rivers, houses have ever been 
constructed of these materials, but the favourite 
rock for ornamental purposes in the Buddhist 
and Hindu temples and Mahomedan mosques of 
peninsular India is the dark greenstone, often, 
from its polish, being called black marble. The 
Buddhist caves of Ellora, and the smaller caves at 
Maiker, Mominabad and Ajunta, are excavated out 
of the greenstone and greenstone amygdaloid ; those' 
at Ellora, about twenty in number, are in the face 
of tlie ghat, almost scarped as it falls into the valley 
of the Godavery ; and about a similar number are 
at Ajunta, in a ravine near the scarped ghats over- 
looking Kandesh, Those on the right bank of 
the Irawadi, near Prome, look on the river. la 
Madras and Calcutta, and in S. India generally, brick 
is now an ordinary building material. The blue 
slates and limestones of the valleys of the Godavery 
and Kistna and their afliuents are utilized, and 
several imposing structures are built of laterite. 
But in the whole of Burma and the Tenasserim 
Provinces, the people's houses are built of wooden 
planks, with shingled roofs. Buddhist and Jaina 
dynasties were of longer duration, and the vast 
cave temples, etc., of Prome, Karli, Elephanta, 
Ellora, and Ajunta testify to the stability and 
power of their projectors, for some of them 
must have been in progress for hundreds of years, 
and their commencement dates from prior to the 
birth of Christ. Those Indian sovereigns who have 
longest possessed territories, the Rajput races of 
Rajputana, and the Solar dynasty of Mewar, have 
erected numerous magnificent structures in their 
capitals. The little permanency, since 800 years, 
of most Indiian dynasties, has left the result only of 
spasmodic efforts of Hindus and Mahomedans, such 
as still exist at Agra, Bijapur, Aurungabad, Gogi, 
Golconda, Kulburga, Dowlatabad, and Hyderabad, 
in the form of tombs, mosques, and Jaina temples 
Around Dehli red sandstone is largely used. 




f*finracter. — In Rrcliitccturo and in sculpture, the 
•st efforts of the ilomiimnt races were directed 
forinatiou of religious structures, many of them 
13 of wondering amazement, and are j^eatly 

(iitrnst with the humble mud-walled or wattled 

and thatched cottages in which all the people of 

India continue to dwell, and sadly to indicate 

hundreds of years of instability and tunuoil. 

In the 2000 years that intervened between the 8th 

iry before and the 12th century after the 

tian era, the religious tenets of the Buddhists, 

lie Jains, and of the Brahmans alternately 

iile<I, and many towns have remains of these 

lonists, and many of their temples have been 

/.cd by the different sects, as they alternately 

bceamo preclominant. Badami, for instance, has 

lK)tl» Buildhist and Brahmanical caves ; and 

Buddhist remains are seen at Aiwulli, five or six 

niiios to its north, aud at Purudkul or Pittadkul, 

as far on its south. 

Mr. Fergusson (p. 441) supposes that the caves 

EUora were of the following religionists :— 

uiltlhist, Viswakarma to Das Avatara, A.D. 500-(i00. 
Taina, Iiulra, Jagannth, Subhas, etc., A.D. 550-650. 
Hindu, Kameswara to Dhumnar Lena, A.D. 600-750. 
Ih-avidian, Kylas, a.d. 725-800. 

Khajuraho, in Bundelkhand, has about thirty 
mportant temples, all, except the Chao-sat Jogini, 
f nearly the same age, a.d. 960 to 1050, one-third 
faiiia, one-tliird Vaishnava, and the remainder 
Saiva, the last with indecent figures. 

The temples in the south of India, he sajrs 

Tpp. 40-54), are of the same form for Siva or 

ishnu worship, the idols or images or emblems 

worshipped, or the sculptures adorning them, 

marking the religious sect to which they belong. 

The Vimana is the principal part, the actual 
temple itself. It is always square in plan, and 
urmounted by a pyramidal roof of one or more 
storeys ; it contains the cell in which the image 
>f the god or his emblem is placed. 

The Mantapa or porches always cover and pre- 
:«<le the' door leading to the cell. 

The Gopura are the principal features in the 
juadrangidar enclosures which always surround 
he Vimana. 

Tlie Choultries, Chattra, or pillared halls, were 
ised for various purposes, and are invariable 
iccompaniments ; there are, besides, tanks or wells 
or water for sacred purposes or the convenience 
)f the priests, dwellings for all the various grades 
)f the priesthood attached to it, and many other 
uiUlings designed for state or convenience. 
The Stamhha, or Lat, are pillars common to all 
he styles of Indian architecture. With the Buddh- 
Bts they have been employed to bear inscriptions 
m their shafts, with emblems or animals on their 
apitals ; with the Jains they were generally 
leepdans or lamp-bearing pillars ; with the Vaish- 
ava Hindus they generally bore statues of 
jlaruda or Hanuman ; with the Saiva sect they 
'ere flagstaffs. But whatever the object of their 
tion, they were always among the most ori- 
ginal, and frequently the most elegant, produc- 
ions of Indian art. The moat noteworthy are the 
Cotub Minar at Dehli, and the Jaya Stambhas 
tt Coel, Dowlatabad, and Gaur. 

Rails are an imposing feature of later Buddhist 
Tchitecture. Generally they are found surround- 
Qg topes ; but they are also represented as enclos- 
ng sacred trees, temples, pillars, and other objects. 


Chaitya, or aasetnbly balls, in Buddiii«t art 
correspond in every respect with the churches of 
the Christian religion; their plans, the position 
of the altar or relic casket, the aisles, and other 
peculiarities, are the same in both, aiul their uses 

The Vihara, or monastery, like the chAit^s, 
resembles very closely the similar institution 
among Christians. In the earlier ages they ac> 
companied, but were detached from, the chaityas 
or churches. In later times they were furnished 
with chapels and altars, in which the service could 
be performed independently of the cliaitya lialls, 
which may or may not be found in their proximity. 

Lats. — The oldest of these with which we are 
acquainted, are those set up by king Asoka, in the 
27th year after his consecration, the Slat of his 
reign, to bear inscriptions, conveying to his sub- 
jects the leading doctrines of the new faith he had 
adopted. They have shafts averaging twelve 
diameters in height. The rock-cut edicts of the 
same king are dated in his twelfth year, and convey 
in a less condensed form the same information, but 
incidcating respect to parents and priests, kindness 
and charity to all men, and, above all, tenderness 
towards animals. The best known of these lats 
was re-set up by Firoz Shah at Dehli. A fragment 
of a second was found lying on the ground near 
Hindu Rao's house, north of Dehli. Two others 
exist in Tirhut, Kadhia, and Mattiah. 

The most complete lat was found in 1837 lying 
on the ground in the fort at Allahabad, and was 
then re-erected with a pedestal. In addition to 
the Asoka inscriptions, it contains one by Samudra 
Gupta (a.d. 380 to 400), detailing the glories of 
his reign, and the great deeds of his ancestors. 
It seems to have been thrown down, but to have 
been re-erected by Jahangir (a.d. 1605), with a 
Persian inscription to commemorate his accession. 
It has lost its crowning ornaments, but the base 
is 7 feet 7 inches long, and the shaft 33 feet. — 
Beng. As. Soc. Jo. iii. and vi. pp. 794, 969. 

There is a shorter pillar at Sankissa in the 
Doab, with a honeysuckle crowning ornament, and 
surmounted by an elephant. Half-way between 
Muttra and Kanouj (Canouj), and at Bettiah in 
Tirhut, is another pillar of a similar nature, sur- 
mounted by a lion. There are two built pillars 
among the topes of Kabal, and evidently coeval 
with them. They are known as the Surkh Minar 
and the Minar Chakri, and are ascribed to the 
time of Alexander. The lats of Asoka are sup- 
posed to have been erected in front of, or in 
connection with, a stupa or other building since 
disappeared, and the lats themselves have been 
moved from their original sites. At Karli there is 
one surmounted by four lions in front of the great 
cave, and two in front of the great cave at Kenheri, 
which is an exact but debased copy of the great 
Karli cave. The two lats at Eruu, and the iron 
pillar at Dehli, seem certainly to belong to the eras 
of the Guptas of the 4th or beginning of the 5th 
centuries of the Christian era, and to be dedicated 
to the Vaishnava faith. The lat at Pathari may 
also be of the Gupta time. 

Gopura. — Buddhists, Jains, and Hindus have 
directed an almost equal attention to the Cropura 
or gateways of their towns and temples. These, 
both in form and purpose, resemble the pylons of 
the Egyptian temples ; the courts with pillars and 
cloisters are common to both, and very similar 




in arrangement and extent. The great mantapa 
and halls of 1000 columns reproduce the hypostyle 
halls, both in purpose and effect, with almost 
minute accuracy. The absence of any central 
tower or vimana over the sanctuary is universal 
in Egypt, and only conspicuously violated in one 
instance in India ; and the mode of aggregation 
and amount of labour bestowed on them is common 
to both. 

Domes. — The Buddhists in their structural build- 
ings always employed circular roofs, and in all 
ages built topes with domical forms externally, but 
never seem to have attempted an internal dome, 
in stone at least. The dome is essentially a feature 
of Jain architecture, and almost exclusively so 
among the northern Indians. It was an essential 
feature of the Mahomedans before they came to 
India, and from the Jaina dome they worked out 
a style of their own. Hindus occasionally tried 
to imitate the Jaina dome. Many of the domes 
over the tombs of the Mahomedans who have been 
dominant in the Dekhan, and those to be seen at 
Bijapur, Beder,Gogi,Kulburga, Grolconda, Ahmad- 
naggur, and other places, are of great dimensions. 
Buddhist Caves. — In western India, the earliest 
architectural remains are those of the Buddhists, 
ranging from about B.C. 250 to the 7th or 8th 
century of the Christian era. They are chiefly in 
the form of rock-cut temples and monasteries. 
The best known are at Ajunta, EUora, Karli, Kan- 
heri, and Junagarh, but there are others in British 
territory, in the Hyderabad dominions, and along 
the borders of the two provinces, and in the ghats. 
The dahgopas, large cylindrical structures, with 
a domed top surmounted by a capital, and the 
arched roofs of the chaitya or temple caves, are 
characteristic of Buddhist caves, so also is the 
prevalence as an ornament of the chaitya window 
or arch in the shape of a horseshoe, though this 
is also found in early Brahmanical buildings and 
caves. The viharas or monasteries have usually 
cells around them, often with stone benches or 
beds inside. 

The Jaina caves are sometimes so like the later 
Buddhist caves at Ajunta, as to be difficult to dis- 
tinguish. Those at Dara-sinha are of this cha- 
racter. Generally the nudity of the images, their 
snakes, and their ringlets, at once mark them. 

The Brahmanical caves are fewer than the Bud- 
dhist. They range probably between the 5th and 
8th centuries of this era. Saiva caves are to be 
seen in Elephanta and Jogeswari near Bombay, at 
Ellora, and at Aihole and Badami in theKaladgi dis- 
trict, and two fine Vaishnava caves, one of them at 
Badami. So far as yet known, Brahmanical caves 
consist of halls, with a single cell or shrine, and oc- 
casionally, as at Elephanta, with one or two small 
cells for utensils, etc., but without rooms for monks 
along their sides. The sect to which a cave be- 
longed is indicated by the sculptures, — the lingam, 
Ganpati, Siva, Bhairava, Ard-dha-nari, Ravana, 
Bhavani, Parvati, Maheswari, etc., figuring pro- 
minently in Saiva caves ; Vishnu, Varaha, Narisinha, 
Virabhadra, Garuda, etc., are prominent in Vaish- 
nava caves. The sculptures over the entrance and 
shrine door indicate better than anything else, by, 
or for, what sect the temple was originally built. 
Thus, if Ganpati is on the lintel, it may be concluded 
that the temple was a Saiva one ; nine figures (nau 
graha) in a line, the eighth being a large face only, 
indicates a Sauriya temple, or one dedicated to 

the worship of the sun ; a winged figure (Garuda) 
marks a Vaishnava temple ; and a sitting figure 
(Jina), with the legs turned up in front, and the 
hands resting in the lap, a Jaina shrine. In some 
instances, where the Saiva sect have appropriated 
the Jaina shrines, the Jina has been metamorphosed 
into a Ganpati. Where no change in the dedica- 
tion of the shrine has taken place, the figure in 
the shrine will confirm the above. Surya, how- 
ever, may easily be mistaken for Vishnu, their 
images being nearly alike, only Surya holds in 
one or both his hands a large sun-flower. Some- 
times he is represented in a chariot drawn by 
seven horses. 

Styles. — The Dravidian slyleoi architecture is cha- 
racterized by its massiveness in walls, pillars, etc. 
The principal architectural lines in the roofs and 
shrines are horizontal, making the latter resemble 
storeyed pyramids ; and the vertical breaks in the 
wall line are of but slight projection, sometimes set 
off with slender pilasters, with or without sculptures 
between. In the earlier remains of this style, the 
pillars are generally very thick, and square or 
octagonal, with heavy bracket capitals. In the 
later, they are sometimes round, and generally 
remarkable for the number of horizontal members 
on the shafts and bases ; the capitals, except the 
abaci, are circular, with bracket sur-capitals. The 
remains in this style belong to the period between 
the 5th and early part of the 13th century. The 
Kailas temple at Ellora, the seven pagodas at 
Madras, belong to this style, which prevails in the 
southern parts of the Bombay Presidency, and in 
the Hyderabad territory. Only one at Pattadkal 
has a spire in the Chalukya style. 

The Chalukya style prevailed between the 9th to 
the middle of the 14th century, and is characterized 
generally by more elaborateness of ornament, by 
balconies and roofings supported by richly carved 
brackets, by the outer faces of the walls of shrines 
being broken up into a series of projecting corners, 
with equal faces, and by pillars square in section 
with a projecting face on each side, or like a square 
pillar with a slightly narrower but very thin 
pilaster added to each side. These latter, how- 
ever, while the typical section was retained, were 
liable to great modification, from the large amount 
of sculpture often lavished on them. The spires are 
proportionately higher than those of the southern 
style, with a couple or more of successive pro- 
jections on each side. The faces and lines of 
projection are vertical at first, but higher up they 
fall inwards with a gentle curve towards the 
summit, which is crowned by a kalas or finial, 
varying in form and size with the form and age 
of the building. The walls are often elaborately 
carved with belts of figures, and the stones are 
carefully fitted and clamped inside, but without 
mortar. Some of the finest examples of this style 
are to be seen in the gates of Jhinjuwada, the 
gates and Hira temple at Dabhoi, the temple at 
Mudhera, and Rudra Mala, at Siddhpur in Gujerat, 
in the Jaina temples at Mount Abu, in the small 
temple at Amamath, near Kalyan, and at some 
shrines at Pattadkal and Aihole in the Kaladgi 
coUectorate. To these two there seems to have 
succeeded what may be called a medissval style, 
combining some of the features of each, and 
covering the period from about a.d. 1150 to 1600. 
To it belong most of the Jain temples, and the 
later Hindu temples in Gujerat ; and those temjiles 



__ jftlly(la»crlboilnsIIemmlpanti,in Kandciih, Berar, 
and thu llydenibud doininious, dating fruin the 
12th to aljout the miildlo of the 14th century. 

In the Hindu stijlcs from the 17th century 
there ia conaidcmblo variety. The Mahoaiethin 
curved arch is often intro«luced ; forms derived 
from tlio Dravidian appear, and plaster and mortar 
take the place of Bcuii)ture and careful jointiiig. 
In some cases very beautiful wood-carving is iutro- 
duccd, !is may be seen in temples in Gujerat. 

The ceilinys and domes of Hindu and Jain 
temples are sometimes of siuguiar excellence 
of execution. In the western side of India, 
ciis{)ed arch and the dome characterize the 
lomedan style of architecture; but that of 
iwidabad and that of the Bijapur buildings 
• 'ut pointa of difference. Perforated stone- 
„<.ik occurs ui old Hindu buildings; but speci- 
mens remarkable for the variety of beautiful de- 
sign arc chiefly to be found in the Mahomedan 
works of the 15th and following centuries at 
Ahmadabod and Aurungabad. 

Silasasaiiams, or inscriptions on stones, are the 
most numerous in the Canarese country. — /. Bur- 
gess, Archieological Surveyor and Reporter^ in No. 
\ Archseolonical Survey of Western India, Bombay, 

Jaina. — Mr. Fergusson tells us that the principal 
Jain works are in liajputana, Gwalior, and Bundel- 
J(hand. Their sculptures almost entirely are re- 
Htricted to the representation of their twenty-four 
hicrarchs, whom they call tirthankara, to each of 
whom a symbol is attached, — generally some animal, 
fish, or flower, in one instance a crescent, in another 
thunderbolt. Some of the Jaina temples are of 
treat beauty, Brahmanical sculptures are count- 
less, and consist of temples, with representations 
if the Hindu divinities. Jains, says Mr. Fergusson, 
K Ji-lO, have their shrmes on the hills of Palitana, 
Hrnar, Gwalior, Mount Abu, and Parisnath, but 
iIbo in deep secluded valleys. One of these, 
lit Muktagiri near Gawilghur, is in a deep, well- 
nrooded valley, traversed by a stream with 
leveral waterfalls. At Sadri there is a group 
f temples, the principal one having been erected 
>y Khumbo, rana of Udaipur, in a lonely silent 
en, below his fort of Komuhner, dedicated to 
^idinatha or Reshabdeva, the first and greatest of 
he Jaina saints. It covers 48,000 square feet. 
he rock at Gwalior, in Central India, has one 
imarkablc Jaina structure, dedicated to Padma- 
tha, their sixth tirthankara, and the rock on all 
des has a series of caves or rock-cut sculptures, 
est of them mere niches to contain statues, all of 
iiem excavated between 1441 and 1474. One of 
le figures is 57 feet high. He mentions that 
their temples the saint is very numerously 
^presented by images in cells or niches. At 
ifaandravati, a few miles southward from Mount 
.bu, ia a ruined city, with extensive remains of 
temples of the same age as those on the mount 
Parisnath is the highest point of the Bengal 
Wge of hills south of Rajmahal. It is one of the 
pilgrim shrines, and nineteen of their twenty- 
mr tirtbankars are said to have died and been 
nzied there ; amongst others Parswanath, the last 
: them but one. The temples on it are numerous. 
ut Jaiuism, he tells us, p. 254, never seems to have 
ken a firm place in Bengal ; and when the Pala 
ojasty of Bengal, about a.d. 1203, left Buddhism 
d accepted the Vaishnava and Saiva superstitions, 


Jainiam secniH to have diaappcarod. There Reemfi 
also to have bocn a lauae, at least in thu north uf 
India ; but a revival occurred in the 16U» century, 
especially under liana Khunil)oaf Mewar,A.D. 1418- 
14GU, who made his capital at Cbitore. Though 
deficient in the extreme grace and elegance that 
characterized the earliest examples, tboae of the 
middle style are bold and vigorous oxpre«ioD8 of 
the art. 

Mount Ahuy says Mr. Fergusson, p. 234, rises 
from the desert as abruptly as an iiilaud from 
the ocean, and presents on almost every side in- 
accessible scarT)s up to 5G50 feet high, the summit 
being reached only by ravines that cut into its 
sides. When the summit is reache<l, it opens 
out into a lovely valley six or seven miles long by 
two or three miles in width, with the little Nakhi 
Talao or Pearl I^kc, and near to it, at Delwara, 
the Jains selected a site for their pilgrimage or 
tirth. During Jaina supremacy, it was adorned 
with several temples, two of which are of white 
marble. The more modern of these was built by 
the two brothers Tejpala and Vastupala, who 
erected a triple temple at Gimar (a.d. 1197-1247), 
and for minute delicacy of carving and beauty of 
details it stands almost unrivalled. The other, 
built also by a merchant, Vimala Sah, about a.d. 
1032, is simpler and bolder, and is the oldest and 
most complete example of a Jaina temple. It is 
dedicated to Parswanatha, who is seated within. 

The slender and elegant pillars, and the richly 
carved horizontal domes of the Jain structures, he 
says, pp. 203-8, were easily destroyed or utiUsed by 
the Mahomedans. The great mosques of Ajmir, 
Dehli, Kanouj, Dhar, and Ahmadabad are all 
reconstructed temples of the Jains. 

The AiioulU temple, a few miles north of Badami, 
has an inscription on its outer gateway mentioning 
Vikramaditjra Chalukya, who began to reign a.d. 
650, and died 680. bouth of Badami is a temple 
at Pittadkul. 

The sacred hill of Sutrunjya, near Palitana in 
Gujerat, about 30 miles from Gogo, illustrates the 
Jaina custom of grouping their temples. They 
are in hundreds there, covering over the summits 
of two extensive hills. The smaller shrines line 
the streets ; the larger temples are enclosed in 
' tuks,' or separate enclosures, surrounded by high 
fortified walls. A few yati or priests and a few 
servants are there to perform the daily services 
and keep the place clean, but there are no other 
residents there. The pilgrim goes up and returns. 
It is a city of the gods. The shrines are almost all 
the gifts of single wealthy individuals. Some are as 
old as the 11th century, but the largest number 
have been constructed since the early part of the 
19th century. 

The Chau-mukh, orfour-faced temple at Palitana, 
Mr. Fergusson describes (pp. 253, 274, and 279) 
as very grand. The temple of Ardishur is the 
largest single temple on that hill. 

Gimar, on the south coast of Gujerat, not far 
from Soranath Patau, is a sacred hill of the Jains. 
The hill rises 2500 feet above the sea, and the 
temples are built on its side. A rock outside the 
town of Junagarh, at its foot, has a copy of the 
edicts of Asoka (B.C. 250) ; and on the same rock 
is an inscription, a.d. 151, by Rudra Dama, the 
Sah king of Saurashtra, mentioning his victories 
over the Sat-kami kings of the Dekhan. It con- 
tains also a record, a.d. 457, of the repair of a 




bridge by Skanda, the last of the Gupta kings. 
The temple of Neminatha is the oldest of a group 
of sixteen temples, 600 feet below the summit. 
Behind it is a triple temple, erected a.d. 1177, by 
the brothers Tejpala and Vastupala. Not far from 
Gimar, on the sea-shore, is the temple of Somnath, 
captured by Mahmud, a.d. 1025. 

Khajuraho, the ancient capital of the Chandel 
dynasty, is about 125 miles W.S.W. of Allah- 
abad, and 150 miles S.E. from Gwalior. It is 
now deserted, but has in and around it about 
thirty temples, the most beautiful in form as well 
as the most elegant in detail of any of the temples 
now standing in India. They were erected simul- 
taneously in the 11th century, and are nearly 
equally divided among three religions, — Jaina, 
Saiva, and Vaishnava. Each group has one shrine 
greater than the rest, round which the smaller 
ones are clustered. In the Saiva groups it is the 
Kandarya Mahadeva; in the Vaishnava it is the 
Rama Chandra ; and in the Jaina group it is the 
Jinanatha. The Parswanatha Jaina temple has 
a rich base, the Ganthai, or Bell temple, and 
Cbaonsat Jogini, which has sixty-four cells. 

At Gyraspur, near Bhilsa, 140 miles S.W. of 
Khajuraho, is a group of columns, supposed to 
be Jaina, and there are others in the Mokundra 
pass. In the Ulwar territory at Bhanghur are 
some very beautiful Jaina temples. One called 
Nan Gungi has an image 20 feet in height. 

The fragment of a little temple at Amwah, near 
Ajunta, shows it to have been a Jaina shrine of Sri 
Allat, the twelfth king mentioned in Tod's Rajas- 
than (i. p. 802). 

Chitore. — The elegant Jaina tower dedicated 
to the first of the Jaina tirthankara, Adinath, was 
erected about a.d. 896, on the brow of Chitore. 
It is about 80 feet in height, and is adorned 
with sculpture and mouldings from base to sum- 
mit, among which the figure of Adinath is repeated 
a hundred times. Another tower, of later buUd, 
was erected by Khumbo, rana of Mewar, a.d. 1418- 
1468, as a Jaya Stambha, nine storeys high, as a 
pUlar of his victory over Mahmud of Malwa, a.d. 
1439, like that of Trajan at Rome. It is 30 feet 
wide at its base, and more than 120 feet in height, 
in nine storeys, and the whole is covered with 
architectural ornaments and sculptures. The 
Chinese nine-storeyed towers are almost literal 
copies of these Jaina towers. 

SonagJiur, near Dutteah in Bundelkhand, and 
Muktagiri, near Gawilghur, in Berar, show the 
most modern styles of Jain architecture. Sonaghur 
is a granite hill covered with large loose masses of 
rock, among which stand 80 to 100 temples of 
various shapes and sizes. The sikra is rare, and 
the foliated pointed Mahomedan arch is the usual 
opening. Muktagiri is a deep romantic valley, and 
its largest group of temples are on a platform at 
the foot of a waterfall, that thunders down from 
a height of 60 feet above them. The temples are 
only remarkable from showing their adoption of 
the Mahomedan style. At Dehli is a Jaina temple 
of much beauty. The background of the strut of 
its porch has pierced, foliated tracery, of the most 
exquisite device. At Khandagiri, near Cuttack, 
are Jaina caves, and there is one at Badami with- 
out any inscription. But there are three Brah- 
manical caves, one of which has the date 500 Saka 
(a.d. 579). The Indra Subha and Jaganath Subha 
groups at Ellora are supposed to be of the same 

age as the Badami cave temple. At Ajmir the 
Arhai-din-ka Jompra has been described as a Jaina 
temjjle. So also is a great part of the mosque at 
the Kutub, Dehli. 

Some of the Hoisala Bellala kings were Jains ; 
but their buildings at Somnath pur, Bellur or 
Hullabid belong to the Vaishnava or Saiva faiths. 
The Basti temples of the southern Jains, like the 
Jaina temples of northern India, always have a 
tirthankara as the object of worship. The Bettu 
temples of southern India are open courtyards, 
containing images of Gomati, who possibly may 
be Gautama Buddha. There are two hills at the 
vUlage of Sravana Belgula, 33 miles N. by W. 
from Seringapatam. On one of these, a mass of 
syenite 500 feet high, a Jaina image, 70 feet 3 
inches high, has been carved out of the solid rock. 
The expression of its features is pleasing, with 
curly hair ; and at Karkala, the image, 41 feet 
5 inches, and weight 80 tons, has been moved to 
its present site, and was erected a.d. 1432. The 
third, and supposed oldest, at Yannur, is 35 feet 
high. They belong to the Digambara sect of the 
Jains, being entirely naked, but with twigs of the 
Bo Tree twisted round their legs and arms, with 
serpents at their feet. In the Jaina cave at 
Badami, the figure has two snakes twisted around 
its legs and arms, and the Bo Tree is placed behind. 
On a shoulder of the other hill at Sravana Belgula, 
called Chandragiri, are the Basti temples, fifteen 
in number, all of the Dravidian style, raised into 
storeys. The Jaina temple at Moodbidri, and all 
others in Canara, resemble the temples of Nepal, 
and many of them are built of wood. The interiors 
are richly and variedly carved, with massive 
pillars. A large number of the tombs of the 
priests, some of them five to seven storeys in 
height, each with a sloping roof, like the temples 
of Khatmandu, Tibet, and China. The StambLas, 
or free standing pillars of the Jainas in Canara, 
are very graceful. 

The Kashmir temples are Marttand, Avantipore, 
Payech, Bhaniyar, and Waniyat. Marttand, 60 
feet by 38 feet, is now in ruins. It is 5 miles 
east of Islamabad, and is built on an elevated 
plateau that overlooks the valley. Its enclosing 
courtyard is 220 feet by 142 feet. The enclosure 
was erected by Lalitaditya, who reigned A.D. 725 
to 761. General Cunningham, however, thinks 
that the temple was erected by Ranaditya, who 
reigned A.D. 578 to 594. The courtyard of this, 
and of all the Kashmir temples, was constructed 
to admit of it being filled with water. The prin- 
cipal Naga figures in the niches have three or 
five headed snake hoods at the back of their 
heads. The Avantipore temples were erected by 
Avantiverma, who was the first king of the Utpala 
dynasty, and reigned from a.d. 875 to 904. He 
was a zealous Saiva. The style is rich in detail. 

Nepal, at the present day, has three religions — 
Buddhist, Saiva, and Vaishnava — flourishing side 
by side. Its three capitals are Patan, Bhatgaou, 
and Khatmandu ; and its religious state resembles 
the condition of India in the 7th century, when 
the buddhist and brahmanical reUgions flourished 
side by side. By the oldest records, the valley 
seems to have been occupied by the Kirata, the 
Bhot, and the Newar races, of Tibetan origiu, 
who had early adopted the buddhist doctrines, 
and still adhere to them. The oldest and most 
important monuments in the Nepal valley arc 




those of Swnyambunath, beautifully situated on 
an einiiiencu al>out a mile from Kliatniandu, and 
Uoudclluuiia, at Kas^ichicl, some distance off. Tlioir 
most heautifid temples possess inauy storeys, 
divitled with slopiu^ roofs. At Patau is one with 
8akya iu the basal iloor, Amitabha the second 
storey, a small stone chaitya the third, the 
Uhartnadatu Mandala the fourth, and the fifth 
or apex of the building is a small Churamoni 
or jewel-headetl chaitya. Mention may also be 
niailo of the iihawani temple at Bhatgoon, of 
Mahadeo and Krishna at Patau. 

Temples in Kulu, Kangra, and Kamaon are 
numerous, and all of wood, usually the timber of 
the deodar. 

Itajputana. — Mr. Fergusson says, p. 473, the 
palace at Udaipur of the rulers of Mewar, those of 
Duttiah and Orcha in Bundelkhand, the Gwalior 
palace, and that at Amber in the Jeypore state, 
are all worthy of notice ; and the palace at Deeg, 
which is quite a fairy structure, was the work of 
Suraj Mull, founder of the Bhurtpur dynasty, who 
begau it in the year 1725, though unfinished when 
he was killed in battle by Najif Khan, a.d. 17G3. 
Every native capitfil in Rajputana, he tells us, has 
a cenotaph, or maha sati, where the sovereigns, 
their wives and nearest relatives, are buried. The 
most magnificent of these are the hundreds at 
Udaipur, all crowned by domes; and that of 
Singram Singh, to twenty-one of his wives, is 
the finest. He was buried a.d. 1783. He built 
that of his predecessor, Amera Singh ii. The 
tomb of Bakhtawar Singh at Ulwar, erected in 
the 19th century, and the tombs of the Bhurtpur 
rajas at Govardhun, are also noteworthy. 

The tefnples at Orissa are more numerous than 
those of all Hindustan. They were erected between 
the years a.d. 600 and 1200. That at Bhuvanes- 
war was a.d. G37; that at Puri was A.D. 1174; and, 
with the exception of that of Jaganath at Puri, 
the ancient Dautapura, all were erected under 
the great Kesari dynasty, or Lion line of kings, 
who reigned a.d. 473 till 1131, when they were 
succeeded by the Ganga Vansa, the third of whom 
built Jaganath. That called Parasuram Eswara is 
20 feet square and 38 feet high, and its sculptures 
are cut with a delicacy seldoui surpassed, and of 
the most elaborate character. It is supposed to 
have been built a.d. 450 or 500. Those of the 
Mukt Eswara shrine are even richer and more 
varied in detail. Bhuvaneswar temple is supposed 
by Mr. Fergusson (p. 420) to have been buUt by 
Lelal Indra Kesari, who reigned a.d. 617 to 657. It 
B the finest example of a purely Hindu temple in 
ndia, 300 feet long and 60 to 75 feet in breadth. 
Every inch of the surface is covered with carving 
the most elaborate manner, and the effect is 
ellously beautiful. Its Nat Mandir, or dancing 
was erected by the wife of Salini, between 
I. 1099 and 1104. Besides this, there are the 
\] Rani temple, and many others. 
The Canarac temple is known to the British as 
he Black Pagoda. The Jaganath temple at Puri 
B said to have been erected over an image 
>f Vishnu, which had been concealed from the 
favana. Externally it measures 670 to 640 feet, 
ind is surrounded by a wall 20 to 30 feet high, 
»ith four gates. An inner enclosure measures 
'20 by 315 feet, and is enclosed by a double wall 
rith four openings. Within this last stands the 

rDewul, and the great tower rises to 192 feet 

Jajpiir, in Cuttack, on the Bytural river, waa 
once the capital of the province. It ium a pillar 
which was erected in the 12th or IStb century. 

In Ceijlon, Anaradhapura is a deserted city. It 
seems to have become the capital of Ceylon about 
u.c. 400. Al)out B.C. 250 it became one of the 
princi]jal capitals of buddhism in the east, which 
it continued to bo till about a.d. 750, when the 
repeated invasions of the Tamil races led to its 
abandonment for Pollonarua, which continued to 
bo the CiipitaJ for some centuries. Anaradhapura 
has within its limits ruins of topes or dagobas, 
the Lowa Maha Paya, Abhayagiri, Jetawana, 
Thuparamaya, I^nkaramya, Saila, and Ruanwelli. 
It was erected B.C. 250, to hold the right jaw- 
bone of Buddha. Subsequently, at the beginning 
of the 4th century, a tooth was brought from 
India, and deposited in a small building erected 
for the purpose on one of the angles of the plat- 
form of this building. The Lowa Maha Paya, or 
Great Brazen Monastery, was erected B.C. 161, 
by king Duttagaimimi. It is 225 feet square, 
and with nine storeys, and 100 cells for priests. 
In A.D. 285, Mahasena destroyed it, but it waa 
re-erected of five storeys by his son. It never 
regained its previous fame, and fell into decay, 
and the 1600 pillars which once supported it 
alone remain ; they are unhewn blocks of granite. 
The quadrupeds sculptured on the Anaradha- 
pura, also at Hullabid in Mysore, and at Amravati, 
are the elephant, lion, horse, and bull ; the birds 
are the hansa or sacred goose, or pigeons. Besides 
these, there is at Anaradhapura a temple called 
Isurumunya, partly cut in the rock, partly struc- 
tural. But to Buddhists the most sacred object 
there is the Bo Tree, which was brought there 
by Mahindo and Sangamitta, son and daughter 
of Asoka, who introduced Buddhism into Ceylon. 

The Pallonarua temples were mostly built a.d. 
1153-1186, by Prakrama Bahu. . Its rock-cut 
structure, called Gal Vihara, has a seated- figure 
of Buddha 16 feet in height, one standing figure 
25 feet, and one recumbent 45 feet long, in the 
conventional attitude of his attaining Nirvan. In 
front is the Jetawana Rama temple, 170 by 70 feet, 
with an erect statue of Buddha 58 feet in height 
The liankot Dagoba and the Mahal Prasada are 
also of interest, the last being a representative of 
the seven-storeyed temples of Assyria. 

In Cambodia, the temples of Nakhonwat, 
Ongcor Thom, and Patenta Phrohm are the most 
remarkable. The outer enclosure of Nakhonwat 
measures 570 feet by 650 feet. It is a towered 
pyramid more than 600 feet in breadth, and 
rising to 180 feet at the summit of the central 
tower. It is built of large stones without cement, 
beautifully fitted. All its 1532 pillars are of the 
Roman Doric order. Those of Kashmir are the 
Grecian Doric, with many clothed female figures in 
alto-relievo. The seven-headed snake god is every- 
where figured. It is now a Buddhist temple. 
The Baion tcmj^le is within the city, and Patenta 
Phrohm (Brahma) is a mile to the east. 

Java. — For nearly nine centuries (603-1479) 
foreign colonists continued to adoni this island 
with edifices almost unrivalled elsewhere. Boro 
Buddor is a great Buddhist temple there. It is a 
Dagoba with five procession paths and 72 small 
domical buildings, each containing a statue of 
Buddha, but combining with it the idea of a nine- 
storeyed vihara. The bas-relief sculptures which 



line its galleries extend to nearly 10,000 lineal 
feet. On the inner face of the second gallery is 
portrayed, in 120 bas-reliefs, the entire life of 
Sakya Muni. In the galleries above this are 
groups of Buddhas, bodhisatwas, and saints, and 
many crested snakes. The temple at Mendoet, 
two and a half miles from Boro Buddor, has three 
colossal figures, supposed to be Buddha, Siva, and 
Vishnu, with a figure of Lakshmi. The temple of 
Toempang also merits mention, and that of Pan- 
taram (a.d. 1416) is called the serpent temple, 
because its base is made up of eight great crested 
serpents. There are temples at MatjanpontLk; 
and on the Djeing plateau there are five or six 
small temples, also temples at Suku. — Ferg. pp. 

In China, Pailoo are erected as honorific dis- 
tinctions of eminent men, or of virgins or widows 
who have remained xinmarried. Pekin has the 
temple of the Great Dragon, a circular pyramid, 
and a buddhist monastery ; the pagoda, and a 
pavilion in the summer palace, and the Tung 
Cheu pagoda, all merit notice. 

The Buddhists of Burma, at Prome and Ran- 
goon, have erected magnificent temples for their 
worship, with much detail, but with a magnitude 
of dimensions that prevents the thought of puer- 
ility. The great colossal figures of the pagodas at 
Rangoon and Prome are magnificent structures. 
That at Rangoon, built on the most elevated part 
of a great laterite ridge, towers majestically above 
all surrounding objects. The Chmese joss-houses 
there are simple structures, but ornamental from 
their pleasingly contrasted colouring. 

The finest architectural remains in Burma are 
to be seen in the deserted city of Pagan, but many 
of the most magnificent have been greatly shat- 
tered by earthquakes. The bow and the pointed 
arch, as well as the flat and the circular, have been 
in use long before their employment in India. 
Modem buildings are chiefly of wood. Palaces 
and monasteries, carved with extraordinary rich- 
ness of detail, and often gilt all over, present an 
aspect of barbaric splendour. The dagobas, relic 
chambers, which form at once the objects and the 
localities of Buddhist worship, are almost the only 
brick structures now erected, and these are often 
gilt all over, — £40,000 are said to have been ex- 
pended on a single temple. The ordinary build- 
ings are chiefly built of bamboo and thatched with 
grass, and well raised from the ground on piles. 
In carving, the Burmese artisans give full scope to 
the working of a luxuriant and whimsical fancy. 

Islam. — Races professing Islam have been great 
builders. The pastoral Arab races from Arabia 
extended their sway from the banks of the Guadal- 
quivir to those of the Indus. The pastoral Turk 
and Moghul races, issuing from Balkh, Bokhara, and 
Samarcand, ruled from Constantinople to Cuttack, 
and covered the whole intervening space with 
monuments of every kind. In 1683, the Turks 
were encamped under the walls of Vienna. In 
India they adopted some styles of the Hindus, 
but there are at least fifteen different styles in 
Mahomedan architecture, of which the most pro- 
minent are those of Ghazni of the Pathans, that 
• of the Sharki of Jounpore ( Janpur), of Malwa and 
Bengal, in the north of India; and in the south, 
that of the Bahmani, Adal Shahi, Kutub Shahi, 
Moghulai of Baber and Sind, Oudh and Mysore. 
Some of the mosques, as the Jamma ilasjid of 


Hyderabad and the mosques at Bijapur, are grand 
imposing structures ; but one of the prettiest to 
be met with is the little Damri Masjid at Ahmad - 
naggur, built from the farthing or damri deduc- 
tions made from the wages of those workmen who 
erected the fort at that place. Of the tombs 
of Mahomedans, the usual shape is a vast cupola 
on a square pedestal. These, commonly called 
Gumbaz, are to be seen wherever Mahomedans 
have ruled ; but those at the fortress of Golconda, 
of the Kutub dynasty of Hyderabad in the Dekhan, 
are only surpassed in magnificence by the tombs 
of the Adal Shahi family of Bijapur. Some of 
the Adal Shahi kings of Bijapur are buried at 
Gogi, south of Kulburga ; and there is a I^angar 
Khanah near, with arabesques surpassing anything 
to be seen in the south of India. The tombs of 
Kulburga are of little merit. The tomb of 
Aurangzeb's daughter at Aurungabad is said to 
have been in imitation of that at Agra over the 
queen of Shah Jahan, Arjamand Banu Begum, 
Mumtaz Mahal. 

The Arch. — Hindus, up to the advent of the 
Mahomedans, do not appear to have known the 
arch, nor to have been able to construct vaults or 
domes otherwise than by successive layers of 
stone projecting beyond those beneath, as in the 
Treasury of Atreus in Mycene. Prior to the 
reign of Akbar (a.d. 1556), the only examples of 
the arch in Hindu ai'chitecture are in some brick 
buildings of the Pala dynasty at Nalanda in Bengal. 
In India, flat arches of stone and brick are not 
uncommon. In Burma, Captain Yule (Embassy, 
p. 48) discerned two of brick, in windows in the 
Dhamayangyee temple at Pagan, where no sugges- 
tion of European or Indian aid could have helped. 
There is one flat stone arch in the northern gate 
of the fort, and another in a tomb, at Kurnul. 
There is one in the mediaeval building of Roslin 
Castle, and in the magnificent Saracen gateway of 
Cairo, called Bab-el- Fitoor. 

Hindus erect columns and arches, or rather gate- 
ways, in honour of victories. There is a highly 
wrought example of the column at Chitur, 120 feet 
high. A fine triumphal arch (if that term can be 
applied to a square opening) has been erected at 
Barnagar, in the north of Gujerat. It is among the 
richest specimens of Hindu art. The streets and 
squares of Chinese cities have monumental arches 
erected in honour of renowned warriors, illustrious 
statesmen, distinguished citizens, learned scholars, 
virtuous women, or dutiful children. They are in 
the form of a triple arch, the largest in the centre 
richly sculptured. — Gray, p. 11; Elphinstone, p. 
163. The latter author also tells us, p. 430, that 
the unfinished mosque near the Kutub Minar 
presents specimens of the pointed arch, which, 
besides for their height and the rich ornamental 
inscriptions with which they are covered, merit 
mention as early examples of this form of arch. 
The centre arch appears by the inscription to have 
been finished in a.d. 1197, A.H. 594. Many of the 
buildings of the later princes before Akbar have 
small pointed arches. The mosques are composed 
of a collection of small cupolas, each resting on 
four pillars ; so that the whole mosque is only a 
succession of alleys between ranges of pillars, with 
no clear space of any extent. The Black Mosque 
at Dehli, however, is in the ancient style, though 
built in A.D. 1387 under Firoz Taghalaq ; and 
the tomb of Ghaias-ud-Din Taghalaq, who died 




in A.n. 1325, is covered with one ciiiwla of con- 
git lunihlo magnitude. The arches are different at 
different times. Tho early ones are phiin Gothic 
arches ; the latest are ogeo and horseshoe arches, 
feathered all round. The domes at first are low 
and flat ; they gradually gain elevation till the time 
of Jiihniigir, when they take in considerably more 
than half a sphere, and are raised upon a cylinder. 
Through the constant use of the pointed arch, tho 
untiire of tho tracery and some other particulars 
create a resemblance between the Gothic and Indian 
architecture which strikes every one at first sight, 
t the frequency and importance of domes, and 
jirevalenco of horizontal lines in tho Indian, 
1,1' an essential difference between the styles, 
more ancient buildings, in particular, which 
.a other respects are most like the Gothic, are 
marked by a bold and unbroken cornice formed of 
flat stones, projecting very far, and supported by 
deep bi-acketa or modeleons of the same material. 

In the 10th and 11th century, says Mr. Fergus- 
son, p. 606, Mahmudof Ghazni inspired his nobles 
with a taste for architecture ; and Ferishta says 
his capital was in a short time ornamented with 
mosques, porches, minars, fountains, aqueducts, 
reservoirs, and cisterns beyond any eastern city. 
Of the Turk and Pathan rulers who succeeded to the 
dominion in India, we have left to us the mosque 
at old Dehli and that at Ajmir, also the Kutub 
Minar, the tombs of Ala-ud-Din and his successors, 
down to the accession of Baber, a.d. 1494. 

The Kutub at old Dehli was erected from the 
pillars and other parts of Jaina temples, and many 
of them retain the sculptured figures. The minar 
at the Kutub is 48 feet 4 inches in diameter at the 
base ; and in 1794, though its capital was then 
rained, it was still 242 feet in height Its present 
height is 238 feet 1 inch, deducting the modern 
pavilion. It has four ornamental balconies, re- 
spectively at 97, 148, 188, and 214 feet from the 
^p'ound, between which are richly sculptured raised 
belts containing inscriptions. It is lower by 30 
feet than the Campanile at Florence. It is a 
tower of victory, a Jaya Sthamba. The dates of 
the ruins in old Dehli are from 1196 to 1235. 
The inner court was enclosed by Shahab-ud-Din. 
The central range of arches was built by Kutub- 
id-Din ; the wings by Altamsh, whose tomb is 
Deyond the northern range, and who also built 
founded the Kutub Minar. The iron pillar 
■it the Kutub in the centre of its courtyard stands 
132 feet above ground, and extends 20 inches 
XDder ground ; total, 23 feet 8 inches. Its dia- 
neter at the base is 16 feet 4 inches, and at the 
»pital it is 12*05 inches. There is no date on it, 
it Mr. Fergusson says (p. 506) that Mr. Prinsep 
imposed an inscription on it to be of the 3d or 
iu century ; Dr. Bhau Daji supposed the 6th cen- 

ry. It is forged iron. An inscription on it says 
was dedicated to Vishnu; but its real purpose 
ns a pillar of victory to record the defeat of the 
Mhikas near the seven mouths of the Sindhu or 
adus. Behind the N.W. comer of the mosque is 
tomb of Altamsh. 

^osques, Tombs. — The mosque at Ajmir was 

enced a.d. 1200, and completed by Altamsh 

1236, and is called the Arhai din ka jhompra. 

constructed from a Jaina temple. Its court- 

ttd has a screen of seven inches, on which Cufic 

••nd Togra inscriptions are interwoven with archi- 

decorations. A mere mention must be 

made of the tomb at Sipri near Owalior ; and that 
of Sher Shah near Saescran in Stiahaliml ; at Jauii- 
nore (Jonpur),the .lainnia Manjid and I A Darwaza 
Masjid ; at Ahrnadabad, tho Jamma Masjid and 
other mosques ; and tombs and mosqaea at Sirkci 
and Butwa ; the Jamma Masjid at Cambay, cre<!ted 
A.D. 1325, in tho time of Mahmud Shah Ghori ; 
the tomb of Mahmud liegurra near Kaira; at 
Mandu, the great mosque, the Dharmsala, the Jaiua 
Mahal ; in Bengal, the Kadam liaaul moaqnc, tho 
Minar at Gaur, and the Adinah mosque at Maldah. 

In the Dekhan are the mosques and bazar 
at Kulburga. At Beder, the Miulrassa erected 
by Mahomed Gous, minister of Mahmud ii., and 
the tombs of the Berid Shahl who ruled there 
1492 to 1609. At Bijapur are the Jamma Mas- 
jid, the tomb of Ibrahim n., — the whole of the 
Koran is said to be sculptured on its walls, 
— the smaller tomb of bis successor, Mahmud, 
and the great Audience Hall. In the vicinity 
of Tatta, in Sind, are a series of tombs erecte<i 
during the Moghul dynasty by the great men of 
the province, from 1572 to 1640. Akbar's reign, 
1556-1605, was conspicuous for the many struc- 
tures he erected. Amongst these are the mau- 
soleum over his father at old Dehli, the old or 
Red Palace in the fort, built of red sandstone, 
249 feet by 260 feet; the palace at Futtehpur 
Sikri,and the three small pavilions which he erected 
for his three favourite wives, the daughter of 
Bir-Bul, the Rumi Sultanah, and the Christian 
Miriam, and its mosque, hardly surpassed by any 
in India. He commenced his own tomb at 
Secundra near Agra, and it was finished in 
Jahangir's reign. 

Wherever Pathan dynasties ruled in India, 
their architectural remains are of a magni- 
ficent character. At Dehli, Agra, Mandu, and 
Burhaupur, ruins of palaces, mosques, and mauso- 
leums attest the magnificence of their founders, 
and their noble, scientifically constructed fortifi- 
cations attest their skill. Of the early Pathans 
of the Ghori and Khilji dynasties from a.d. 
1193 to 1321, there may be noticed the Kutub 
Minar, of majestic beauty, erected a.d. 1200, and 
the stem grandeur of Taghalaqabad, a.d. 1821. 
The style is different of the late Pathan, of tlie 
TaghaLoq and Saiad dynasties, a.d. 1321 to 1451, 
the Afghan of the Lodi and Sun dynasties, 
A.D. 1451 to 1654. 

Mr. Fergusson tells us, p. 384, that the notable 
civil buildings of the rulers of southern India are 
all of dates subsequent to their occupants coming 
in contact with Mahomedans. The palaces, tho 
cutcherries, the elephant stables, and the depend- 
encies of the abodes of the rajas at Vijianagar 
and Madura, rival in extent and splendour tho 
temples themselves, and are not surpassed in 
magnificence by the Mahomedan structures of 
Bijapur and Beder. The civil buildings are all 
in a different style of architecture from the 
trabeate style employed in the templea The 
Swarga-Vilasam, or throne-room of the palace at 
Madura, is an arcadcd octagon covered by a dome 
60 feet in diameter and 60 feet in height The 
greater part of the buildings of the palace at 
Tanjore belong to the 18th century, and some to 
the 19th. The palace buildings at Vijianagar con- 
sist of a number of detached pavilions, baths, 

The usual form of a Pathan tomb was an 




octagonal apartment, surmounted by a dome, the 
apartments surrounded by an arched verandah, 
the arches rising from square columns. — As. Soc. 
J. iii. and vi. pp. 794, 969 ; Gray''s China ; 
Elphinstone' s History of India ; Fergussori's History 
of Architecture ; Messrs. Fergnsson and Burgess., 
Mr. Fergusson to p. 236, and Mr. Burgess to p. 133 ; 
Gen. A, Cunninghani's Report of Archaeological 
Survey of India, 1871-74 ; Gen. Cumiingham's 
Bhilsa Topes ; Imperial Gazetteer ; Rev. J. Burgess, 
Arch. Survey of Western India, Bombay, 1877. 

ARCOT, a small town about 65 miles W. from 
Madras, takiug its name from two Tamil words, 
Aru-Kadu, the six jungles on the river Palar ; 
Sanskrit, Shad Aranya. It is in 12° 55' 23" N., 
and 79° 24' 14" E., and 599 feet above the sea. 
It is the Arkatou Basileon of the Greeks, and the 
capital of the nomade Sorai {lupxi), the whole of 
the neighbouring territory for several centuries 
after the Christian era having been occupied by 
shepherd Kurumbars, and then formed the centre 
of the Chola kingdom. But it must have been 
a place of great antiquity, by its being taken 
notice of by Ptolemy as the capital of the Sorae 
of Soramandalum, from whence corruptly Coro- 
mandel. The Kurumbar dynasty was overthrown 
in the beginning of the 12th century by Adondai, 
an illegitimate son of Kulottunga Chola. The 
country, however, again lay waste, until Nala 
Bomma-Naidu and Timma Naidu built, or rebuilt, 
the town of Arcot, which was occupied for genera- 
tions by their successors, who again were put 
aside by Aurangzeb's general, Zu-ul-Fiqar Khan, 
who took Ginji a.d. 1698, and settled many of 
his co-religionists in the country. Their descend- 
ants are still numerous. Arcot town, in 1712, 
was made the seat of government by Saadat 
Ullah Khan, the first Nawab of Arcot. Clive, 
in 1751, with a small detachment, took Arcot, 
but it was immediately invested by a force 10,000 
strong, sent by Chanda Sahib. Clive's force 
consisted of 120 Europeans and 200 sepoys, with 
four officers, and their food supplies were very 
scant; yet for fifty days, and though the walls 
were breached, they withstood every effort of the 
besiegers. During the Maharram, they repulsed 
an attempt to storm the place, in which they lost 
five or six men, but the assailants' loss was 400. 
The struggle lasted for an hour, and in the night 
the enemy withdrew. Clive was then reinforced 
from Madras with 200 British and 700 sepoys. 
He took the fort of Timmery, effected a junction 
with a division of Morari Rao's army, and marched 
against and defeated the French and Chanda 
Sahib's army ; after which Conjeveram surrendered, 
and the governor of Arnee declared for Muhammad 
Ali, who assumed the title of Walajah, was recog- 
nised as Nawab of Arcot ; and until a.d. 1833, 
the British, at the Madras mint, continued to 
issue coins as struck at Arcot. The N. Arcot 
district lies between lat. 12° 21' and 14° 10' 45" 
N., and long. 78° 14' 45" and 80° 13' E. Area, 
7139 square miles; and population, 2,015,278. 
The Pariah or Mala-Vandlu are 20 per cent., and 
form the great body of agricultural labourers. 
The wandering tribes are the Banjara, Lambadi, 
Sugali, and Dumar ; and the forest and hill tribes 
are the Irular, Yanadi, Yerkala, and Maleali. 
The two great zamindari estates of Kalastri and 
Kavetnuggur are in the N. Arcot district; also 
the Pollam of Kongundi. The jaghir of Arnee is 

hereditary in the family of a Mahratta brahman 
held under a sunnud from Lord Hobart, datei 
10th May 1796. The Chittur poligars claim de 
scent from officers of the Vijianagar government 
When that dynasty was overthrown, these officer! 
assumed independence, until Muhammad Ali wai 
firmly seated as nawab. When the British as 
sumed the government in 1801, they again becam( 
refractory, and were subdued by a force. Thre( 
polliams were forfeited, one was continued, ant 
five were taken under government managemen 
until 1826. The principal river is the Palar 
smaller rivers are the Poiney, Cheyar, and Surna 
mukhi. There are about 40,000 tanks, the chie 
of them being that of Kaveripak, ten miles eas 
of Arcot, the bund of which is four miles long.- 
Imp. Gaz. 

ARCOT SOUTH is a Madras district, lying be 
tween lat. 11° 10' 30" and 12° 38' 30" N., anc 
long. 78° 33' 80" and 80° 2' 15" E., with an area o 
4873 square miles, and a population of 1,755,81' 
souls. South Arcot has been under British ad 
ministration permanently since the year 1801 
Towards the W. are the Cooremboo Gownden an( 
the Jeddya Gownden hills, and on the N.W. th 
Chengama range, separating the CuUacoorch; 
taluq from Salem, some parts rising 5000 fee 
high. Parts of the southern hills are under ; 
poligar, and the Chengama hills are occupied b; 
the Maleali race. The chief river is the Colerun 
across which dams have been constructed to obtaii 
water for irrigation. The Vellar river rises S 
of the Shevaroy hills, in Salem, and disembogue 
at Porto Novo. The Pennar rises in Nundidrug 
and enters the sea N. of New Town, Cuddalorc 
The Veeranum tank, in the Manargudi taluq, i 
one of the largest tanks in S. India, its dam o 
bund being ten miles long ; it is supplied chiefl; 
from the lower dam across the Colerun. Th 
Walajah tank dam is six miles long. Cudda 
lore has been occupied by the British since 168^ 
In the strife for supremacy between the British 
the French, Tipu Sultan, and Nawab Muhamma^ 
Ali, Cuddalore, Port Novo, Ginji, Fort St. David 
Pondicherry, Wandiwash, repeatedly changei 
hands. Hindus, 95"5 per cent.; Mahomedans, 2" 
per cent., with